चरखा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

charakhe par soot katate gandhi ji, gandhi smriti sngrahalay, dilli

charakha ek hastachalit yntr hai jisase soot taiyar kiya jata hai. charakha yntr ka janm aur vikas kab tatha kaise hua, is par 'charakha sngh' ki or se kafi khojabin ki gee thi. angrezon ke bharat ane se pahale bharat bhar men charakhe aur karaghe ka prachalan tha. 1500 ee. tak khadi aur hastakala udyog poori tarah vikasit tha. sanh‌ 1702 men akele inglaind ne bharat se 10,53,725 paund ki khadi kharidi thi. markopolo aur tevarniyar ne khadi par anek sundar kavitaen likhi hain. sanh‌ 1960 men taivarniyar ki dayari men khadi ki mriduta, mazabooti, bariki aur paradarshita ki bhoori bhoori prashnsa ki gee hai.

itihas

bharat men charakhe ka itihas bahut prachin hote hue bhi isamen ullekhaniy sudhar ka kam mahatma gandhi ke jivanakal ka hi manana chahie. sabase pahale sanh‌ 1908 men gandhi ji ko charakhe ki bat soojhi thi jab ve inglaind men the. usake bad ve barabar is disha men sochate rahe. ve chahate the ki charakha kahin n kahin se lana chahie. sanh‌ 1916 men sabaramati ashram (ahamadabad) ki sthapana huee. bade prayatn se do varsh bad sanh‌ 1918 men ek vidhava bahan ke pas khada charakha mila.

khada charakha

is samay tak jo bhi charakhe chalate the aur jinaki khoj ho paee thi, ve sab khade charakhe hi the. ajakal khade charakhe men ek baithak, do khnbhe, ek pharee[1] aur ath pnktiyon ka chakr hota hai. desh ke bhinn bhinn bhagon men bhinn bhinn akar ke khade charakhe chalate hain. charakhe ka vyas 12 inch se 24 inch tak aur takuon ki lnbaee 19 inch tak hoti hai. us samay ke charakhon aur takuon ki tulana aj ke charakhon se karane par ashchary hota hai. abhi tak jitane charakhon ke namoone prapt hue the, unamen chikakaul[2] ka khada rakha charakha sabase achchha tha. isake chak ka vyas 30 inch tha aur takuva bhi barik tatha chhota tha. is par madhyam ank ka achchha soot nikalata tha.

sngh ki sthapana

sanh‌ 1920 men vinoba ji aur unake sathi sabaramati ashram men kataee ka kam sikhate the. kuchh din bad hi (18 aprail, sanh‌ 1921 ko) maganavadi, (vardha) men satyagrah ashram ki sthapana huee. us samay kangres mahasamiti ne 20 lakh ne charakhe banane ka prastav kiya tha aur unhen sare desh men phailana chaha tha. sanh‌ 1923 men kakinada kangres ke samay akhil bharat khadi mndal ki sthapana huee, kintu tab tak charakhe ke sudhar ki disha men bahut adhik pragati nahin huee thi. kangres ka dhyan rajaniti ki or tha, par gandhi ji use rachanatmak karyon ki or bhi khinchana chahate the. at: patana men 22 sitnbar, 1925 ko 'akhil bharat charakha sngh' ki sthapana huee.

charakha, sabaramati ashram, ahamadabad

snshodhan

charakhe men snshodhan ho, isake liye gandhi ji bahut bechain the. sanh‌ 1923 men 5,000 rupe ka puraskar bhi ghoshit kiya, kintu koee vikasit namoona nahin prapt hua. 29 julaee sanh‌ 1929 ko charakha sngh ki or se gandhi ji ki sharton ke anusar charakha banane valon ko ek lakh rupaya puraskar dene ki ghoshana ki gee. gandhi ji ne jo sharte rakhi thin unhen poora karane ki koshish to kee logon ne ki, lekin saphalata kisi ko bhi nahin mili. kirloskar bndhuon dvara ek charakha banaya gaya tha, lekin vah bhi shart poori n hone ke karan asaphal hi raha.

charakhe ke akar par upayogita ki drishti se barabar prayog hote rahe. khade charakhe ka kisan charakhe ki shakl men sudhar hua. gandhi ji svayn kataee karate the. yaravada jel men kisan charakhe ko peti charakhe ka roop dene ka shrey unhin ko hai. shri satishachndr dasagupt ne khade charakhe ke hi dhng ka bans ka charakha banaya, jo bahut hi karagar sabit hua. bans ka hi janatachakr[3] banaya gaya, jis par shri virendr majoomadar lagatar barason katate rahe. bachchon ke liye ya pravas men katane ke liye 'pravas chakr' bhi banaya gaya, jisaki gati kisan chakr se to kam thi, lekin yah le jane lane men suvidhajanak tha. is prakar ab tak bane hue charakhon men gati aur soot ki mazabooti ki drishti se kisan charakha sabase achchha raha. phir bhi dehat ki kattinon men khada charakha hi adhik priy bana raha. gandhi ji ke svargavas ke bad bhi charakhe ke snshodhan aur prayog ka kam barabar chalata raha.

anbar charakha

sanh‌ 1949 men tamilanadu ke ek yuvak karyakarta shri eknbaranath ji ka naya prayog samane aya. abhi tak charakhe par jo kataee hoti thi, vah lete takuvon dvara hoti thi. takuve ki girri ko gati dene ka kam soot ki mal se liya jata tha. eknbaranath ji ne jo charakha banaya usamen takuve khade lage the. khade takuve ki paddhati kapade ki milon ki hai. takuva ab bhi soot ki mal se hi chalata hai, lekin vah ek ring men ghoomata hai. choonki is charakhe ke avishkarak shri eknbaranath ji hain, isaliye is charakhe ka nam 'anbar' rakha gaya. anbar ka arth vastr hone se yah aur bhi uchit jan pada.

anbar charakha ab tak ke charakhon men sarvadhik krantikari qadam hai. is par katane ke liye pooni bhi mil ki pooni jaisi chahie. isaliye pooni banane ke liye 'anbar belani' aur katane ke liye 'anbar charakha' alag alag do yntr banae ge. kapas otane aur ruee dhunane ke yntron men bhi sudhar kiya gaya. dhunane ke liye mil paddhati ka dhunaee modiya banaya gaya. anbar charakhe ka prayog pahale tamilanadu men kiya gaya, bad men doosare pradeshon men bhi lagabhag 400 karyakartaon ko shikshan dekar kam chaloo kiya gaya.

antar
charakha

sade charakhe aur anbar charakhe men yah bahut bada antar hai ki sade charakhe men katate samay soot bharane ke liye charakhe ko rokakar tatha pichhe ghumakar phir age chalana padata hai. anbar charakhe men bharane aur batane ki kriya choodi aur nathani dvara apane ap hoti hai. arnbh men isamen ek hi takua (takala) chaloo kiya gaya tha. phir char takuevala anbar charakha chaloo kiya gaya, aur ab ath takuon ka anbar charakha bhi prayog men a gaya hai. ek minat men ek takue ke 10 hazar se lekar 12 hazar chakkar tak hote hain. sade charakhe men ye char hazar se lekar panch hazar tak hi hote hain aur choonki sade charakhe men ek hi takua hota hai, isaliye char takue vale anbar charakhe men chauguna aur ath takue vale anbar charakhe men ath guna soot katata hai. sath hi, anbar charakhe ko bharane ke liye rokana nahin padata, isaliye use sade charakhe ki apeksha do tin guna adhik to yon hi ghumaya ja sakata hai. anbar charakhe par kate hue soot ki mazabooti bhi mil ke soot jaisi hoti hai.

akar

anbar charakhe ka akar bade 'taip raitar' jitana hota hai. isaki lnbaee 21 inch, oonchaee 21 inch aur chaudaee 16 inch hoti hai. isaka vajan qarib 26 paund hota hai. yah ghar men kahin bhi asani se rakha ja sakata hai aur saralata se uthaya ja sakata hai.

naya namoona

anbar charakhe ka jo naya namoona bana hai, usamen 'anbar belani' ki avashyakata nahin padati. dhunaee modiya ka kam bhi isi se liya jata hai. is prakar ruee dhunane se lekar katane tak ki sari prakriya ek hi yntr se ho jati hai.

gati

sari prakriya ek sath karane par anbar charakhe par sat ghnte men 9 se lekar 12 gundi tak ki gati aee hai. mahin soot bhi 120 nnbar tak ka kata gaya hai. agar pooni alag bani huee ho, to 7 ghnte men 30 gundi tak soot is par kata ja sakata hai. anbar charakhe ki kataee pooni banane ki kala par nirbhar hai. jitane ank ka soot katana hai, usi ke hisab se pooni bhi mahin ya moti banaee jati hai. mahin aur moti pooni kapas ki jati tatha usake reshon ki lnbaee aur lachilepan par nirbhar karati hai.

sudhar

anbar charakhe men barabar sudhar hota ja raha hai. use vidyut shakti se chalane ki bat bhi sochi ja rahi hai aur kahin kahin isase chalaya bhi ja raha hai, lekin sabase badi bat hai usaki marammat. gramin yntr aisa hona chahie ki kheti ke aujaron ki bhanti hi, bigadane par dehat men use sudhara ja sake. sudhar karane vale logon ka dhyan is taraph barabar raha hai. poorvokt karanon se is charakhe ko adhikansh lakadi ka banana zaroori samajha gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. modiya aur baithak ko milane vali lakadi
  2. andhr pradesh
  3. kisan charakhe ki hi bhanti

snbndhit lekh


suvyavasthit lekh

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