क्रिकेट  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kriket vishay soochi
kriket
kriket ke maidan men kriket khelate khiladi
vivaran kriket ek balle v gend se do dalon ke khila‌diyon ke bich ek bade maidan men khela jane vala khel hai. mukhyatah yah ek bahari (autador) khel hai lekin kuchh muqabale kritrim prakash (phlad laits) men bhi khele jate hain.
sarvochch niyntran nikay antarrashtriy kriket kaunsil (aeesisi)
pahali bar khela gaya 1877 ee.
dal ke sadasy 11 (gyarah)
upakaran balla, gend, stamp adi
sthal bada maidan
vishvakap pratiyogita varsh 1975 se pratyek char varsh ke antaral par ayojit hoti hai.
olampik ek bar sanh 1900 men hi shamil kiya gaya.
snbndhit lekh gendabazi, ballebazi
praroop test kriket, vanade kriket, ti-20 kriket
pich maidan ke bich men ek 'pich' banaee jati hai jo 22 gaz lambi aur 10 phut chaudi hoti hai. isake donon taraf 28 inch oonche tin 'stamp' lage rahate hain aur in stampon ke bich men do 'gilliyan' lagi rahati hain.
any janakari bharat ne test kriket men pahala qadam sanh 1932 men rakha tha. is varsh inglaind ke viruddh lardas men bharat ne pahala test khela tha. is test men bharatiy tim ke kaptan si. ke. nayadoo the. ek test ki shrinkhala men bharat yah test 158 ran se hara.

kriket ek balle v gend se 11-11 khiladiyon ke do dalon ke bich ek bade maidan men khela jane vala khel hai. mukhyatah yah ek bahari (autador) khel hai aur kuchh muqabale kritrim prakash (phlad laits) men bhi khele jate hain. udaharan ke lie, garami ke mausam men ise snyukt rajashahi, aaustreliya, nyoojilaind aur dakshin afrika men khela jata hai jabaki vest indij, bharat, pakistan, shrilnka aur bangladesh men zyadatar manasoon ke bad sardiyon men khela jata hai. mukhy roop se isaka prashasan dubee men sthit antararashtriy kriket parishad (aeesisi) ke dvara kiya jata hai, jo isake sadasy rashtron ke ghareloo niyntrit nikayon ke madhyam se vishv bhar men khel ka ayojan karati hai. aeesisi antarrashtriy star par khele jane vale purush aur mahila kriket donon ka niyntran karati hai. halanki purush, mahila kriket nahin khel sakate hain par niyamon ke anusar mahilaen purushon ki tim men khel sakati hain.

parichay

kriket ek bade maidan men khela jata hai aur is maidan ke bich men ek 'pich' banaee jati hai jo 22 gaz lambi aur 10 phut chaudi hoti hai. isake donon taraf 28 inch oonche tin 'stamp' lage rahate hain aur in stampon ke bich men do 'gilliyan' lagi rahati hain. ye tinon stamp itane pas–pas gade jate hain ki jisamen se gend n guzar sake. gend ki paridhi 9 inch ki hoti hai. kriket ka gend ek khas dhng ka hota hai. jisaka bhar 5.5 auns se kam aur 5.75 auns se adhik nahin hota. har tim ka apana ek kaptan hota hai, jo ki in gyarah khiladiyon men hi shamil hota hai. isake alava do ampayar hote hain, jinaka faisala donon timon ko many hota hai. donon timon men se kaun–si tim pahale ballebazi karegi isaka faisala sikke ki uchhal se, jise 'taaus' kaha jata hai, kiya jata hai. taaus tim ka kaptan karata hai aur taaus jitane vala kaptan tay karata hai ki kaun si tim pahale ballebazi karegi. dasaven khiladi ke aut hote hi sari tim ko aut hua man liya jata hai aur is bich us tim ne jitane bhi ran banae hote hain, vah usake age jod die jate hain aur kaha jata hai ki amuk–amuk tim ne apani pahali pari men itane ran banae hain. donon dal bari-bari se ballebazi (ek pari) aur gendabazi karate hain v ek pari ke samapt hone par apas men jagah badal lete hain.
muqabale ke poorv-nirdharit samay ke anusar dalon ko ek athava do pariyan milati hain, jinamen adhikadhik ran banane ka uddeshy hota hai. ballebazi kar raha dal apane viket (tin-tin dndon ke do samooh, jo maidan men ek-doosare se 20.12 mitar door zamin men lagae jate hai) bachata hai aur gend par prahar karake doosare chhor ke viket tak daudakar athava gend par prahar kar use sima rekha ki or ya usake par bhejakar ran banane ka prayas karata hai. gendabaz banh sidhi rakhakar phenki gee gend se viket girane ka prayas karate hain, jisase gilliyan (jo viket ke oopar adi rakhi rahati hai) gir jaen. yah ballebaz ko aut karane ke kee tariqon men se ek hota hai.

itihas

kriket maich ke khelate hue khiladi

kriket ke khel ka itihas 16vin shatabdi se aj tak atyant vistrit roop men vidyaman hai. pahala antararashtriy kriket maich 1844 ke bad khela gaya, yadyapi adhikarik roop se antararashtriy test kriket 1877 se prarambh hue. is samay se yah khel mool roop se inglaind men vikasit hua jo ki ab peshevar roop men adhikansh rashtramndal deshon men khela jata hai. kriket duniya bhar men khela jata hai. visheshakar inglaind, dakshin eshiya, dakshin afrika aur any rashtramndal deshon men, maich anaupacharik, saptahant ki dopahari men ganvon ke hare maidanon men khele jane vale muqabalon se lekar pramukh vyavasayik khiladiyon ke bich vishal stediyamon men khele jane vale panch divasiy antarrashtriy muqabalon tak hote hain.

kriket ke itihas men pahale–pahal ki baten

  • pahala test maich — 15 march, 1877 ko. (astreliya)
  • pahala test — melaborn (astreliya men).
  • pahala ran — charls bainaramain (astreliya).
  • pahala viket — hil (inglaind).
  • pahala viket kisaka — tamsan (astreliya).
  • pahali jit — 45 ran (astreliya).
  • pahala ovar — alfredasha (inglaind).
  • pahala test shatak — bainaramain (165 ran) (astreliya).
  • pahala dohara test shatak — murdoch (211 ran) (astreliya — 1877).
  • 99 par aut pahala khiladi — klem hil (astreliya — 1901-2).
  • sabase kam ranon se — pahali vijay (astreliya ke viruddh inglaind).
  • sabase adhik ranon se — pahali jit (inglaind ke viruddh astreliya) (675 ran) (1928-29).
  • pahala khiladi shuroo se ant tak — murdoch (153 ran) (1880) (astreliya ke viruddh inglaind).
  • ek varsh men 1000 ran banane vala pahala khiladi — klem hil (astreliya) (1060 ran).
  • panch teston men harane v jitane vala pahala desh — jit (astreliya, 1920-21), har (inglaind).
  • pahala shatak pratidvandvi kaptanon dvara — (1913-14) je. dagalas (109) aur ech. telar (119) (dakshin afrika ke viruddh inglaind).
  • pahala test kab se kis desh men — 1- astreliya, 1877 2- inglaind, 1880, 3-vestindiz, 1900, 4- bharat, 1932 5- nyazilaind, 1929-30, 6- pakistan, 1952

bharat men pahala test maich

bharat ne test kriket men pahala qadam sanh 1932 men rakha tha. is varsh inglaind ke viruddh lardas men bharat ne pahala test khela tha. is test men bharatiy tim ke kaptan si. ke. nayadoo the. ek test ki shrinkhala men bharat yah test 158 ran se hara. inglaind ki pratham pari men 259 ran tatha dvitiy pari men 8 viket par 275 ran the. bharat ki pratham tatha doosari pari men kramashah 189 ve 187 ran the. pratham pari men kaptan si. ke. nayadoo ke 40 ran sarvochch skor tha tatha dvitiy pari men tez gendabaz amar sinh ke 51 ran sarvochch skor tha. amar sinh bharat ke pahale khiladi the, jinhonne pahala ardh–shatak lagaya tha. inglaind ke viruddh bharat ka pahala test shatak lala amaranath ne 1933-34 ki shrinkhala men bambee test men lagaya. yah lala amaranath ka pahala test shatak tha aur bharatiy bhoomi par yah pahala test maich tha.

kriket ke niyam

kriket bharat men sabase zyada khela jane vala aur sabase lokapriy khel hai. bharatiy kriket ke divane hai. kriket ke prati itane samarpit hone ke bad bhi kee log isake moolabhoot niyamon aur siddhanton se anabhigy hai. har khel ki tarah kriket ke bhi apane niyam hai.

shabdavali niyam
pich aeesisi (ICC) ke manakon ke anusar ek manak kriket pich ki ausat lambaee 20 mitar aur chaudaee 3 mitar honi chahie.
viket viket ki oonchaee 720 mimi aur usaki snyukt chaudaee 230 mimi honi chahie.
no baaul kriz ki popping rekha se bahar gendabaz ka pair padane par no baaul mani jati hai. donon rekhaon ki lambaee 2.64 mitar tatha donon ke bich ki doori 1.2 mitar hoti hai.
surakshit kshetr jis kshetr men ballebaz ran aut ya stnping nahin ho sakata, us kriz se ghire kshetr ko surakshit kshetr (Safe Zone) kaha jata hai.
vaid baaul yadi gendabaz gend ko gendabazi karate samay use ballebaz se adhik door phenke to ampayar vaid baaul karar deta hai. isake lie do atirikt said kriz bhi hoti hain jo vaid baaul ka nirdharan karati hai.
balla balle ki manak lambaee 970 mimi aur chaudaee 108 mimi hoti hai. balle ke shirsh par belanakar hendal hota hai. hendal ki chaudaee bled se kam hoti hai. hendal ki chaudaee balle ki kul lambaee se adhik bhi nahin honi chahie.
gend gend ki paridhi ki manak lambaee 230 mimi hoti hai. gend ka vazan 155.9 se 163.0 gram ke bich hota hai.
suraksha ballebaz ko suraksha ke lie helamet, dastane (glavs) aur peds pahanana anivary hota hai.
ampayar khel do ampayaron ke dvara snchalit aur niyntrit kiya jata hai. inaka nirnay sarvamany hota hai. yadi kisi sthiti men donon ampayar nirnay karane men asamarth hote hain to nirnay dene ke lie tisare ampayar (thard anpayar) ko kaha jata hai jo telivizan aur kaimare ki sahayata se nirnay leta hai.
maich refari pratyek maich ke lie ek maich refari bhi hota hai jisaka kam khel men niyamon ko banaye rakhana hota hai. aur yadi koee khiladi niyamon ka ullnghan karata hai to use dnd dene ka adhikar maich refari ko hota hai.
skor bord do skor bord parichalak hote hai jo skor bord ko niyntrit aur parichalit karate hain. skor bord par mukhy ankade dikhae jate hain jaise- ran, ovar, viket, atirikt ran.

mankad ka andaz-e-aut bana niyam

vinoo mankad
Vinoo Mankad

hal hi men khel jagath men khiladiyon ki badadimagi ke prakaran samane ae hain. dakshin afika aur vest indij ke test maich ke dauran del sten ne vipakshi gendabaz suleman ben ki or thook kar khel bhavana ko ahat kiya tha. par vishv kriket men aise bhi kshan ae jo pahale badatamiji karar die ge aur bad men aeesisi ke niyam ke roop men tabdil ho ge. aisa hi ek niyam hai mankad aut hona. bharat ke mahanh kriketar vinoo mankad ne is tariqe se ran aut karane ki shuruat ki thi. disnbar 1947 men aaustreliya daure par gee tim indiya ka yah kissa bahut mashahoor hai. hua yoon ki aaustreliya ke viruddh sidani test men bharatiy gendabaz vinoo mankad ne vipakshi ballebaz ko kuchh aise aut kiya ki sab dng rah ge. mankad ne gendabazi karate hue krij tak pahunchakar bina gend phenke naaun straiking chhor ki gilliyan bikher din. kngaroo ballebaz bil braun gend dale jane ke poorv hi ran lene ki jaldabazi men krij chhod chuke the. mankad ne gilli udate hi ran aut ki apil ki aur anpayar ne ungali utha di. halanki mankad ki is harakat ko aaustreliyaee midiya ne khel bhavana ke viruddh batate hue bhartasana ki, par diggaj ballebaz daaun braidamain samet kuchh vipakshi khiladiyon ne mankad ka bachav kiya. bad men aut karane ka yah tariqa kriket ke niyamon men shamil ho gaya aur isaka nam mankad aut pad gaya. kriket niyamon ki dhara 42.15 ke antargat mankad aut ko vaidhanik kar diya gaya.

kapil ne doharaya itihas

bharat ke mahanh kaptanon men se ek kapil dev ne bhi dakshin afrika ke khilaf vanade men mankad ka itihas doharaya tha. sal 1993 men hue is muqabale men kapil dev ne pitar karsatan ko mankad aut kar diya tha.

parinam

yadi bad men khelane vali tim doosare paksh se kam ran bana kar aut ho jati hai to kaha jata hai ki tim N ranon se har gee hai. (jahan N donon timon ke dvara banaye ge ranon ki snkhya ka antar hai) yadi bad men khelane vali tim jitane ke lie paryapt ran bana leti hai to kaha jata hai ki vah N viketon se jit gee. jahan N jitane vali tim ke bache hue viketon ki snkhya hai.

udaharan

yadi pahale khelane vali tim 280 ran banati hai aur doosari tim bad men khelate hue sirf 250 ran bana pati hai to doosari tim (bad men khelane vali) ki 30 ran se har mani jati hai aur yadi bad men khelane vali tim keval 7 viket khokar pahale khelane vali tim ke skor ko par kar leti hai to kaha jata hai ki vah 3 viket se maich jit gee hai.
yadi bad men ballebazi karane vali tim aaul aut ho jati hai aur donon timon ne saman ran banaye hain, to maich taee ho jata hai. yah natija kafi durlabh hota hai. khel ke parnparagat svaroop men (test kriket), kisi bhi tim ke jitane se pahale yadi samay khatm ho jata hai to khel ko draau ghoshit kar diya jata hai.

dakavarth luees niyam

kriket maich ke dauran gautam gnbhir ran lete hue

is niyam ka vikas inglaind ke do sankhyiki ke vidvanh phraink dakavarth aur taauni luees ne kiya tha. yah niyam kriket ke simit maich ke dauran kisi prakar ki pratikool bhaugolik paristhitiyon evn any sthitiyon men apanaya jane vala niyam hai. jisase ki maich apane nirnay tak pahunch sake. dakavarth luees niyam antararashtriy kriket parishad dvara manyata prapt hai. is niyam ke tahat ghatae ge ovaron men ne lakshy nirdharit kiye jate hain. is lakshy nirdharan vidhi ko ek khas sankhyikiy sarani ki madad se nikala jata hai jisaka snshodhan samay-samay par hota rahata hai. uparokt sarani 2002 ke snshodhan ke samay ki hai jisamen pratyek ovar ke bache rahate aur viket ke shesh rahate snsadhanon ki map pratishat men di gee hai. isamen snsadhanon ya sadhanon ki vidhi par adharit ranon ki snkhya ka lakshy nikala jata hai.
mana ki pahali tim ne R1 sadhanon ka prayog karate hue S ran banae. agar doosari tim ko khelane ke lie sirf R2 sadhan mile to unaka lakshy hoga- S x R2 / R1 . isako samajhane ke lie ek udaharan niche diya gaya hai.

udaharan

mana ki pahale tim ne khelakar S ran banae aur bad men khel rahi tim ne 30 ovaron men do viket kho die to R (30, 2) ka man oopar ki tebal se dekhakar 52.4% nikalate hain. choonki bad vali tim ne sirf 100-52.4=47.6% sadhanon ka prayog kiya at: unaka naya lakshy hoga - S x 47.6 / 100>.

di/el niyam ka ek saral udaharan

pahala ekadivasiy antararashtriy bharat aur pakistan ke bich apane 2006 ekadivasiy shrinkhala men khela ja raha tha. bharat ne pahale ballebazi ki aur 49 ovar men 328 banae. pakistan ne doosari ballebazi karate hue 7 viket par 311 ran banaye hi the ki tabhi kharab roshani ke karan khel ko 47 ovar par rok diya gaya tha. jahan ran ret ke hisab se 3 ovar men 18 ran chahie the 3 viket hath men the. di/el paddhati men agar ran ret ke hisab se dekhen to 47 ovar ke bad 3 viket hath men hote yahan 304 ran hote to pakistan ki jit tay thi yahan unaka skor 311/7 tha to adhikarik taur par parinam ke roop men pakistan ki 7 ran se jit ghoshit ki gee.

kriket maichon ke prakar

kriket maich ke dauran sachin aur sahavag ran lete hue

vyapak arthon men kriket ek bahu ayami khel hai, ise khel ke paimanon ke adhar par mejar kriket aur mainar kriket men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai. ek aur adhik uchit vibhajan, vishesh roop se mejar kriket ke shabdon men, maichon ke bich kiya jata hai, jisamen kul do pariyan hoti hain, pratyek tim ko ek pari khelani hoti hai. ise poorv men pratham shreni kriket ke roop men jana jata tha, isaki avadhi tin se panch din hoti hai, (aise maichon ke udaharan bhi milate hain jinamen samay ki koee sima nahin rahi hai); bad men inhen simit ovaron ke kriket ke roop men jana jane laga kyonki pratyek tim praroopik roop se simit 50 ovar men genden dalati hai, isaki poorv nirdharit avadhi keval 1 din hoti hai. mukhy roop se kriket ke tin praroop hain-

test kriket

test kriket, kriket ka sabase lamba svaroop hota hai. ise khiladiyon ki khel kshamata ki vastavik pariksha mana gaya hai. kriket ke is praroop men 5 din tak khel hota hai, aur donon dalon ko do-do bar gendabazi aur ballebazi ka mauqa milata hai. isamen ek din men 90 ovar phenke jate hain.

vanade kriket

ise ekadivasiy kriket ya simit ovar muqabala bhi kaha jata hai. isamen pratyek dal 50 ovar gendabazi aur 50 ovar ballebazi karata hai. yah ek din men hi samapt ho jata hai. is praroop men vishv kap pratiyogita ayojit ki jati hain. jisamen sabhi aeesisi sadasy desh hissa lete hain. ekadivasiy kriket ka vishvakap sanh 1983 men kapil dev ki kaptani men bharat ne jita.

tventi 20 kriket

yah kriket ka sabase chhota praroop hai, jisaka uddeshy hai ki maich 3 ghnte men khatm ho jae, samanyat: ise sham ke samay men khela jata hai. isamen pratyek dal keval 20 ovar ballebazi aur 20 ovar gendabazi karata hai. jab isaki avadharana inglaind men 2003 men pesh ki gee ki tab mool vichar yah tha ki karmachariyon ko sham ke samay men manornjan upalabdh karaya ja sake. yah vyavasayik roop se bahut saphal hua aur ise antarrashtriy star par apanaya gaya hai. isake phalasvaroop bharat men aeepiel ki shuruat huee. tventi 20 kriket ke pratham vishv kap ko bharat ne 2007 men mahendr sinh dhoni ki kaptani men jita.

ballebazi

sachin ballebazi karate hue
Sachin in Batting Action

kriket ke prashnsakon ke lie ballebazi kriket ke sabase romanchak bhagon men se ek hai. ek achchha ballebaz vo hai jo achchhe skor bana kar apane viket bacha leta hai. ek utkrisht ballebaz banane ke lie badi teji ke sath shaauts marana zaruri hota hai. jo khiladi balla chala kar gend ko balle se marate hai unhen ballebaz kaha jata hai aur is kriya ya kala ko ballebazi kaha jata hai. kriket ke khel men do prakar ke ballebaz hote hain.

dayen hath ka ballebaz

jab khiladi gend par prahar karate vaqt apane dayen hath ka istemal karata hai to use dayen hath ka ballebaz mana jata hai. dayen hath ke kuchh mahanh ballebaz hain- daaun braidamain (astreliya), viviyan richadars (vestindij), sunil gavaskar (bharat), sachin tendulakar (bharat) ityadi.

bayen hath ka ballebaz

isake viparit jab khiladi gend par prahar karate vaqt apane bayen hath ka istemal karata hai to use bayen hath ka ballebaz mana jata hai. bayen hath ke kuchh mahanh ballebaz hain- gairi sobars (vestindij), brayan lara (vestindij), elan bo‍‍‍rdar (astreliya) ityadi.

gendabazi

gendabazi karate samay khiladi ke kisi n kisi pair ka kuchh n kuchh ang 'baauling qriz' ke pichhe aur 'ritarn qriz' ke andar hona chahie. yadi koee gendabaz in niyamon ka ullaghnn karata hai to use ampayar dvara 'no bal' ka ishara mil jata hai aur yadi vah gend ko oonchaee ya chaudaee men itani door phenkata hai ki ampayar ki drishti men vah gend ballebaz ki pahunch se bahar hai to use 'vaid bal' kaha jata hai.
gendabazi karata ek gendabaz
kriket men gendabazi karane ke bhi anek tariqe hain. jaise–
  • phast baauling (tez gendabazi)
  • midiyam pes baauling (madhyam gati ki gendabazi)
  • slo baauling (dhimi gendabazi)
  • spin baauling (chakkaradar gendabazi)

chainamain

'chainamain' us left arm spinar ko kahate hain, jo ungali ki bajay kalaee ke sahare gend ko spin karata hai aur usaki mukhy gend 'arthodoks left armar' ke viparit kisi daen hath ke ballebaz ke lie aauf spin hoti hai. yoon samajh len ki koee chaeenamain spinar kisi daen hath ke leg spinar ka mirar imej hai. shen varn, danish kaneriya ya piyoosh chavala ki gendabazi ko aine men dekh lijie yahi hai chainamain leg spin. vahin left arm arthodoks spin gendabaz apani ungali se gend ko spin karata hai aur usaki mukhy gend vah hoti hai, jo kisi daen hath ke ballebaz ke lie leg brek ho.

kshetrarakshan

kriket ke maidan men khiladiyon ki sthiti
Position of Players in Cricket Ground

kriket ke kshetr men kshetrarakshan (philding) ka bhi mahattvapoorn sthan hai. kshetrarakshan karane vale khiladi ko sada hi chust khada rahana padata hai. kshetrarakshan men slips, gali ya pvanit, sili mid–aauf ya mid–an, skveyar leg, leg slip aur viket kipar ke sthan bade hi mahattvapoorn hain. gendabaz dvara tin lagatar gendon men tin viket lene par het trik kaha jata hai. yadi gendabaz dvara chhah gend phenkane par ballebaz ke dvara koee bhi ran n bane to vah 'medan ovar' kahalata hai. jo ballebaz pari samapt hone par bhi khelata rahata hai, use 'nat aut' kahate hain. yadi gend ballebaz ke bait ya usake sharir ko chhue bina chali jae aur ampayar use 'vaid' ya 'no bal' bhi n samajhe to ballebaz jitane ran banaega ve sab 'baee' ran honge. jo tim pahale khelati hai aur doosari tim se (tin ya isase adhik dinon ke maich men) 200 ran adhik bana leti hai, tab vah doosari tim ko doosari pari shuroo karane par majaboor kar sakati hai. ise kriket ki shabdavali men 'foloon' kahate hain. yadi donon timon ki ran snkhya barabar rahe to us maich ko taee maich kahate hain.

viket ya stnp

tin-tin dndon ke do samooh, jo maidan men ek-doosare se 20.12 mitar door pich men lagae jate hain. ye mukhyatah lakadi ke bane hote hain aur jinake oopari sire par lakadi ki gilliyan tiki hoti hai.

aut

ek ballebaz khel men kee tariqe se aut ho sakata hai. ballebaz ke aut hone ke kuchh tariqe to bahut asan hote hain. viparit tim ka khiladi chilla kar kahata hai- 'yah aut hai', lekin akhiri nirnay ampayar ka hota hai aur yadi vah viparit tim ke sadasyon ki apil se sahamat hota hai to vah apani tarjani anguli utha kar kahata hai "aut" nahin to vah apana sir hilakar "naaut aut" ka ishara deta hai. gendabaz, ballebaz ko aut karane ki koshish karata hai aur ballebaz is bat ki koshish karata hai ki gend usaki 'stamp' ya 'paid' par n lage. use is bat ka bhi bhay laga rahata hai ki yadi usane apani gend ko bahut ooncha uchhal diya to vipakshi tim ka koee khiladi use kaich kar lega aur vah aut ho jaega.

aut hone ke tariqe
bold aut jab gend balle se bachakar stamp par ja lagati hai. Wicket.jpg
kaich aut ballebaz ke dvara shaaut marane ke bad gend maidan par girane se pahale hi jab vipakshi tim ka koee khiladi kaich kar leta hai.
ran aut jab ballebaz ran banane ke chakkar men gend viketakipar ya gendabaj ke pas ane se pahale tak apani qriz par nahin pahunch pata hai.
el. bi. dabalyoo. (laig biphor viket) viket ke samane pair, jab koee ballebaz gend ko marane ke lie balla uthata hai aur balla gend men nahin lagata hai ya khiladi gend ko pair se rokane ki koshish karata hai.
hit-viket agar ballebaz gend ko hit karate samay apana hi balla ya pair stamp ko mar deta hai to vah 'hit-viket' tariqe se aut ho jata hai.
stamp aut yadi ballebaz shaaut marate samay qriz se bahar ho jata hai aur stamp ke pichhe khada khiladi, jise viketakipar kaha jata hai, gend ko stamp se chhua deta hai to use 'stamp aut' kahakar aut man liya jata hai.
haidald d bal yadi ballebaz gend ko dobara hit karane ki koshish karata hai ya use kisi or tariqe se rokane ki koshish karata hai to use 'haidald d bal' tariqe se aut man liya jata hai.

yadi gend lagane se gilliyan gir jati hain aur stamp nahin girata to bhi ballebaz ko aut hua mana jata hai. yahan yah bhi dhyan dene yogy bat hai ki yadi gend stamp se takarane ke bavajood gilliyan nahin girati hain to ballebaz ko aut nahin diya ja sakata.

balla

kriket ka balla aur gend
Cricket Bat and Ball

balla lakadi ka hota hai. jisaki manak lambaee 970 mimi aur chaudaee 108 mimi hoti hai. balle ke shirsh par belanakar hendal hota hai. hendal ki chaudaee bled se kam hoti hai. hendal ki chaudaee balle ki kul lambaee se adhik bhi nahin honi chahie.

gend

gend golakar hoti hai aur kathor chamade ki bani hoti hai jisake bich men lakadi ka gola hota hai. test maichon men gend ka rng lal aur ekadivasiy maichon men safed gend ka prayog hota hai jisaki paridhi ki manak lambaee 230 mimi hoti hai.
kriket gend
Cricket Ball
gend ka vajan 155.9 aur 163.0 gram ausat ke bich hota hai.

ran

jab koee ballebaz gend ko 'baundri' tak pahuncha deta hai, to use bina daude ek sath char ran (chauka) mil jate hain aur agar usaki gend maidan ko bina chhue baundri par kar jae to use ek sath chhah ran (chhakka) mil jate hain. nahin to gend vapas ane tak vah jitani bar donon stampon ke bich ka fasala (22 gaz) tay karata hai, utane hi ran us ballebaz ke nam ke age jod die jate hain. kee bar ballebaz ko bina gend mare bhi ran mil jate hain. yani agar gend ballebaz ke sharir ko chhookar ya viket kipar ko chakama dekar nikal jaen to 'leg baee' aur 'baee' ke ran mil jate hain aur yadi gendabaz galat dhng se gend phenke aur ampayar 'no bal' ka ya 'vayad bal' ka elan kar de to bhi khelane vali tim ko ek ran mil jata hai. 'no bal' par aut hue khiladi ko aut hua nahin mana jata hai.

pich

kriket pich
Cricket Pitch

kriket jis satah par khela jata hai, use pich kahate hain. ICC ke manakon ke anusar ek manak kriket pich ki ausat lambaee 20 mitar aur chaudaee 3 mitar hoti hai. in viketon ke bich ki lambaee aur chaudaee ke antar ko hi pich kahate hain. pich ek samatal satah hoti hai, is par bahut hi kam ghas hoti hai. pich ki halat maich aur tim ki rananiti par prabhav dalati hai. pich ki vartaman aur pratyashit sthiti tim ki rananiti ko nirdharit karati hai.

ampayar

kriket ke maich ke dauran aut karane ka adhikar isi mahattvapoorn vyakti par hota hai. khel do ampayaron ke dvara snchalit aur niyntrit kiya jata hai. jinamen se ek pich par hota hai jise pratham ampayar kahate hain aur doosara ballebaz ki aaun said par 10-12 mitar ki doori par hota hai jise dvitiy ampayar ya leg anpayar bhi kahate hain.
ampayar
Umpire
yadi kisi sthiti men donon ampayar nirnay karane men asamarth hote hai to nirnay dene ke lie tisare ampayar (thard anpayar) ko kaha jata hai jo telivizan aur kaimare ki sahayata se nirnay leta hai. kriket men ampayar ka nirnay sarvamany hota hai.

skorar

skor bord parichalak ko skorar kahate hain. kriket ke khel men do skor bord parichalak hote hai jo skor bord ko niyntrit aur parichalit karate hain. skor bord par mukhy ankade dikhae jate hain jaise- ran, ovar, viket, atirikt ran.

bharat men kriket

bharatiy kriket

pratham spashtat: darj kiya gaya kriket maich 16vin shatabdi ke ant men inglaind men sare ke gilaphard men khela gaya tha. pahali niyamavali 1744 men likhi gee thi. bharat men kriket utana hi lokapriy khel hai, jitana amerika men basketabal aur brazil men phutabal. kriket ke sitare bahut paisa pate hain, inaki bahut chakachaundh hoti hai v ye rashtriy pratiman ban jate hain. hal ke varshon men sachin tendulakar jaise kriket khiladi kuchh pramukh filmi sitaron jitane lokapriy hain. antarrashtriy kriket men bharat ka pradarshan lagatar sudhara hai, jisaka utkrisht bindu 1983 ke vishv kap men shanadar vijay hai. samriddh rashtriy paridrishy par ranaji trafi prativarsh kheli jane vali ek pratishthapoorn antarrajyiy sparddha hai. uchch kshetriy star par prativarsh dilip trafi ka ayojan kiya jata hai aur satr ka ant eerani trafi muqabale se hota hai. jisamen ranaji trafi ke vijetaon ko shesh bharat ekadash (rest aauf indiya XI) ke viruddh khelana hota hai.

arnbhik daur

bharat men kriket ka khel 18vin shatabdi ke arnbhik british prabhav ke dinon se maujood hai. jab sena ne is khel ko lokapriy banane men madad ki. sarvapratham darj kiya gaya muqabala 1721 men hua. 1792 men vishv ka doosara sabase purana kriket klab, kalakatta kriket klab, eedan gardns kriket stediyam men sthapit hua. phir parasi samuday ne pratham deshi bharatiy kriket klab 'orient' 1848 men sthapit kiya. rochak bat yah hai ki bharat men kriket tim dharmik adharon par banaee jati thi aur 1907 men kheli gee pratham pratiyogita men tin tim thin, hindoo, parasi v musalaman, parasi tim ne 1877 men yooropiy logon ko haraya aur 1866 men inglaind jane par vah videshi daure par jane vali pratham bharatiy tim bani. 1899 men ek british tim bharat aee. isake bad 1926 men bharat ko test darja milane ke poorv kuchh bharatiyon ka chayan inglaind ka pratinidhitv karane ke lie hua. ke.es. ranajit sinh ji, pataudi ke navab aur ke.es. dalip sinh ji ne inglaind ke lie test kriket khela. ranajit sinh ji ne 1896 men astreliya ke viruddh old traiphard men nabad 154 ran banae aur vijdan kriketars almanek dvara sammanit kie jane vale pratham bharatiy kriketar bane. lala amaranath test men shatak banane vale pahale bharatiy bane. jab unhonne bhramanakari angrez dal ke viruddh 1933 men bnbee (vartaman munbee) men 118 ran banae. 1934-35 men bharat men ek poorn ghareloo sparddha arnbh huee. ise ranajit sinh ji ke nam par 'ranaji traaufi' kaha gaya. 1951-52 men madras (vartaman chennee) men bharat ne inglaind ko ek pari aur ath ranon se harakar apani pahali test vijay darj ki aur inglaind ke hi viruddh bharat ne 1961-1962 men apani pahali shrinkhala jiti. isi satr men dalip sinh ji ke nam par ek kshetriy traaufi sthapit huee.

bharat ke prasiddh kriket khiladi
Lala-Amar-Nath.jpg Mansur Ali Khan Pataudi.jpg Vinoo-Mankad.jpg C.K. Nayudu.jpg ranajit sinh sunil gavaskar Kapil-Dev-1.jpg Ravi-Shastri.jpeg sachin tendulakar krishnamachari shrikant saurav ganguli rahul dravid anil kumbale Mahendra-Singh-Dhoni.jpg Virender-Sehwag.jpg Mithali-raj-2.jpg

prarnbhik vijay

1952 men inglaind ke viruddh usi varsh ki jit ke pashchat, bharat ne pakistan ko panch muqabalon ki shrinkhala men 2-1 se harakar test shrinkhala men apani pahali vijay darj ki. is shrinkhala men aur isake pashchath nyoojilaind ke viruddh shrinkhala ki vijay men vinoo mankad, paauli umarigar aur vijay hazare nirnayak sabit hue. kintu un jaise vishisht khiladiyon aur any jaise, si. ke. nayadoo, vijay marchent, mushtak ali v muhammad nisar ki maujoodagi ke bavajood test muqabalon men bharat ka pradarshan lnbe samay tak aprabhavi raha. antat:1970 men desh ka dal antarrashtriy kriket men ek prabhavi shakti ke roop men ubhara.

1971 men sunil gavaskar aur 1979 men kapil dev ke uday ke sath hi bharat ne vishv ke pramukh dalon ko chunauti dena arnbh kar diya. vishv kirtimanon ko todane vale ye donon khiladi lagabhag do dashak tak bharat ke bhagy ke nirnayak rahe. sunil gavaskar ne vest indij ke viruddh 1970-71 men padarpan kiya aur shrinkhala men 700 ranon se bhi adhik ke yog se jaldi hi charchit ho ge. unhonne bharat ke lie 125 test maich khele aur 34 shatak banae. yah kirtiman 18 varshon se akshunn raha hai. bharatiy tim ne apana pahala ek divasiy antarrashtriy muqabala 1974 men khela aur 1983 men vishv kap jita. 1983 ka vishv kap jitane vale dal ke kaptan, kapil dev, ne varshon tak bharat ki gendabazi ko akele snbhala v 434 test viketon ka vishv kirtiman banaya, jise 2001 men kartani vaaulsh ne toda.
1970 ke dashak ke madhy se bharat ko vishv ke kriket khelane vale pramukh deshon men mana jata hai. 20vin shatabdi ke ant men usake nam kee kirtiman v upalabdhiyan darj thin. mnsoor ali khan pataudi ne 1962 men keval 21 varsh ki ayu men vest indij ke viruddh dal ka netritv kiya tha. is tarah, ek test khelane vale rashtr ke roop men bharat ne sabase kam umr ka test kaptan dene ki pratishtha prapt ki hai. bharat ke sitara opaning ballebaz sunil gavaskar, 100 ranon se adhik ki 34 pariyon ke sath 10,000 ran banane vale vishv ke pahale ballebaz ban ge. 21vin sadi ke uday ke samay kapil dev nikhnj ne sabhi ko pichhe chhod diya, jab 434 viket lekar vah vishv men sabase adhik viket lene vale khiladi ban ge. muhammad azaharuddin, apane kirtiman snkhya men khele ek divasiy muqabalon (323) aur ek divasiy muqabalon ke ranon (9111) ke sath apane pahale tinon test muqabalon men shatak banane vale ekamatr khiladi rahe. vishv ke sarvashreshth ballebazon men se ek sachin tendulakar ke nam ek divasiy muqabalon ke sarvadhik shatakon (49) ka kirtiman hai aur sath hi sath test maichon men bhi sarvadhik shatakon (51 shatak) ka kirtaman bhi sachin tendulakar ke nam hai. is prakar sachin tendulakar poore vishv men antarrashtriy kriket men 100 shatak lagane vale ekamatr ballebaz hain. vishv kriket men bharat ekamatr aisa desh hai jisane aeesisi dvara ayojit tinon vishv chainpiyanaship pratiyogitaon (vishv kap, chaimpiyns traaufi, ti-20 vishv kap) men khitab jita hai.

1983 vishv kap

kapil dev, vishv kap 1983 ke sath
ek aisi pratiyogita men, jisamen vest indij ki tim sabase prabal davedar thi, kapil dev ke netritv men bharat ne vishv kap jitakar sabako ashcharyachakit kar diya. vichitr bat yah thi ki navagat zimbabve ne bharat ke semifainal men pahunchane ki ummidon ko lig muqabalon men se ek men lagabhag dhoomil kar diya tha. zimbabve ne astreliya ko hara diya tha aur bharat ko harane ke kagar par tha. pahale ballebazi karate hue 17 ranon par 5 viket ke skor par ladakhadati bharatiy tim ko kapil dev ne bachaya. unhonne ek divasiy kriket ki sarvakalik mahanatam pariyon men se ek kheli aur nabad 175 ranon ka unaka yog us pratiyogita men uchchatam yog raha. bharat jita, kintu phir bhi tim se adhik apekshaen nahin thin. semifainal men shaktishali inglaind ke viruddh khelate hue bharat ne ek vishvasaniy jit hasil ki. nishchit hi antim muqabala bharat ki sarvakalik sarvashreshth vijay thi. yadyapi tim ne khasi kharab ballebazi ki aur keval 183 ran banae, lekin bharatiyon ka kshetrarakshan v gendabazi behatarin thi. klaiv laauyad us khataranak vest indij tim ka netritv kar rahe the. jisamen viviyan richadars, gaaurdan grinij, desamnd hens, mailkam marshal, maikal holding, jephri doojaaun, joel garnar aur endi raaubatars shamil the. mohindar amaranath, krishnamachari shrikant, madan lal aur raaujar binni ke haraphanamaula yogadan se bharat ne ek aisi tim ko haraya, jise sarvashreshth tez gendabajon ki chaukadi v vishv ke sarvashreshth ballebazi kram ka gaurav hasil tha. vishv kap vijay v usake bad 1983 bharat ka gauravapoorn varsh tha. us samay se bharatiy kriket tim adhik shaktishali hoti gee. 1970 v 80 ke dashak ke arnbh men gundappa vishvanath, dilip vengasarakar, sndip patil aur 1980 v 90 ke dashak men mohammad azaharuddin, ravi shastri, anil kunbale, sachin tendulakar aur manoj prabhakar jaise dridhanishchayi khiladiyon ke utkrisht pradarshanon se bharat ki tim kafi sntulit dhng se badhati rahi.
mahendr sinh dhoni vishv kap tventi-20 traaufi 2007 ke sath

2007 vishv kap tventi-20

sal 2007 men bharatiy kriket tim ekadivasiy vishv kap men buri tarah se har gee. aise men ti-tventi ki bagador mahendr sinh dhoni ke hathon men de di gee. dhoni ne ti-tventi vishv kap men aisa jalava bikhera ki bharatiy darshak dekhate rah ge. fainal maich men dhoni ki soojhaboojh ne bharat ko ti-tventi ka chainpiyan bana diya. kriket ke tinon praroopon men unhonne bharat ko vishv men nnbar ek ke payadan par la khada kiya.

2011 vishv kap

vishv kap traauphi 2011 ke sath sachin tendulakar, harabhajan sinh aur suresh raina

kriket itihas men akhirakar bharat ne vah itihas phir se rach diya, jisaka intazar desh ko 28 sal se tha. dhoni ke dhurndharon ne munbee ke vanakhede stediyam men shrilnka ko harakar aeesisi vishvakap, 2011 ki traauphi apane nam kar li. bharat apani dharati par vishvakap jitane vala pahala desh ban gaya. ye tim indiya ka doosara vishvakap hai. is vishv kap jit men bharatiy aaularandar 'yuvaraj sinh' hiro banakar ubhare aur main aauf d toornament rahe. kaptan mahendr sinh dhoni ne shanadar pari khelate hue nabad 91 ran banae. maich ke 48.2 ovar men dhoni ne chhakka jamakar bharat ko aitihasik jit dilaee. is jit ke sath hi sachin tendulakar ke vishvakap jitane ka sapana bhi poora hua.

netrahin tventi-20 vishvakap

vishvakap traauphi 2012 ke sath netrahin bharatiy kriket tim

bengaluroo ke sentral kaaulej graund par 13 disambar, 2012 guruvar ko khele ge netrahin tventi-20 vishvakap ke fainal mukabale men bharatiy kriket tim ne pakistan ko 30 ranon se harakar vishv vijeta ka khitab apane nam kar liya. bharatiy tim ne pahale ballebazi karate hue nirdharit 20 ovar men ath viket par 258 ran banae the. lakshy ka pichha karane utari pakistani tim nirdharit ovaron men ath viket par 229 ran hi bana saki. is tarah se bharat ne 29 ranon se jit hasil kar vishvakap par qabza kar liya. bharat ki or se ketan bhaee patel ne shanadar 98 ranon ki pari kheli, vahin prakash jayaramaiyya 42 aur upakaptan ajay kumar reddi ne 25 ranon ka mahattvapoorn yogadan diya. pakistan ki or se mohammad jamil ne 47 ranon ki tejatarrar pari kheli. unake alava ali murtaja 38 aur mohammad akaram ne 32 ranon ka yogadan diya. semifainal mukabalon men bharat ne shrilnka ko aur pakistan ne inglaind ko hara kar fainal men pravesh kiya tha.

samachar

bharat chauthi bar bana andar-19 kriket vishv kap vijeta

3 faravari, 2018 shanivar
vishv kap traaufi ke sath andar-19 bharatiy tim

aeesisi andar-19 vishv kap ke fainal men bharat ne aaustreliya ko 8 viket se harakar vishv kap par apana kabza jama liya. 217 ranon ke lakshy ko bharat ne 38.5 ovaron men 2 viket khokar hasil kar liya. is maich men bharat ki or se manajot kalara (101 nabad) ne shanadar shatak banaya. manajot ke alava is maich men bharatiy gendabajon ka bhi raha, jinhonne aaustreliyaee pari ko 216 ran par hi samet diya. manajot ke shatak ke alava harvik desaee (47 nabad), shubhaman gil (31) aur kaptan prithvi shaau (29) ne behatarin yogadan diya. tim indiya is maich men aaustreliya poori tarah havi dikhi. rahul dravid ki koching men vishv kap men utari tim indiya poore toornament men ajey rahi use koee bhi tim hara nahin paee.

chauthi bar bane chaimpiyan

ye chauthi bar hai jab bharatiy tim ne andar-19 vishv kap jita hai. isase pahale bharat 2000, 2008, 2012 men mohammad kaiph, virat kohali, unmukt chnd ki kaptani men andar-19 vishv kap jit chuka hai. isake sath hi bharat is khitab ko sabase jyada bar jitane vali tim ban gee hai. andar 19 vishv kap ke itihas men tim indiya sabase zyada fainal khelane vali tim ban gee hai. bharatiy tim ne 6 bar andar 19 vishv kap ka fainal khela hai. 2002, 2006, 2008, 2012, 2016 aur 2018 men is toornament ke fainal tak ka saphar tay kiya hai. bharat ne 2000, 2008, 2012 aur 2018 men ye khitab apane nam kiya. 2006 aur 2016 men tim indiya fainal men to pahunchi thi, lekin vo is traauphi ko nahin utha paee thi. bharat ko bad pakistan aur aaustreliya ne is toornament men sabase zyada bar khitabi mukabale khele hain. in donon timon ne panch-panch bar andar 19 vishv kap fainal men shirakat ki hai. is toornament ke phainal men aaustreliya ko mat dene vala ekalauta desh bharat hi hai. bharat aur aaustreliya ke bich do bar andar 19 vishv kap ka khitabi mukabala khela gaya hai aur donon hi bar tim indiya ne kngaruon ko dhool chatakar traauphi apane nam ki hai. 2018 se pahale 2012 men bhi in donon timon ka samana andar 19 vishv kap ke fainal men hua tha. us mukabale men bharat ne kngaruon ko 6 viket se mat dekar vishv kap jit liya tha. vo pahala mauqa tha jab kisi tim ne andar 19 vishv kap ke fainal men aaustreliya ko mat di thi.

samachar ko vibhinn sroton par padhen

bharat ne lagatar doosari bar netrahin kriket vishv kap jita

20 janavari, 2018 shanivar
vishvakap traauphi ke sath netrahin bharatiy kriket tim

sharajah men khele ge fainal men bharat ne pakistan ko do viket se haraya. bharat ke samane jit ke lie 309 ranon ka lakshy tha, jise usane 8 viket khokar hasil kar liya. bharat ne yah jit 38.2 ovar men hasil ki. isase pahale taaus harakar pahale ballebazi karate hue pakistan ne nirdharit 40 ovar men 8 viket khokar 308 ran banae. sunil ramesh ki 93 ranon ki shanadar pari ki badaulat bharat ne ek bar phir netrahin kriket vishv kap ka khitab jit liya hai. pradhanamntri narendr modi ne bhi is jit par bharatiy tim ko badhaee di hai. bharat ne maich men tej shuruat ki aur 15 ovaron men 111/1 ka skor khada kar liya. isake bad bharat ke do ballebaz ran aut ho gaye aur 16 ovar men tim ka skor 116/3 ho gaya. sunil aur kaptan ajay (62) ne yahan se bharatiy pari ko snbhala aur bharatiy skor ko 25 ovar men tin viket par 190 tak le ge. 35 ovar men 271 ke skor par bharat ko ramesh ke roop men chautha jhataka laga. ramesh ko amir ishaphak ne bold kiya. bharat sadhi huee gati se lakshy ki or badh raha tha tab kaptan ajay aut ho ge. isake bad bhi bharat ko lagatar do jhatake lage lekin tim ne antim ovaron men snyam banae rakha aur jit hasil ki. isase pahale badar munir ki haph senchuri ki badaulat pakistan ne toornament ke panchaven edishan ke fainal men 308 ka bada lakshy diya.

vishv kap men ajey raha bharat

bharat ne semifainal men bangladesh ko 7 viket se haraya tha. vahin pakistan ne shrilnka ko mat dekar khitabi mukabale men jagah banayi thi. isase pahale grup mukabale men bhi bharat ne pakistan ko 7 viket se haraya tha. bharat ne poore toornament men shanadar khel dikhaya. halanki bharat aur aaustreliya ke bich khela gaya pahala maich barish ki bhent chadh gaya tha, lekin usake bad bharat ne shrilnka ko 6 viket se haraya. is maich men bharat ke samane jit ke lie 359 ranon ka lakshy tha jo usane dipak malik ke 179 ranon ki madad se 6 viket khokar hasil kiya. shrilnka ke bad bharat ne pakistan ko 7 viket se aur bangladesh ko 10 viket se haraya. apane antim grup maich men bharat ne nepal ko 8 viket se haraya. semifainal men bharat ne bangladesh ko 7 viket se haraya tha. is tarah ajey rahate hue bharat ne panchaven netrahin vishv kap ko lagatar doosari bar apane nam kiya. pakistan netrahin kriket kaunsil ne aeesisi sieeo dev richardasan, poorv pakistani kaptan zahir abbas aur poorv bharatiy viketakipar saiyad kiramani ko fainal maich ke lie vishesh atithi ke taur par bulaya tha. 2014 men bharatiy tim ne dakshin afrika ke kepataun men pakistan ko hi harakar yah khitab jita tha.

samachar ko vibhinn sroton par padhen


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