असम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(आसाम se punarnirdeshit)
India-flag.gif
asam
Assam-Map.jpg
rajadhani disapur
rajabhasha(en) asamiya bhasha, bodo bhasha, karbi bhasha
sthapana 15 agast, 1947
janasnkhya 26,655,528 [1]
· ghanatv 340 [2] /varg kimi
kshetraphal 78,438 varg kimi
bhaugolik nirdeshank 26°09′N 91°46′E
jalavayu ushnakatibndhiy
tapaman ausat 23 °C
· grishm 38 °C
· sharad 8 °C
zile 27 [2]
sabase bada nagar guvahati
mukhy paryatan sthal kajirnga rashtriy udyan, kamakhya pith, bhimashnkar jyotirling
ling anupat 1000 : 965 ♂/♀
saksharata 64.28%
· stri 54.60%
· purush 71.30%
rajyapal jagadish mukhi
mukhyamntri sarbanand sonoval
rajakiy pashu ek sing vala gainda (Indian one-horned rhinoceros)
rajakiy pakshi saphed pnkh vali batakh (White-winged Duck)
rajakiy pushp faauks tel archid (Rhynchostylis retusa)
rajakiy vriksh holong (Hollong)
bahari kadiyan adhikarik vebasait
adyatan‎
Assam-Logo.png

asam (angrezi:Assam) ya asam uttar poorvi bharat men ek rajy hai. asam any uttar poorvi bharatiy rajyon se ghira hua hai. asam bharat ka ek sarahadi rajy hai. bharat-bhootan aur bharat-bangladesh sarahad kuchh hisson men asam se judi hai. yahan par kapili nadi aur brahmaputr nadi bhi bahati hai. asam poorvottar disha men bharat ka prahari hai aur poorvottar rajyon ka praveshadvar bhi hai. asam ki uttar disha men bhootan aur arunachal pradesh, poorv disha men manipur, nagalaind aur arunachal pradesh aur dakshini disha men meghalay, mizoram aur tripura rajy hain.

itihas

vidvanon ka mat hai ki 'asam' shabd snskrit ke 'asoma' shabd se bana hai, jisaka arth hota hai anupam ya advitiy. kintu adhikatar vidvanon ka manana hai ki yah shabd mool roop se 'ahom' se bana hai. british shasan men jab is rajy ka vilay kiya gaya, usase pahale lagabhag chhah sau varsh tak is rajy par 'ahom' rajaon ka shasan raha tha. astrik, mngoliyan, dravid aur ary jaisi vibhinn jatiyan prachin samay se is pradesh ki pahadiyon aur ghatiyon men alag alag samay par akar rahin aur bas gayin jisaka yahan ki mishrit snskriti men bahut gahara prabhav pada.
asam ke chay ke bagan men ladakiyan
is rajy ke vikas men in sabhi jatiyon ne apana yogadan diya. is prakar asam rajy men snskriti aur sabhyata ki ek prachin aur samriddh parnpara rahi hai.

prachin nam

prachin samay men yah rajy 'pragjyotish' arthath 'poorvi jyotish ka sthan' kahalata tha. kalantar men isaka nam 'kamaroop' pad gaya. kamaroop rajy ka sabase purana udaharan ilahabad men samudragupt ke shilalekh se milata hai. is shilalekh men kamaroop ka vivaran aise simavarti desh ke roop men milata hai, jo gupt samrajy ke adhin tha aur gupt samrajy ke sath is rajy ke maitripoorn snbndh the. chin ke vidvanh yatri hvenasang lagabhag 743 eesvi men raja kumarabhaskar varman ke nimntran par kamaroop men aya tha. hvenasang ne kamaroop ka ullekh 'kamolupa' ke roop men kiya hai. 11vin shatabdi ke arab itihasakar alabarooni ki pustak men bhi 'kamaroop' ka vivaran prapt hota hai. is prakar prachin kal se lekar 12vin shatabdi eesvi tak samast aryavart men poorvi simant desh ko 'pragjyotish' aur 'kamaroop' ke nam se jana jata tha aur yahan ke naresh svayn ko 'pragjyotish naresh' kahalaya karate the. san 1228 men poorvi pahadiyon par 'ahom' logon ke ane se itihas men mod aya. unhonne lagabhag chhah sau varshon tak asam rajy par shasan kiya. 1819 men badanachandr ki hatya ke bad sanh 1826 men yah rajy british sarakar ke adhikar men a gaya. is samay 'barmi' logon ne 'yndaboo sndhi' ko manakar asam ko british sarakar ko saunp diya tha.
inhen bhi dekhen: kamaroop evn ahom

bhoogol

bhoo-akriti

maidani ilaqon evn nadi ghatiyon vale asam ko tin pramukh bhautik kshetron men vibhajit kiya gaya hai-

  1. uttar men brahmaputr nadi ghati
  2. dakshin men barak nadi ghati evn karbi tatha alng zilon ke parvatiy kshetr
  3. in donon ghatiyon ke madhy sthit uttari kachhar ki pahadiyan.

brahmaputr nadi ghati asam ka pramukh bhautik kshetr hai. yah nadi asam ke poorvottar sire par sadiya ke pas pravesh karati hai, phir pashchim men poore asam men lagabhag 724 kimi. lnbe marg men pravahit hokar dakshin ki or mudakar bangladesh ke maidani ilaqon men chali jati hai. brahmaputr nadi ghati, chhoti ekal pahadiyon aur maidani ilaqon men achanak uthate shikharon, jinaki chaudaee 80 kimi. se zyada nahin hai, se bhari huee hai. pashchim disha ko chhodakar baqi sabhi dishaon men yah parvatton se ghiri huee hai. pados ki pahadiyon se nikali kee jaladharaon evn upanadiyon ka jal isamen samahit hota hai. barak nadi ghati dakshin-poorv disha men vistrit nimn bhoomi ke kshetr ki snrachana karati hai, jo krishi ke lie mahattvapoorn hai evn isase apekshakrit saghan basi janasnkhya ko madad milati hai, halanki is ghati ka ek chhota sa hi hissa rajy ke simakshetr men hai.

telashodhak karakhana, asam
Oil Refinery, Assam

bhoo-vigyan

bhoo- vigyan ke anusar, brahmaputr evn barak nadi ghati men jama (avasadit) mitti jalodh hai, jo 16 lakh sal purani hai. inamen vibhinn prakar ke tritiyak nikshep (16-664 lakh varsh purane) hain. in avasadon men balua patthar, ret ke kan, retili mitti, mishrit mitti, koyale ke tukade, sleti patthar evn choona-patthar pramukh hain. meghalay pathar ke hisse karbi alng evn uttari kachhar ki pahadiyan snbhavat: gondavana laind[3] ka vistaran hai. kepili nadi ki khadiyon dvara alag kar di gee uchchabhoomi ki sthalakriti visham hai. isamen mikir pahadiyon ka ek uttari dhal ata hai, jisaki ausat oonchaee 475 mitar hai, jo karbi alng zile ke madhy bhag men pahunchakar lagabhag 1,006 mitar ho jati hai. uttari parvatashreniyan dakshin-pashchim ke dabaka (disapur ke poorv men) se shuroo hokar poovottar men bokaravat tak phaili hain. inaki ausat oonchaee 610 mitar hai. uttari parvatashreni ke mukhy shikharon men basunadhari pahadiyan (774 mitar), rayaseng (738 mitar) mehekangathoo (689 mitar) evn kud pahadiyon (626 mitar) shamil hain. dakshin ki rengama pahadiyon ki ausat oonchaee lagabhag 914 mitar hai. in pahadiyon ke mukhy shikhar chengehishon (1,359 mitar) evn khunabaman pahadiyan (1,131 mitar) hain.

asam men bhooknp ka ana samany bat hai. 1897 men shilang pathar men adhikendrit, 1930 men dhuburi men adhikendrit evn 1950 ke arunachal pradesh ki sima ke pas tibbat men sthit jhihaoo (rima) men adhikendrit bhooknp adhunik samay ke sabase tivr bhooknp rahe. 1950 ke bhooknp ko to itihas ka sabase vinashakari bhooknp mana jata hai. is bhooknp ke bhishan bhooskhalanon ne pahadi jaladharaon ka marg avaruddh kar diya tha. bandhon ke toot jane par bhooknp ki tulana men badh ki vajah se janajivan aur snpatti ki kahin adhik hani huee.

arthavyavastha

samagr poorvottar kshetr men asam ki arthavh‍yavash‍tha sabase badi arthavh‍yavash‍tha hai. yah mukhh‍yataya krishi aur snbaddh karyakalapon men lagi huee hai. isaki bharat men brahmaputr ghati ke sath-sath sabase adhik urvar bhoomi phaili huee hai jo ki vanijyik adhar par vividh n‍kadi phasalon aur khady phasalon ki paidavar ke lie upayukh‍t hai. yahan par prakritik snsadhan jaise tel aur prakritik gais, koyala, rabad ith‍yadi, khanij jaise grenait, choona path‍thar ith‍yadi tatha van aur jal snsadhan prachur matra men pae jate hain. yah rajh‍y anh‍y poorvottar rajh‍yon ki tulana men audyogik roop se adhik vikasit hai. yah chay aur tel petroliyam kshetr men apane bade udyogon ke lie jana jata hai. yah rajh‍y kutir udyogon se snbndhit kala aur shilh‍p ke lie prasiddh hai. kutir udyogon men hathakaragha, resham‍kit palan, ken aur bans ki vash‍tuen, badhee giri pital aur bel metal shilh‍p shamil hai. asam men enh‍di, mooga, tasar jaise vibhinh‍n prakar ke resham ka uth‍padan hota hai.[4]

krishi

asam rajy ek krishi pradhan rajy hai. krishi yahan ki arthavyavastha ka pramukh adhar hai. chaval is rajy ki mukhy khady fasal hai aur joot, chay, kapas, tilahan, ganna aur aloo adi yahan ki nakadi fasalen hain. rajy ki pramukh bagavani fasalen sntara, kela, anannas, supari, nariyal, amarud, am, katahal aur niboo adi hain. in sabhi ki kheti chhote star par ki jati hai. is rajy men lagabhag 39.44 lakh hektayar bhoomi kul kheti yogy bhoomi hai. isamen se qarib 27.01 lakh hekteyar kshetr men hi kheti ki jati hai.

asam men lagabhag do- tihaee janasnkhya kheti karati hai. isake alava das pratishat log chay baganon, vanon ya any krishi adharit vyavasayon men karyarat hai. kul krishi yogy kshetr ke do-tihaee hisson men chaval hota hai. videshi mudra ke ay ke srot ke roop men mahattvapoorn chay aur patasan ki paidavar mukhyat: brahmaputr ghati men hoti hai. any phasalon men tilahan, dalen (matar, phaliyan ya masoor), khali (ek tilahan, isake patte chare ke kam ate hain), sarason, aloo evn phal hai. rajy ke khadyann ki kul paidavar khapat se zyada hai jabaki tilahan evn dalon se yahan ki avashyakata poori nahin ho pati. ab duhari fasalon evn krishi ke adhunik tariqon ka prayog hone laga hai.

khanij

rajy ke mukhy khanij koyala, prakritik gais, petrol evn choona patthar hain. oopari asam ke poorvottar zile shivasagar evn dibroogadh men khanij tel milata hai. desh ke kul petrol evn prakritik gais ke utpadan ka chhatha hissa asam se nikalata hai. oopari asam evn karbi alng zile men koyale ka khanan hota hai, jisaka upayog sthaniy rel vibhag, chay bagan evn bhap ke injan vale pani ke jahajon men hota hai. choona-patthar mikir ki pahadiyon se nikalata hai.

udyog

asam men chay aur tel ko chhodakar any mahattvapoorn udyogon ki kami hai. kamazor parivahan pranali, paryapt sthaniy bazar ki kami aur shesh bharat se alag pad jane ke karan yahan ka audyogik vikas avaruddh hua hai. phir bhi anek nee audyogik ikaiyan shuroo ki ja chuki hai. urvarak, joot, kagaz, resham v chini ki milen evn ek siment karakhana inamen shamil hai. ara milon evn plaeevud tatha diyasalaee ke karakhanon men lakadi ke snsadhanon ka upayog ho raha hai. 20vin sadi ki shuruat men digaboee men aur 1962 men guvahati sthit telashodhan karakhane ne utpadan kary prarnbh kar diya tha. bihar rajy ke telashodhan karakhane ko asam se paip lain ke dvara khanij tel bheja jata hai.

shiksha

kajirnga rashtriy udyan men ek sing vala gainda
  • asam men chhah se barah varsh ki umr tak ke bachchon ke lie madhyamik star tak anivary tatha ni:shulk shiksha ki vyavastha hai.
  • guvahati, yorahat evn dibroogadh men vishvavidyalay hain.
  • rajy ke 80 se bhi zyada kendron se lok kalyan ki vibhinn yojanaon ka snchalan ho raha hai.
  • jo mahilaon evn bachchon ke lie manornjan tatha any sanskritik suvidhaon ki vyavastha karati hain.
shikshan snsthan
  • asam krishi vishh‍vavidyalay
  • asam vishh‍vavidyalay
  • dibrugadh vishh‍‍vavidyalay
  • guvahati vishh‍vavidyalay
  • bharatiy praudyogiki snsh‍than guvahati
  • rashh‍triy praudyogiki snsh‍than (manad vishh‍vavidyalay)
  • tejapur vishvavidyalay

yatayat

aparyapt parivahan evn snchar vyavastha ne asam ke audyogik vikas ki gati dhimi kar di hai. visham bhaugolik snrachana ke karan yahan par ek sucharoo parivahan vyavastha ke vikas men kathinaee ho rahi hai. asam shesh bharat se keval ek relamarg aur ek pramukh rajamarg se juda hua hai. brahmaputr nadi men antardeshiy jal parivahan, jisaka apana aitihasik mahattv tha, 1947 men desh ke vibhajan men guvahati, dibroogadh, jorahat, tezapur v silvar aur kolakata (bhootapoorv kalakatta) ke bich vayumarg dvara samuchit avagaman ho raha hai.

sadak marg

asam men sadakon ki kul lnbaee 37,515 kilomitar thi jisamen rashh‍triy rajamarg ki lnbaee 2,754 ki.mi. shamil hai. bharat-bngaladesh sima par 27 kilomitar lnbi sadak banane evn 160 kilomitar sima par kantedar tar-bad lagane ka kary poora kiya ja chuka hai.

relave marg

asam men relamargon ki lnbaee 2,284.28 kilomitar hai jisamen chhoti rel lain 1,057.12 ki.mi. aur badi lain 1,227.16 ki.mi. shamil hain.

havaee marg

nagarik vimanon ki niyamit udanen lokapriy gopinath boradoloee havaee adda (guvahati), salonibadi (tejapur), mohanabadi (dibroogadh), silonibadi (uth‍tari lakhimapur), knbhiragram (silachar), aur rovariyah (jorahat) se hoti hain.

kala

asam men kala aur hastashilp
  • kala aur hastashilp se sambndhit kutir udyogon ke lie asam sadaiv vikhyat raha hai.
  • hathakaragha, resham, bent aur bans ki vastuen, galichon ki bunaee, kashth shilp, pital adi dhatuon ke shilp pramukh kutir udyog hain.
  • asam men vibhinn prakar ka resham - endi, moonga, tasar adi ka utpadan hota hai.
  • moonga namak resham ki kism ka utpadan vishv bhar men sirf asam men hi hota hai.

sanskritik jivan

asam ka sanskritik jivan vibhinn sanskritik snsthanon evn dharmik kendron, jaise satr evn namogrih ki gatividhiyon se guntha hua hai. pichhale 400 salon se asam men satr hi vahan ki janata ke dharmik evn samajik kalyan ki dekharekh kar rahe hain. asami log hindoo dharm ke sabhi tyoharon ko manate hain, lekin unaka sarvadhik mahattvapoorn parv bihoo hai, jo varsh men tin bar manaya jata hai. moolat: ye krishi parv hain, jinhen log dharm aur jati ke bhedabhav ko bhoolakar harshonllas se manate hain. pahala aur mukhy bihoo parv vasnt ritu men manaya jane vala bohang bihoo (madhy aprail hindoo kailendar ke hisab se vaishakh mas ka pahala din) hai, jo ne varsh ke agaman ki khushi men manaya jata hai. ise rngoli (yahan rng arth ullas evn annd) bihoo ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. yah nrity aur sngit ka utsav hai. is din striyan apane parivar ke sadasyon ko hath se buna hua gamachha bhent men deti hain. doosara magh bihoo (madhy janavari hindoo kailendar ke hisab se magh mas) fasal katane ke upalakshy men manaya jata hai. bhogali bihoo (bhog ka arth ullas evn bhoj) ke nam se prasiddh yah pritibhoj evn ag jalakar khushiyan manane ka parv hai.
bihoo nrity, asam
Bihu Dance, Assam
tisare aur antim kati bihu (madhy aktoobar.) ko kngali bihoo ke nam se jana jata hai, kyonki varsh ke is bhag men am adami ka ghar agali fasal kataee se pahale bhndaran ke khatm ho jane ke karan khadyann rahit ho jata hai. bunaee asam ke logon, visheshakar mahilaon ke sanskritik jivan ka ek abhinn ang hai. pratyek asami ghar men, chahe vah kisi bhi dharm, jati ya samaj ka ho, kam se kam ek hathakaragha avashy dekhane ko mil jaega. har stri ka mahin resham evn sooti vastron ke utpadan ki kala men parngat hona anivary hai.

tyohar

  • asam men anek rngarng tyohar manae jate hain. 'bihoo' asam ka mukhy parv hai.
  • yah varsh men tin bar manaya jata hai- 'rngali bihoo' ya 'bohag bihoo' fasal ki buaee ki shuruat ka pratik hai.
  • isi se ne varsh ka shubharnbh bhi hota hai. 'bhogali bihoo' ya 'magh bihoo' fasal ki kataee ka tyohar hai aur 'kati bihoo' ya 'kangali bihoo' sharad ritu ka ek mela hai.
  • lagabhag sabhi tyohar dharmik karanon se manae jate hain.
  • vaishnav log pramukh vaishnav snton ki jaynti tatha punyatithi par bhajan gate hain aur parnparagat naty shaili men 'bhavana' namak natakon ka mnchan karate hain.
  • kamakhya mndir men anbubashi aur umannda tatha shiv mndiron ke pas any sthanon par shivaratri mela, dipavali, ashok ashtami mela, paush mela, parashuram mela, anbukashi mela, dol-jatra, eed, krisamas aur durga pooja, adi dharmik tyohar rajy bhar men shraddha ke sath manae jate hain.

visheshataen

guvahati ke stediyam
  • asam apane jiv-jntuon aur vanaspatiyon ke lie bahut prasiddh hai. van snpada kul kshetraphal ka 22.21 pratishat hai.
  • rajy men panch rashtriy park aur 11 vanyajiv abhayarany aur pakshi vihar hain. kajirnga rashtriy udyan aur manas rashtriy udyan 'ek sing vale gaindon' aur 'raauyal bngal taigar' ke lie poore vishv men prasiddh hai.
  • asam men krishi par adharit udyogon men chay ka pramukh sthan hai.
  • rajy men chhah audyogik vikas kendr hain.
  • rajy men char 'telashodhak karakhane' (rifainari) kam kar rahi hain.
  • nagarik vimanon ki niyamit udanen gopinath badadolaee havaee adda (guvahati), salonibadi (tejapur), mohanabadi (uttari lakhimapur), kunbhiragram (silachar), aur rovariyah (jorahat) se hoti hain.

paryatan sthal

guvahati men tatha usake asapas pramukh paryatan sthalon men kamakhya mndir, umannda (mayooradvip), navagrah mndir vashishth ashram, dolagobind, gandhi mndap, rajy ka chidiyaghar, rajy sngrahalay, shukreshvar mndir, gita mndir, puratattv ki drishti se mahattvapoorn madan kamadev mndir aur sarayaghat pul adi prasiddh hain.

any darshaniy sthal
  • kajirnga ratriy park (ek sing vale gaindon ke lie prasiddh)
  • manas bagh pariyojana, pobitora aur orng (vanyajiv udyan)
  • shivasagar (shiv mndi, rngaghar,karengaghar)
  • tejapur (bhairavi mndir aur ramanik sathan)
  • bhalukapung (angaling), haauphalang (svasthyaprad sthan aur jatinga pahadiyan)
  • majuli (vishv ka sabase bada nadi dvip)
  • chndubi jhil (pikanik sthal)
  • hajo (bauddh, hindoo aur islam)
  • batadrav (mahan vaishnav snt shnkaradev ki janmabhoomi)
  • ar sualakoochi (resham udyog ke lie prasiddh).


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar
  2. 2.0 2.1 Assam at a Glance (angrezi) (ech.ti.em.el) asam ki adhikarik vebasait. abhigaman tithi: 26 mee, 2011.
  3. ek prachin dakshin golarddh sthit bhookhnd, jisamen dakshin amerika, afrika, aaustreliya evn bharatiy upamahadvip ke kuchh hisse ate the
  4. nivesh ke avasar (hindi) (pi.ech.pi.) vyapar gyan snsadhan. abhigaman tithi: 9 joon, 2011.

snbndhit lekh

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