सिकंदरा आगरा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sikndara, agara
Sikandra, Agra

akabar ka maqabara agara se 4 kilomitar ki doori par sikndara men sthit hai. vartaman men jahan sikndara hai, vahan sikandar ki sena ka padav tha. usi ke nam par is jagah ka nam 'sikndara' pada. sikndar ke akraman se pahale agara ek chhota sa nagar tha. sikndara men maqabare ka nirman kary sh‍vayn akabar ne shuroo karavaya tha, lekin isake poora hone se pahale hi akabar ki mrith‍yu ho gee. bad men unake putr jahangir ne ise poora karavaya. jahangir ne mool yojana men kee parivartan kie. is imarat ko dekhakar pata chalata hai ki, mugal kala kaise vikasit huee. mugalakala nirntar vikasit hoti rahi hai. pahale dilli men humayoon ka maqabara, phir akabar ka maqabara aur antat: tajamahal ka nirman hua. maqabare ke charon or khoobasoorat bagicha hai, jisake bich men 'baradi mahal' hai, jisaka nirman sikandar lodi ne karavaya tha.[1]

akabar

akabar humayoon ka beta aur babar ka pota tha. vah mugal vnsh ka aur madhyakalin bharat ke itihas ka mahanatam badashah tha. usane 1556 se 1605 ee. tak rajy kiya. usane ek vishal samrajy ki sthapana ki, jo kabul se asam aur kashmir se ahamadanagar tak vistirn tha. usaka rajy vidharmi praja ke prati shantipoorn sah-astitv ke thos siddhant par chalata tha, aur rajatntr manasabadari jaise dharmanirapeksh snsthanon par adharit tha. usane yuddharat rajapoot rajaon ko mugal chhatr ke niche ekatr kiya aur desh ko ek-si sanskritik, rajanitik aur prashasakiy vyavastha ke antargat jod diya. usane apana rajatv shakhamool bharatiy bhoomi se sambaddh kar diya aur use vishuddh deshi bana diya. isalie use ‘chakravarti’ ka sammanasoochak virud pradan kiya gaya. usane bhid men se ek rashtr ka nirman kiya. isi karan use akabar mahan kaha gaya.

maqabare ka nirman

samrat akabar ek mahanh nirmata bhi tha, aur usane apane sare samrajy men qilon ki ek shrinkhala banavaee thi. usane fatehapur sikari ki sthapana ki, jisamen usane apani chhap ki mishrit shaili men sundar mahal banavaye. vah vahan 13 varsh (1572 se 1585 ee. tak) raha. usane agare ke qile ka punarnirman karaya aur isamen anekanek rajakiy imaraten banavaeen. usane apane maqabare ki bhi svayn hi yojana banaee aur usake liye sikandara men yamuna nadi ke tat ke samip ek sthan pasand kiya. usaka nam ‘bihishtabad’ (svargik avas) ho gaya. akabar ki 1605 ee. men mrityu huee. tab maqabare ka banana arambh hi hua tha. ise usake bete jahangir ne 1612 ee. men akabar ke mool dizain ke anusar hi poorn karaya.

snrachana

akabar ka maqabara (antarik snrachana)

yah maqabara ek vishal bag ke kendr men sthit hai, jisake charon or oonchi divaren hain, aur jinake madhy men vishal bahumnzili imaraten hain. dakshin ki or dvar bhavan hai. charabag yojana par bag ko sngin patthar ki oonchi-oonchi vithikaon dvara char bhagon men banta gaya hai. inake bich men nanhi si nali hai aur kinaron par uthi huee vithikaen hain. 75 fit chaudi ye vithikaen mukhy maqabare ko parakote ki charon imaraton se jodati hain. yah drashtavy hai ki ye vithikaen spasht roop se bag se itani oonchi uthi huee hain ki sidhiyon dvara un tak pahuncha ja sakata hai. in sidhiyon par jalaprapat aur kund bane hain. in par n to saro ke vriksh lage hain, n phoolon ki kyariyan hain. is prakar, is maqabare ka snyojan ek sundar bag men kiya gaya hai. ise akabar ke vyaktitv ke anuroop aisa banaya gaya hai ki, yah garima, gambhirata, vaicharikata aur shanti vyakt karata hai. isaka prabhav kamaniyata, anand aur chamak-damak ka nahin hai. ise ‘prem git’ ki apeksha ‘shok git’ ki tarah dizain kiya gaya hai.

dvar aur minaron ki snrachana

dakshin ki or sthit vishal dvar-bhavan dumnjila hai. isake uttar aur dakshin ki or 61 fit oonchi ek-ek ‘eevan-pauli’ hai, jisake donon or duhare alay bane hain. bahar ki or vividh roopakanon men rngin pattharon se mojek aur pachchikari se jadaoon alnkaran kiya gaya hai. is dvar ka sabase mahattvapoorn ang safed sngamaramar ki char golakar garjarakar minaren hain, jo isaki chhat ke konon se oopar uthati hain, jahan sadharanat: chhatriyan lagaee jani chahie thin. pratyek minar timnjili hai, har mnzil par gaukh bani hai aur shirsh par ek sundar chhatri hai. is anoothe tattv ki prerana muhammad kuli kutb shah dvara l. 1591 men haidarabad men nirmit charaminar ki minaron se aee pratit hoti hai. is dvar bhavan ke dakshini or uttari eevanon par aur haaul ke andar farasi ke shilalekh utkirn hain. dakshini shilalekh jahangir ki prnshasa men ek lambi prashasti hai. isamen khushanavis abdulahak shiraji aur imarat ke poorn hone ki tithi (1021 hijari 1612 ee.) bhi ullikhit hai. haaul ke andar alnkrit pushpon men farasi ke 12 dvipaden abhilekhit hain. unamen akabar ki prashnsa hai. uttari eevan ka shilalekh bhi prashnsatmak hai. usamen akabar aur is maqabare ki prashasti hai. isamen akabar ke darshanik drishtikon bhi parilakshit hain. uttari pravesh dvar ke oopar do dvipadon men maqabare ka parichay diya gaya hai. kul milakar yah dvar bhavan poorn imarat hai aur kahin bhi svatntr roop se shobhayaman ho sakata hai.

mukhy maqabara

mukhy maqabare ka dizain asadharan hai. isaki yojana chaturastr hai aur yah kramash: ghatati huee panch mnjilon men bana hai. bhoomi tal par vistirn dalan hain, jinake madhy men pratyek disha men ek eevan pauli hai. pratyek ke shirsh par safed sngamaramar ka ath khambon ka ek lambakar chhaparakhat hai. dakshini pauli men ek antarkaksh hai, jo qabr-kaksh le jata hai. isamen choone aur rngin chitrakari men quran ki ayaten likhi hain. isake pratyek kone par ek ashtrastr attalika sambaddh hai, jisake shirsh par ath khambhon ki chhatri hai. vastav men yah bhoomi-tal maqabare ki jagati hain, jis par isaki char mnjilen adharit hain. niche ki tin mnjilon men khambhon par adharit maharabadar dalan hain, jinase chhatriyan judi huee hain. sabase oopar ka tal sampoorn safed sngamaramar ka hai. isake madhy men 70 fit lamba chauda ek chaturastr khula angan hai. jisake charon or 9 fit chaude maharabadar dalan hain. angan ke madhy men sthit chabootare par ek qabrapashan sthit hai. bahar ke maharabon par jaliyan lagi hain. akabar ki prashnsa men farasi ke 36 dvipadon men ek sundar prashasti angan ki or ke maharabon par utkirn hai. unamen akabar ke darshanik vichar spasht hi abhilekhit hai. is imarat men koee gumbad ya varahadari nahin hai aur oordhvarachana khali hai. vastav men yah mugal kal men gumbadavihin maqabaron ki ek svatntr shreni ke sootrapat ka soochak hai. yadyapi yah lal patthar ka bana hai, jahangir ne is dvar ki minaron men eevan ke chhaparakhaton men aur sabase oopar ke tal par safed sngamaramar ka prayog kiya hai.

jirnodvar

yah maqabara mahanh mugalon ki pramukh imaraton men sundaratam imarat hai. yah akabar ke star ke mahanh samrat ki smriti men bana upayukt smarak hai. 18vin sadi men yah buri tarah kshatigrast ho gaya tha aur bharatiy puratattv sarvekshan ne 1902 se 1911 ee. ke madhy jirnodvar kiya tha.

inhen bhi dekhen: humayoon ka maqabara, tajamahal, bulnd daravaza, bibi ka maqabara evn khan e khana maqabara

vithika


panne ki pragati avastha
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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sikndara (hindi) yatra salah. abhigaman tithi: 6 disnbar, 2010.

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