दियासलाई  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

diyasalaee

diyasalaee ya 'machis' tatkshanik agni prajvalit karane vali lakadi ki shalaka ko kahate hain, jisake sire par masala laga hota hai aur jo gharshan ya rasayanik padarthon ke snpark se jal jati hai. ise machis bhi kaha jata hai. manushy ki sabase pahali samasya snbhavat: ag utpann karane ki thi. sabase pahale snbhavat: lakadi ke do tukadon ko ragadakar ag utpann ki gee thi. phir patthar aur lohe se ag utpann hone lagi. chakamak patthar ko lohe se ragadakar chinagari utpann karane aur chinagari se kapada, gndhak ya any shighr ag pakadane vali vastuon ko prajvalit karane ka prayas diyasalaee nirman ki pahali sidhi thi. is kam ke lie chakamak patthar ka upayog 1847 ee. tak hota rah hai. pahale jo diyasalaiyan banati thin unamen gndhak rahata tha, pichhe adhunik diyasalaee ka nirman shuroo hua.

itihas

barthole ne pahale pahal ag utpann karane ke lie potasiyam kloret aur salaphyoorik aml ka upayog kiya tha. potasiyam klaret chini aur gond men milakar lakadi ki shalaka ke ek sire par laga hota tha. use salaphyoorik aml men dubane se shalaka jal uthati thi. phaausphoras ke avishkar ke bad gharshan diyasalaee ka avishkar inglaind ke jaaun vakar dvara 1826 ee. men hua. lakadi ki shalaka ke sire par entimani salphaid, potasiyam kloret, babool ka gond ya starch lage rahate the. use regamal par ragadane se masala jal uthata tha, usase chinagariyan chhitakatin aur chhote-chhote visphot hote the. gndhak ke jalane ke karan gndh badi aruchikar hoti thi. san 1832 men phrans men aintimani salphaid ke sthan men phaausphoras ka prayog shuroo hua. isase gndhak ki aruchikar gndh to jati rahi par phaausphoras ke jalane se bana dhuan bahut vishaila siddh hua aur aise karakhanon men kam karane vale shramikon men parigalan rog phailane laga aur anek log marane lage. pit phaausphoras ka upayog aj qanoon se varjit hai. pit phaausphoras ke sthan par ab avishakt phaausphoras seskkisalphaid ka prayog shuroo hua. phir lal ya akristala phaausphoras ka pata laga, jo bilakul vishaila nahin hota. phir phaausphoras ke sthan par bahut dinon tak isi ka upayog diyasalaee banane men hota raha. aisi diyasalaee kisi rukhade tal par ragadane se jal uthati hai. isake bad nirapad diyasalaee ka avishkar hua. isamen kuchh masale shalaka ke sire par rahate hain aur kuchh masale baks par rahate hain. isase diyasalaee keval baks ke tal par ragadane se jalati hai, anyatha nahin.

diyasalaee ka nirman

pahale diyasalaee ka nirman hathon se hota tha. shalaka hathon se hi banati thi aur hathon se hi usake sire par masale baithae jate the. unake vaks bhi hathon se hi banate the. aisi sthiti 18 vin shati ke madhy tak thi. usake bad mashinon ka upayog shuroo hua. diyasalaee banane ke samast kary mashinon se hote hain, lakadi ka chirakar shalaka banana, lakadi se baks banana, shalaka par masala baithana aur sukhana, baks par masala baithana aur lebal chipakana, bakson men shalakaen bharana ityadi samast kary mashinon se hote hain. ek ghnte men ye sare kam snpann hokar lagabhag 3.000 baks shalakaon se bhar kar mashin se nikal ate hain.

diyasalaee ki tili

shalaka banane ke lie chid ka kath prayukt hota tha. par ab aisa koee bhi kath prayukt ho sakata hai jisase shalaka jald aur achchhi ban sakati ho aur jisaki shalaka jaldi toote nahin.

shalaka ko aimoniyam phaausphet aml ke vilayanon men dubakar isase jalane par shalaka se vibha nahin utpann hoti. phir usake sire ke pighale pairaphin mom men dubate hain. yah mom jvalavahak ka kam karata hai. ab mom lage sire par phaausphoras saiskkisalphaid ya tetraphaausphoras traisalphaid, potasiyam kloret, gond, kachachoorn aur rng ke mishran baithakar sukha die jate hain. vahan se shalaka ek paribhrami droni men jakar baks men bhar di jati hai. baks par kagaz ya lebal chipaka die jate hain aur parshv tal par ragadane vala masala baithaya jata hai. masale men lal ya akristali phaausphoras, aintimani salphaid, kach ka choora ,[1] gond aur rng laga rahata hai.

diyasalaee ke karakhane

diyasalaee ka nirman bharat men 1895 ee. se arnbh hua. pahala karakhana ahamadabad men aur phir 1909 ee. men kalakatta men khula tha. lagabhag 200 chhote bade karakhane kam kar rahe hain. 1921 ee. tak shalaka aur baks ki lakadiyan prayukt hone lagin. svidan ki ek maich mainyuphaikcharing knpani ne bharat men diyasalaee nirman ka ek karakhana khola. yah knpani 'vestarn indiya maich knpani' ke nam se kary kar rahi hai. isake adhikansh sheyaradhari ab bharatiy hain. 1826 ee. men bharat sarakar ne diyasalaee ke karakhanon ko snrakshan diya, par sath hi utpadan shulk bhi laga diya hai. 40, 60 aur 80 shalakaon vale bakson ke prati gurus baks par kramash: ek, dedh aur do rupe utpadan shulk lagata hai. phir bharat sarakar ne diyasalaee ka mooly bhi nirdharit kar diya taki usaka mooly bazaron men n badhe aur usaki chor bazari n ho. bharat men keval panch hi karakhane aise hain jinaka samast kary mashinon se hota hai. shesh karakhanen ya to adhe mashinavale hain athava unamen keval hathon se kam hota hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

mool path srot: diyasalaee (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 4 mee, 2012.

  1. aur kabhi-kabhi lohe ke salphaid

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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