कुआँ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kuan

kuan (koop) mitti ya chattanon ko katakar kritrim khodaee ya chhedaee se jab koee drav, visheshataya pani, nikalata hai tab use kuan kahate hain. kuchh sthanon ke kuon se pani ke sthan par petroliyam tel bhi nikalata hai. kuen kee prakar ke hote hain. yah unaki khudaee, gaharaee, mitti ya chattan ki prakriti aur pani nikalane ki matra par nirbhar karata hai. kuen chhichhale ho sakate hain ya gahare. gahare kuon ko usrut kuan kahate hain, yadyapi yah nam galat hai. sadharanataya kuen vrittakar tin se pndrah phut, ya isase adhik, vyas ke hote hain. inaki gol divaren, jinhen kothi kaha jata hai, eeton ki banaee jati hain aur unake niche tal par lakadi ya prabalit knkrit ya chakka hota hai. aise hi kuon ka pani pine ya sinchaee ke kam ata hai. chhichhale kuon ka pani pine yogy nahin samajha jata, kyonki unake dharatal ke pani se dooshit ho jane ki ashnka rahati hai. pine ke pani ke lie gahare kuen achchhe samajhe jate hain. unaka pani shuddh rahata hai aur adhik matra men bhi prapt hota hai.

gaharaee

kuen sadharanataya 50 se lekar 100 phut tak gahare hote hain, par adhik pani ke liye 150 se 500 phut tak ke gahare kuen khode ge hain. kuchh vishesh sthanon men to kuen chhah hazar phut tak gahare khode ge hain aur inase badi matra men pani prapt hua hai. aaustreliya men char sau phut se adhik gahare kuen khode ge hain. inase ek lakh se lekar ek lakh chalis hazar gailan tak pani pratidin prapt ho sakata hai.

ninv

jin nadiyon ya nalon ke tal ki mitti ksharanashil hoti hai unamen pulon ke payon ya any nirman ki buniyad bhi kunon par rakhi jati hai. kuen vali ninv men char bhag hote hain-

  1. chakk:- jisamen kataee kor bhi sammilit hai,
  2. kothi
  3. dat tatha
  4. koop-dhakkan
chakk

chakk kothi ki ninv aur katane ki kor ka kam deta hai. chhote kuon ke lie yah kath ka bana hota hai par gahari ninv ke lie yah ispat athava prabalit knkrit ka bana hota hai. unake kataeekor mridu ispat ki patti aur koniyon se banae jate hain. chakk ke abhyntar phalak ki dhal oordhvadhar 25-35 ke bich hoti hai.

kothi

kuen ki divar ko kothi kahate hain. niche se oopar tak yah poornataya sidhi (oordhvadhar) honi chahie. vyavahar men mahattam jhukav 1/100 tak rah sakata hai. kothi pakki chunaee ya knkrit ki ho sakati hai.

dat

jab kuen ki antim dhnsan poori ho jati hai tab pende ko saf kar lete hai aur jal ke bhitar knkrit ki dat laga dete hain. dat chakk ke oopar lagabhag do phut tak phaili rahati hai.

koop dhakkan

kuen ka dhakkan do phut moti prabalit knkrit ki shila ka hota hai. vah kuen par rakha jata hai aur pae ke adhar par kary karata hai. dhakkan aur tale ke bich ka bhag ret se bhar diya jata hai.

kuon ka akar

kuan se pani bharate mahila aur bachche

kuon ke akar sadharanataya ekahara vrittakar, dohara ashtabhujiy, dohara D- akar, dvivrittakar, ayatakar ya ek se adhik golakar, ek doosare ke sannikat hote hain.

  • ekahara vrittakar kuan kafi mazaboot hota hai. ise banane men sugamata aur dhnsane men atyadhik saralata hoti hai. dhnsane men jo rukavat ho usako saralata se door kiya ja sakata hai aur jhukav par niyntran rakha ja sakata hai. yadi knkrit ka bana ho to yah sasta bhi hota hai.
  • dohara ashtabhujiy akar gahare kuon athava meharabadar stnbh ke liye upayukt hota hai. yadi mitti kadi ho to aise sthan men aise hi kuen khode ja sakate hain.
  • dohare D-akar ke kuen baloo ya bulee mitti ke lie dohare ashtabhujiy kuon ke achchhe hote hain.
  • chhichhale kuon ke lie ayatakar achchha rahata hai.

yadi pae ki lnbaee aisi ho ki sthan par dohara vrittakar kuan n baithe to ek se adhik vrittakar kuen alag-alag banae jate hain. do vrittakar kuon ko paridhiyon ke bich kam se kam char phut ki doori rahani chahie.

nirman samagri

kuen ki nirman samagri men char vastuen hoti hain :

  1. lakadi- isaka unhin kuon men prayog hota hai jo bahut chhichhale, pray 8 se 10 phut gahare hote hain.
  2. ispat- bade akar ke gahare kuen ispat ke banae ja sakate hain. yah vrittakar hote hain aur bich ke balayakar sthan men knkrit bhara jata hai taki bojh badh jay. isaki dhnsaee men samay kam lagata hai par kharch adhik hota hai.
  3. pakki chinaee- sadharanataya eeton ki chinaee siment ke masale se ki jati hai. jis kshetr men pray: bhoochal ate rahate hain vahan snpidan aur tanav ke pratibal bahut adhik ho jate hain, isaliye eetn ki chinaee ko ispat aur prabalit knkrit se dridh karana padata hai.
  4. knkrit- kuen ke nirman men knkrit adhikata se prayukt hota hai. atyadhik bhoochal ane vale sthalon par knkrit ka kunan banana adhik sasta padata hai.

kuen ka abhikalp

isamen tin baten nishchay ki jati hain:

  1. kuen ki gaharaee,
  2. usaki akriti tatha
  3. kothi ki motaee.

ninv ke niche tatha asapas ki bhoomi par oopari nirman ke bojh ke sthanantaran ke dhng par yah nishchay kiya jata hai ki tal ki sabase gahari ho sakane vali kataee se kitane niche kuen ki ninv rakhi jae. kuen ka akar oopari nirman tatha bhoomi star ke prakar par nirbhar karata hai. bachat ke lie usaka akar chhote se chhota aur oopari nirman ke anukool hona chahie. kothi ka dijain aisa kiya jata hai ki vah sarvadhik gahare katav ke tal par bojhon aur balon se utpann adhikatam pratibal sah sake. achal bhar, chal bhar, bhooknp tatha jaladharajany kshaitij valon, gadiyon, bhooknpon aur vayu balon ityadi se yah pratibal utpann hota hai.

kuen ki galaee

isaka uddeshy kuon ko thik avastha men rakhana hai. kuen ki thik galaee ke liye nirmanakal men hi barabar savadhan rahane ki avashyakata hai. oordhvadharata ko barabar janchate rahana chahie, jisase kuan sahul se adhik bahar n chala jae. kuen jitana adhik niche galae jate hain utana hi adhik unaka sthayitv hota hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. pandey, sudhakar “khand 3”, hindi vishvakosh, 1963 (hindi), bharatadiskavari pustakalay: nagari pracharini sabha varanasi, prishth sn 51-52.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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