गंधर्व  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gandharv vedon men akela devata tha, jo svarg ke rahasyon tatha any satyon ka udghatan kiya karata tha. vah sooryagni ka pratik bhi mana gaya hai. vaidik, jain, bauddh dharm granthon men adi men gandharv aur yakshon ki upasthiti bataee gee hai. gandharvon ka apana lok hai. pauranik sahity men gandharvon ka ek devopam jati ke roop men ullekh hua hai.

namakaran

jab gandharv-sngya jatiparak ho gee, tab gandharvon ka antariksh men nivas mana jane laga aur ve devataon ke lie som ras prastut karane lage. nariyon ke prati unaka vishesh anurag tha aur unake oopar ve jadoo-sa prabhav dal sakate the. atharvaved men hi unaki snkhya 6333 batayi gee hai. som ras ke atirikt unaka sambandh aushadhiyon se bhi tha. ve devataon ke gayak bhi the, is roop men indr ke ve anuchar mane jate the. vishnu puran ke anusar ve brahma ke putr the aur choonki ve man vagdevi ka path karate hue janme the, unaka nam gandharv pada.

pauranik ullekh

vishnu puran ka hi ullekh hai ki, ve kashyap aur unaki patni arishta se janme the. harivnshapuran unhen brahma ki nak se utpann hone ka ullekh karata hai. gandharvon ka pradhan chitrarath tha aur unaki patniyan apsaraen thin. vishnupuran men katha ayi hai ki kis prakar gandharvon ne patal ke nagon se yuddh kar unaka anant dhan aur nagar chhin liya tha. nagon ki prarthana par vishnu ne purukuts ke roop men janm lekar unaki raksha karane ka vachan diya. is par nagon ne apani bhagini narmada ke sath patal lok jakar gandharvon ka parabhav kiya.

gndharv shabd ka prayog pauranik vibhinn sndarbhon men bhi hua hai, jaise yaksh, rakshas, pishach, siddh, charan, nag, kinnnar adi. antarabhasatv[1] men sthit devayoniyon men gndharvo ki bhi ganana hai.[2] gndharv shabd ki klisht kalpanaon par ashrit anek vyutpattiyan prachin aur arvachin vidvanon ne di hain. sayan ne do sthanon par [3] do prakar ki vyakhyaen ki hain- pratham 'ganudakn dharayatiti gndhavomegh' aur dvitiy 'gavan rashminan dhartarn soory.' phrench vidvanh prijuluski ki 'indiyan kalchar' pustak men[4] men gndharvon ka snbndh gardabhon se joda hai, kyonki 'gndharv gardabhanadinh‌'[5] hain evn gnrdabhon ke saman hi gndharvo ki kamukata ka varnan hai.

sngit v lalit kala

gandharvon ke doosare nam 'gatu' aur 'pulam' bhi hain. mahabharat men gandharv nam ki ek aisi jati ka bhi ullekh hua hai, jo pahadon aur jngalon men rahati thi. gandharvon ki ragabaddhata aur snginatay jivan tatha lalit kalaon se unake sambandh ke ullekh se snskrit sahity bhara hai, aur ajanta adi ke bhitti chitron men gaganachari gandharvon ka bar-bar chitrankan bhi hua hai. prachin bharatiy janata ka vishvas jaise bhooton aur yakhon (yakshon) men tha, vaise hi in gandharvon men bhi tha. aj bhi nartakiyon ke sambandhi aur unake yah kalakar apane ko gandharv kahate hain.

  • mahabharat ke anusar arjun gandharvon se astr-shastr prapt karata hai. unase ashv prapt karata hai. kichak ka ek gandharv vadh karata hai. yayati se prashn kiya gaya ki, kya vah gandharv hai. chitrarath (angar parv) men anek gandharvon ke nam ginae ge hain.[6]

mat-matantar

ek parnpara ujjayini ke raja gndharvasen ko 'gardabhill' kahati hai. ye sari vyutpattiyan dooraroodh kalpanajany hain.[7] sadharanat: many vyutpatti hai- 'gndh sngit vadyadijanit pramodn arvati prapnoti gndharv: svargagayak:.[8] gndh aur gndharv ki sagndhata[9] men bhi vynjit hai, phir bhi sngitavadyadijanit pramod gndh ka sadharan arth nahin, isalie yah vyutpatti bhi sntoshaprad nahin. kuchh vidvanh grik kentoron eerani 'gndharav', snskrit 'gndharv' tatha pali 'gndhabb' ko ek hi srot se ni:srit manate hain.rigved men gndharv vayukesh[10] somarakshak, madhur-bhashi[11], sngitgy[12] aur striyon ke oopar atiprakrit roop se prabhavishnu batalae ge hain. atharvaved[13] men gndharvon ki ganana devajan, prithagdev aur pitaron ke sath ki gee hai. vivahasookt[14] men navavivahit dnpati ke lie gndharvon ke ashirvachan ki yachana ki gee hain. sir par shikhnd dharan kie apsaraon ke pati gndharvon ke nrityon ka anekash: varnan hai.[15] unake hathon men lohe ke bhale aur bhim ayudh hai.[16]

shilalekh varnan

prachin shilalekhon men[17] gndharvon ke ullekh hain, kintu pratimaon se hi kuchh vishisht soochanaen unake vishay men upalabdh hoti hain. vishnudharmottar puran[18] men unake lie shikhar se shobhit kintu mukut se virahit pratimaon ka vidhan hai. mathura, gandhar, gupt, chaluky aur pallav kala kendron men inaki pratimaen kuchh vibhinnataon ke sath milati hain.[19] manasar[20] unaki pratimaon ki visheshataon ka samahar karata hua likhata hai-

nritn va vaishnnv vapi vaishakhn sthanakntu va.
gitavina-vidhanaishch gndharvashcheti kathyate.

any mat

ramayan, mahabharat aur puranon men gandharv devagayakon ke roop men chitrit kie ge hain. jain parnpara men gndharvon ko 'kinpurush, mahorag' adi ke sath vyntaralok ke devon ke roop men svikar kiya gaya.[21] bauddh avadanon aur jatakon men gndharvon ke bahuvidh ullekh hain.[22] sngitashastr se pradhanat: snbaddh gndharvon ki kalpana ne takshan aur vastukala men abhinav saundaryonpachayak abhiprayon ki abhivriddhi ki. mahakavy aur kathaon men, visheshat: poorvamadhyayugin jain kathaon men, vidyadhar aur yakshon ke sath gndharvakalpana atirnjit, hriday aur kalpanik kathavritton ke sarjan aur gunphan men sahayak huee.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. shashvatakosh, 101
  2. amarakosh,1, 2 ; kshirasvami : gndharvastumburuprabhritay: devayonay:; bhagavat, 3,3,11
  3. rigved 8,77,5 aur 1,162,2
  4. prijuluski, indiyan kalchar 3,613-620
  5. atharvaved 8, 6
  6. mahabharat., adiparv, adhyay 73, 10, 170 172, 225, vanaparv, adhyay 233, viratparv, adhyay 22, 23, 71, udayog parv adhyay 121.
  7. a. be. kith : e nyoo eksapleneshan aauv d gndharvaz, jarnal aauph indiyan sosaiti aauph oriental art, 5, 32-39
  8. shabdakalpadrum
  9. atharvaved 12,1,2,3
  10. rigved 3, 38, 6
  11. tulaniy, atharvaved, 20, 128, 3
  12. rigved 10,11
  13. atharvaved (2,5,2)
  14. atharvaved 14, 2, 34-36
  15. anrityat: shikhndin: gndharvasyapsarapate: atharvaved, 5,37,7
  16. atharvaved, 5,37,8
  17. yatha ragyi balashri ka nasik men upalabdh abhilekh, pnktiyan 8-9, talagund stnbhabhilekh, pady 33 adi men
  18. vishnudharmotar puran 3,42
  19. ar. es. pnchamukhi, 'gndharvaz aind kinnaraj in indiyan aikonografi', 31-49
  20. manasar 58, 9-10
  21. kapadiya, jaigaintik febulas ainimals in jain litarechar, nyoo indiyan aintikveri, 1946
  22. o. ech. d. e. vijesekar : vedik gndharv aind pali gndhabb, yoonivarsiti aauv silon rivyoo, 3 bhi drashtavy hai

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