परिनिर्वाण मन्दिर कुशीनगर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

parinirvan mandir, kushinagar

parinirvan mandir uttar pradesh ke sarvadhik prachin nagaron men se ek kushinagar men sthit hai. sarvapratham karlail ne 1876 ee. men is mandir aur parinirvan pratima ko khoj nikala tha. pratima ko eenton ke bane ek sinhasan par sthapit kiya gaya tha. yah sinhasan 24 phut lnba tatha 5 phut 6 inch chauda tha. isaka pravesh dvar pashchim ki or tha. uttar aur dakshin ki divaron men ek-ek khidakiyan thin. isamen koee sndeh nahin ki parinirvan pratima ki sthapana 5vin shatabdi men huee thi, parantu yah mandir itana prachin nahin pratit hota. moorti par prayukt paravarti plastar is bat ka soochak hai ki yah mandir kee shatabdiyon tak parivartit hota raha.

buddh pratima tatha sinhasan

mandir mukhy stoop ke pashchim men sthit tha. karlail ne 1876 ee. men mandir aur parinirvan pratima ki khoj ki thi. karlail ko oonchi divaren to mili thin, parntu chhat ke avashesh nahin mile the. isamen keval garbhagrih aur usake age ek pravesh kaksh tha. is tile ke garbhagrih men khudaee karate samay karlail ko ek oonche sinhasan par tathagat ki 20 phut (lagabhag 6.1 mitar) lnbi parinirvan mudra ki pratima mili thi. yah pratima chittidar balua patthar ki hai. isamen buddh ko pashchim ki taraph mukh karake lete hue dikhaya gaya hai. isaka sir uttarabhimukh hai, dahina hath sir ke niche aur bayan hath jnghe par sthit hai. pair ek-doosare ke oopar hain.[1] is pratima ko eenton ke bane ek sinhasan par sthapit kiya gaya tha. yah sinhasan 24 phut lnba tatha 5 phut 6 inch chauda tha. sinhasan ke oopar patthar ki pattiyan jadi huee thin.
parinirvan mndir, kushinagar
sinhasan ke agrabhag men tin shok sntapt moortiyan hain.[2] isake niche panchavin shatabdi ka lekh utkirn hai.[3] is lekh se yah spasht ho jata hai ki parinirvan moorti ka pratishthapak 'haribal'[4] namak vyakti tha aur isaka shilpi mathura ka 'dinn' tha.

nirvan mandir ki khoj

malabe ki saphaee ke pashchath karlail ko nirvan mandir ka pata chala. mandir ki divar ki motaee 3.05 mitar aur garbhagrih ki lnbaee-chaudaee 9.35x3.66 mitar thi. pravesh kaksh ki lnbaee 10.92 mitar tatha chaudaee 4.57 mitar thi. saphaee ke samay karlail ko alp matra me chauras eenten aur tedhi divar ke avashesh mile the, jisake adhar par karlail ne yah mat vyakt kiya tha ki is mandir ki chhat meharab gunbaj se yukt thi. isaka pravesh dvar pashchim ki or tha. uttar aur dakshin ki divaron men ek-ek khidakiyan thin. yahan yah ullekhaniy hai ki moorti ki drishti se is mandir ka garbhagrih chhota hai aur pradakshina ke lie paryapt sthan nahin hai.

pratima ki sthapana

isamen koee sndeh nahin ki parinirvan pratima ki sthapana 5vin shatabdi men huee thi, parantu yah mandir itana prachin nahin pratit hota. moorti par prayukt paravarti plastar is bat ka soochak hai ki yah mandir kee shatabdiyon tak parivartit hota raha. uttari aur dakshini divaron ke niche, moorti se yukt poorvavarti mandir ke avashesh us sthan se mile hain, jahan se karlail ko parinirvan mandir ke avashesh mile the.[5]
mandir ke bhitar buddh moorti
lekin yah kahana kathin hai ki yah vahi prachin mandir tha, jisamen parinirvan pratima sarvapratham sthapit ki gee thi aur jisaka ullekh hvenasang ne kiya tha.[6] karlain dvara anveshit is parinirvan mandir ka nirman 11vin-12vin shatabdi men hua hoga, jabaki kushinagar avanati ki or agrasar tha. karlail ne is moorti ki marammat aur mandir ka jirnoddhar karavaya.[7] adhunik kal men bhi isaka kee bar jirnoddhar hota raha.[8]

inhen bhi dekhen: kushinagar evn kushinagar ka itihas

vihar

mandir ke charon taraph vihar bane hue the, jinhen suvidha ki drishti se kee vargon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai-

pashchimi varg

stoop aur nirvan mandir ke charon or eenton se nirmit kee sthapaty hain, jinaka samay-samay par ek dharmik math ke roop men vikas hota raha. yahan se do mathon[9] ka pata chala hai. yahan utkhanan se badi matra men lipi se yukt aur tithiparak vastuen prakash men aee hain. yahin se prapt mitti ki ek muhar par bane do sal vrikshon ke niche buddh ki samadhi aur do pnktiyon men ‘mahaparinirvan bhikshu sngh’ lekh likha hua hai.[10] do any muharen bhi milin hain, jin par 'maitrey' ki akriti hai, parntu lekh vahi hai. in lekhon ki tithi chauthi shatabdi pratit hoti hai. chandi ka ek sikka bhi mila hai, jise 'kshatrap' naresh damasen ka mana ja sakata hai. isake atirikt kuchh tooti huee mrinmoortiyan aur badi matra men mridabhand bhi mile hain. in samast vastuon ka nichali satah se milana yah siddh karata hai ki ye donon math chauthi shatabdi ke pahale nirmit hue honge. utkhanan se pashchim mandir ke samane kee bhavan prakash men ae hain, jinaka prasar 107.93 mitar lnbaee men tha.

in bhavanon men 45.72 mitar vargakar ghere men phaila sabase bada ek math tha. is math ke charon or 3.05 mitar chauda galiyara bana tha. isamen bhikshuon ke nivas ke lie chhote-chhote kee kamare bane the. kamaron aur galiyaron ki pharsh knkarit ki bani thi. math ki divaren bahut badi aur moti thin, jisase is math ke kee mnjila hone ka anuman kiya jata hai. utkhanan men ek kuen se 900 ee. ki ek abhilikhit muhar bhi mili hai, jisake adhar par yah kaha ja sakata hai ki is bhavan ka nirman 8vin shatabdi men ho chuka tha aur vinash 900 ee. ke asapas hua.[11] aisa lagata hai ki is bhavan nirman ke ek shatabdi bad prachin bhavan ke sthan par ek ne bhavan ka nirman hua aur paravarti bhavan ke nirmataon ne purane bhavan ke puravasheshon ka bharapoor upayog kiya. mukhy bhavan ke dakshin-ek doosare se snbndhit char any bhavanon ke avashesh prakash men aai hain. ullekhaniy hai ki ek-doosare se snbndhit hote hue bhi ye sabhi bhavan yojana aur akar men paraspar bhinn hain. mandir ke uttar-poorv men ek chaukor vihar chaukor baramada bhi bana tha. pashchim men ek aisa math mila hai. jisake angan men ek talab tha. in donon viharon ki khudaee se gupt kal (chauthi-panchavin shatabdi) ki likhit muharen, dhatu, pashan patr evamh any upayogi vastuen mili hain.

ek any vihar ka bhi avashesh mila hai. vihar ka kndriy bhag ayatakar aur usaki divaren nichi thin. poorv men ek saman doori par gaddhe nirmit the. aisi snbhavana hai ki in gaddhon men lakadi ke khnbhe rahe honge, jinake sahare lakadi ki chhat tiki rahi hogi. inhen stnbh-gart kah sakate hain. snbhavat: is bhavan ka upayog vichar-vimarsh ke nimitt sabha-bhavan ke roop men kiya jata tha. is vihar ke niche any avashesh vidyaman the, parntu yah spasht nahin hai ki ye avashesh mool vihar ki ninv hain ya kisi any vihar ke khndahar. oopari satah se kuchh mridabhand aur lohe ka ek chammach mila hai.[12] uparyukt vihar ke dakshin 34.53 mitar vargakar ghere men vistrit ek any vihar ka avashesh mila hai. is vihar ke bich men angan aur isake charon taraph galiyareyukt 20 kamare the.
mandir ke nikat math ke avashesh, kushinagar
yah vihar akar men mejar kitaee dvara utkhanit saranath ke vihar se paryapt samanata rakhata hai.[13] isaki bahari divar ki motaee 5 phut tatha angan ke charon taraph ki divar ki motaee 4 phut 2 inch hai. is vihar men prayukt eenton ki map 14 inchx8½ inch se 9 inchx2 inch se 2½ inch hai. utkhanan karane par in viharon se badi matra men muharen tatha chndragupt dvitiy (400 ee.) ka ek sone ka sikka mila hai. isake atirikt ek kamare se kushan kal (pratham shatabdi ee.) ka ek abhilekh bhi prapt hua hai. angan ki khudaee se mathura men nirmit lal patthar ki kuchh moortiyan mili hain.[14] at: yah nishchit hota hai ki is varg ke sabhi viharon ka nirman pratham shatabdi men aur inaka vinash 5vin-6vin shatabdi arthath gupt kal men hua.[15]

dakshini varg

is varg ke smarako men adhikansh chhote-chhote stoop the, jinaki sthapana shraddhalu bhakton evn tirthayatriyon dvara ki gee thi. ye smarak dakshin or se ek nishchit lnbaee ki divar se avritt the. smarakon ke madhy men do aise stoop the, jinake prayukt eenten anishchit akar ki thin aur niche ki karnisej aur alnkrit stnbh mukhy stoop ke saman the. isase yah spasht hota hai ki isaka nirman mukhy stoop ke sath hi hua hoga. isake uttar ek ayatakar vihar tha, jisaka adhishthan mukhy stoop ke saman tha. isake bhitar eent ki qabranuma ek thos snrachana thi. yah nirman poorvavarti pratit hota hai, kyonki isaki ninv ek pnkti men nahin hai. pashchimabhimukh isaka pravesh dvar 1.57 mitar chauda tha. isake donon kinaron par buddh ki dhyanavasthit mrinmoorti sthapit thi.

poorvibhag

poorvi varg ke avasheshon men sabase rochak tatha mahattvapoorn avashesh tha, ek chabootarenuma bada sthapaty. yah snrachana pakki eenton ki bani thi tatha mukhy snrachana ke tirachhe thi. yah do chabootaron se yukt tha. nichala chabootara chaukor aur sidhiyon se yukt tha. oopari chabootara apekshakrit chhota tha aur usake charon taraph 3.66 mitar eenton ka bana ek pradakshina-path tha. yah pradakshina-path charon taraph saman nahin hai kyonki donon chabootare ek-doosare ke samanantar nahin the. nichale chabootare ki divaren sadi thin, jabaki oopari chabootare men alnkrit sanche men dhali eenton evn karnisej ka prayog kiya gaya tha. yah (7 vin shati men) nirmit stoopon se ghira hua tha. 2.54x2.52 mitar paridhi men vistrit is chabootare-yukt bhavan ke uttar-pashchim ek chhote bhavan ka avashesh mila hai. is bhavan men prayukt eenten bade akar ki hai. inaki nap 48.26x25.4x7.62 se.mi. aur 46.20x25.4x6.98 se.mi. thi. is prakar ki eenten maury kal men prayukt hoti thin. at: yah bhavan maury kal ka pratit hota hai. yahan se kushanon ke tanbe ke sikke mile hain. in kushan sikkon men 8 kanishk ke aur 4 kadaphisas ke hain. isake asapas parntu niche dabe pade anek chhote stoop mile hain, jisake adhar par in stoopon ke bhavan se poorv ke hone ka anuman kiya jata hai.

inhen bhi dekhen: prachin kushinagar ke puravashesh

uttari varg

is varg ke bane bhavan mauryakalin the, jo samay-samay par shraddhalu tirthayatriyon dvara banavae ge the. nichali satah se do chaukor makanon ke avashesh mile hain.[16] pashchim ki or divaron men prayukt eenten maury yugin pratit hoti hain. satah se niche khodane par ek pakaee mitti ki pahali shatabdi ee.poo. ki nari pratima aur 5vin shatabdi ka ek khndit prastar-abhilekh mila hai. inake uttar men do any bhavanon ke avashesh mile hain, jinhen kramash: ‘aee’ tatha ‘je’ kaha gaya hai. ‘aee’ bhavan ayatakar hai, jo 103 phut lnba aur 97 phut chauda hai. isamen charon or kamare bane the aur bich men 67’7’’ X66’6’’ nap ka khali sthan tha, jisamen 44 phut chaukor aur 2 phut gahara jalakund bana tha. yah jalakund 2 phut chaudi divar se avritt tha, jisake oopar 1 phut 2 inch chaudi nichi divar uthi huee thi. is divar ke oopari bhag se bade akar ki eenten mili hain, jinaki map 16 inchx10 inchx 2½ inch thi.[17] aisa abhas hota hai ki is divar ke samane lakadi ke khnbhe ke sahare baramada tha. yah baramada poorv or 9 phut 5 inch chauda tha. isaki pharsh knkarit ki thi jo bhoomi se 3 phut niche thi. is bhavan ka pravesh kaksh ayatakar tha. yah kaksh eenton se nirmit ek chabootare se yukt tha. yah chabootara lnbaeexchaudaee men kramash: 4 phut 3 inchx5 phut 6 inch vistrit tha. isaki oonchaee 9 inch thi. isi prakar ke ek sthapaty ka avashesh saranath men bhi mila tha.[18]

is bhavan se sata hua ek any bhavan 'je' bhi tha, par usaki poorn khudaee nahin ho paee hai. lekin ek ansh ki khudaee se yah nishchit ho gaya hai ki yah ek kamaron se yukt vihar tha aur isake bich men 30 phut chaukor angan tha.[19] in mathon ke bauddh vihar hone ke sndarbh men sndeh hai. snbhavat: ye math tirthayatriyon ke avas rahe honge. is bhavan se kuchh lekhayukt muharen mili hain, jo ‘di’ math se prapt muharon ke saman hain. inamen se ek muhar 900 ee. ki hai. isase is math ke paravarti hone ki soochana milati hai. snbhavat: is math ka nirman 10vin-11vin shatabdi men kabhi hua tha.

inhen bhi dekhen: matha kunvar mandir kushinagar


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. karlail ko yah moorti 1877 ee. men khudaee karate samay oopari satah se 10 phut niche mili thi. usi samay yah moorti kee khndon men vibhakt thi. is moorti ki pahale bhi marammat ki gee thi. dekhen, a.s.ri., bhag 18, pri. 57-58 aur bhag 22, pri. 17 . aisa lagata hai ki is prakar ki pratimaon ka kushinagar men pradhany tha aur inaki pooja ki jati thi. parinirvan se snbndhit any chhoti pratimaen bhi mili hain. isi prakar ki ek vishal pratima ajnta ki gupha nn. 26 men bhi upalabdh hai. dekhen, nalinaksh datt evn krishnadatt bajapeyi, devalapament aph buddhijm in uttar pradesh, pri. 360 (padatippani)
  2. in moortiyon ki pahachan kathin hai baeen taraph ek nari ki pratima hai, jo donon hath jamin par rakhakar shokasntapt mudra men jhuki huee hai. daeen or ki moorti stri ki hai athava purush ki, yah to spasht nahin hai par yah moorti bhi shokasntapt mudra men daen hath se sir ko pakade hue hain. bich ki moorti baithi huee hai. ye moortiyan annd, subhadr aur mallika ko ho sakati hai. bich ki moorti haribal ki bhi ho sakati hai.
  3. deyadharmmoyn mahavirasvamino haribalasy. pratima cheyn ghatit dinnen mathuren॥ dekhen, a. s. i. e. ri., 1906-07, pri. 49
  4. yah haribal svami snbhavat: vahi hai jisane mukhy stoop men tamrapatr ko sthapit kiya tha.
  5. dekhen, phogal, arkiyolajikal, sarve aph indiya, varshik riport, 1904-05 pri. 48-49
  6. semual bil, buddhist rikards aph di vestarn varld, bhag 3 (kalakatta snskaran, 1958), pri. 283
  7. parinirvan pratima apani kalatmakata ke lie prasiddh hai. isaki visheshata yah hai ki moorti ko tin or se dekhane par isake tin bhav prakat hote hain- moorti pair ki or se dekhane par shant, bich se dekhane par shokasntapt, tatha sir ki or se dekhane par prasann mudra men pratit hoti hai.
  8. mee 1955 men bharat sarakar dvara ek samiti gathit ki gee jisaka pramukh uddeshy buddh ke jivan se snbndhit sthalon ka punaruddhar karana tha.
  9. (kyoo aur kyoo1)
  10. arkiyolajikal sarve aph indiya, varshik riport, 1906-7, pri. 63
  11. arkiyolajikal sarve aph indiya, varshik riport, 1905-06
  12. tatraiv, 1906-07, pri. 44
  13. a. s. ri., bhag 1, pri. 127, plet 32
  14. arkiyolajikal sarve aph indiya, varshik riport, 1906-07, pri. 50; ullekhaniy hai ki lal patthar ki moortiyon ka prachalan us samay mathura men tha tatha in moortiyon ki mang sarvatr rahati thi. at: snbhav hai yahin se lakar in moortiyon ko yahan sthapit kiya gaya hoga.
  15. ullekhaniy hai ki hoonon ne 5vin aur 6vin shatabdi men gupton ko akrant kiya tha. snbhav hai ki yah vinash unhin ke dvara hua ho.
  16. snbhavat: ye prarnbhik mandiron ke avashesh ho sakate hain.
  17. arkiyolajikal sarve aph indiya, varshik riport, 1906-07, pri. 53
  18. mejar kitoee ko saranath ke ek math se isi tarah ke avashesh mile the. is chabootare par buddh ki pratima rahati thi. halanki kitoee dvara utkhalit math dakshinabhimukh tha jabaki kushinagar ka yah math uttarabhimukh tha, lekin donon math men yah chabootara pashchim dival se sata tha. at: yah nishchit hota hai ki is chabootare par buddh ki pratima sthapit rahi hogi.
  19. arkiyolajikal sarve aph indiya, varshik riport, 1906-07, pri. 54

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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