अक्षक्रीड़ा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

akshakrida jue ka khel akshakrida ya akshadyoot ke nam se vikhyat hai. ved ke samay se lekar aj tak yah bharatiyon ka atynt lokapriy khel raha hai. rigved ke ek prakhyat sookt (10.34) men kitav (juadi) apani durdasha ka rochak chitr khinchata hai ki jue men har jane ke karan usaki bharya tak use nahin poochhati, doosaron ki bat hi kya? vah svayn shiksha deta hai- akshai rma divy krishimith‌ krishasv (ri. 10.34.13). mahabharat jaisa pralaynkari yuddh bhi akshakrida ke parinamasvaroop hi hua. panini ki ashtadhyayi tatha kashika ke anushilan se akshakrida ke svaroop ka poora parichay milata hai. panini use akshik kahate hain. (ashta. 4.4.2). patnjali ne siddhahast dyootakar ke lie akshakitav ya akshadhoort shabdon ka prayog kiya hai.

vaidik kal men dyoot ki sadhan samagri ka nishchit parichay nahin milata, parntu panini ke samay (pncham shati ee. poo.) men yah khel aksh tatha shalaka se khela jata tha. arthashastr ka kathan hai ki dyootadhyaksh ka yah kam hai ki vah juadiyon ko rajy ki or se khelane ke lie aksh aur shalaka diya kare (3.20). kisi prachin kal men aksh se tatpary baheda (bibhitak) ke bij se tha. parntu panini kal men aksh chaukani goti aur shalaka ayatakar goti hoti thi. in gotiyon ki snkhya panch hoti thi, aisa anuman taittiriy brahman (1.7.10) tatha ashtadhyayi se bhalibhanti lagaya ja sakata hai. brahmanon ke grnthon men inake nam bhi panch the- aksharaj, krit, treta, dvapar tatha kali. kashika isi karan is khel ko pnchika dyoot ke nam se pukarati hai (ashta. 2.1.10 par vritti). panini ke akshashalaka snkhya parina (2.1.10) sootr men un dashaon ka ullekh hai jinamen goti phenkane vale ki har hoti thi aur is sthiti ki soochana ke lie akshapari, shalakapari, ekapari, dvipari, tripari tatha chatushpari padon ka prayog snskrit men kiya jata tha.

kashika ke varnan men spasht hai ki yadi uparyukt panchon gotiyan chitt giren ya patt giren, to donon avasthaon men goti phenkane vale ki jit hoti thi (yatr yada sarve uttan patanti avachyo va, tada patayita jayati. tasyaivasy vidyatonyatha pate jayate- kashika 2.1.10 par). arthath‌ yadi ek goti any gotiyon ki avastha se bhinn hokar chitt ya patt pade, to har hoti thi aur isake lie ekapari shabd prayukt hote the. isi prakar do gotiyon se hone vali har ko dvipari tin se tripari tatha char ki har ko chatushpari kahate the. jitane ka danv krit aur harane ka danv kali kahalata tha. bauddh grnthon men bhi krit tatha kali ka yah virodh snketit kiya gaya hai (kali hi dhirann, katn mugann).

jue men baji bhi lagaee jati hai aur is dravy ke lie panini ne glah shabd ki siddhi mani hai (akshe shu glah, ashta. 3.3.70). mahabharat ke prakhyat juadi shakuni ka yah kahana thik hi hai ki baji lagane ke karan hi jua logon men itana badanam hai. mahabharat, arthashastr adi grnthon se pata chalata hai ki jua sabha men khela jata tha. smriti grnthon men jua khelane ke niyamon ka poora parichay diya gaya hai. arthashastr ke anusar juadi ko apane khel ke lie rajy ko dravy dena padata tha. baji lagae ge dhan ka panch pratishat rajy ko kar ke roop men prapt hota tha. pncham shati men ujjayini men isake vipul prachar ki soochana mrichchhakatik natak se hamen upalabdh hoti hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

sn. grn.- vedik indeks, bhag 1, 1958; vasudev sharan agraval paninikalin bharat, kashi, 1956.

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 68-69 |

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