ब्रह्मपुत्र नदी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।


brahmaputr nadi
brahmaputr nadi
any nam jamuna (bangladesh men), ya-loo-tsang-poo chiyang (chin men), tsang-po (tibbat men), dihn (arunachal pradesh men)
desh bharat, bangladesh, chin
rajy asam, arunachal pradesh
udgam sthal kailash manasarovar
visarjan sthal bngal ki khadi
lambaee lagabhag 2,900 kimi
adhikatam gaharaee 318 mitar
sahayak nadiyan tista, suvanashri, torsa, lohit, barak
googal manachitr brahmaputr, asam
jalavayu brahmaputr ghati ki jalavayu tibbat men paee jane vali rookhi thndi aur shushk paristhitiyon se asam ghati aur bangladesh men paee jane vali amataur par garm aur ardr paristhitiyon tak vividh hai.
any janakari bharat aur bangladesh men brahmaputr dvara vahit pani ki matra bahut adhik hai, barasat ke mausam men pani ka bahav 14,200 kyoobik mitar prati sekend anumanit hai.

brahmaputr nadi (angrezi: Brahmaputra River) tibbat, bharat tatha bangladesh men bahane vali ek aitihasik nadi hai. brahmaputr nadi ka udgam tibbat ke dakshin men manasarovar ke nikat chemayung dung namak himavah se hua hai. apane marg men yah chin ke svashasi kshetr tibbat, bharatiy rajyon, arunachal pradesh v asam aur bangladesh se hokar bahati hai. apani lnbaee ke adhikatar hisse men nadi mahattvapoorn antarik jalamarg ka kary karati hai; phir bhi tibbat ke pahadon aur bharat ke maidani ilaqon men yah nauka chalak ke yogy nahin hai. apane nichale marg men yah nadi srijan aur vinash, donon hi karati hai. sath hi yah badi matra men upajaoo jalodh mitti jama karati hai. parntu aksar vinashakari badh lane vali siddh hoti hai.

brahmaputr ke any nam

  • bangla bhasha men jamuna ke nam se jani jati hai.
  • chin men ya-loo-tsang-poo chiyang ya yaralung zaignbo jiyang kahate hai.
  • tibbat men tsang-po ya sanpo ke nam se jani jati hai.
  • madhy aur dakshin eshiya ki pramukh nadi kahate hain.
  • arunachal men dihn ke nam se jani jati hai.
  • asam men brahmaputr kahate hain.

brahmaputr ki upanadiyan

  • suvanashri
  • tista
  • torsa
  • lohit
  • barak

prakritik visheshataen

bhoo-akriti

  • brahmaputr ka udagam sthal chemayungadng himanad hai, jo dakshin-pashchimi tibbat men ma-fa-moon (mapam) jhil se lagabhag 97 kilomitar dakshin-poorv men himalay ki dhalanon ko achchhadit karata hai. koobi, angasi aur chemayungadng vahan se utpann hone vali tin mukhy dharaen hain. nadi apane udagam sthal se samanyatah poorvi disha men dakshin ki or himalay ki mukhy parvat shreni aur uttar ki or nien-ching-tang-koo-la (nyenachen) parvaton ke bich qarib 1,126 kilomitar tak pravahit hoti hai.
brahmaputr nadi
  • nadi apane poore oopari marg par samanyatah tsangapo (shodhak) ke nam se jani jati hai, aur apane marg men kee jagahon par apane chini nam se aur any sthaniy tibbati namon se bhi jani jati hai.
  • tibbat men tsang-po kuchh upanadiyon ko samahit karati hai, baen tat ki sabase mahattvapoorn upanadiyan hain, lo-katsang-poo (raga tsang-po), jo jih-ka-tse (shingatsi) ke pashchim men nadi se judati hai aur la-sa (ki), jo tibbat ki rajadhani lhasa ke nikat se bahati hai aur choo-shuee men tsangapo se judati hai. ni-yang (gyamada) nadi is nadi se tsi-la (tsela dazong) men uttar ki or judati hai. daen tat par nien-choo (nyang choo) nadi is nadi se jih-ka-tse par milati hai. tibbat men paee (pe) se gujarane ke bad, nadi achanak uttar aur poorvottar ki or mud jati hai aur gyala peri aur namacha barakha (maunt-na-moo-cho-irh--va) ke pahadon ke bich utpravan jal prapaton ki shrinkhala men ek ke bad ek badi snkari ghatiyon se rasta banati hai. usake bad, yah nadi dakshin aur dakshin-pashchim ki or mudati hai aur dihang nadi ke roop men poorvottar bharat ki asam ghati men pravesh ke lie himalay ke poorvi chhor se gujarati hai.
  • bharat men sadiya shahar ke pashchim men dihang dakshin-pashchim ki or mudati hai, isamen do pahadi jaladharaen, lohit aur dibang milati hai. sngam ke bad bngal ki khadi se qarib 1,448 kilomitar pahale nadi brahmaputr ke nam se jani jati hai. asam men isaka pat sookhe mausam ke dauran bhi nadi men khasa pani rahata hai aur barasat ke mausam men to isaka pat 8 kilomitar se bhi chauda ho jata hai. jaise-jaise yah nadi ghati ke 724 kilomitar lambe marg men apane ghumabadar ka anusaran karati hai, isamen subanasiri, kameng, bhareli, dhanasari, manas, chnpamati, saralabhnga aur snkosh nadiyon sahit kee tezi se bahati himalayi nadiyan milati hain. budhi dihang, disang, dikhi aur kopili pahadiyon aur dakshin ke pathar se ane vali mukhy upanadiyan hain.
  • bharat men dhuburi ke niche garo pahadi ke nikat dakshin men mudane ke bad brahmaputr bangladesh ke maidani ilaqe men pravesh karati hai. bangladesh men chilamari ke nikat se bahane ke pashchath isake daen tat par tista nadi isase milati hai aur usake bad yah jamuna nadi ke roop men dakshin ki or 241 kilomitar lamba marg tay karati hai.[1] gnga se sngam se pahale jamuna men baen tat se baral, ataree aur hurasagar nadiyon ka jal a milata hai aur isake baen tat par vishal dhaleshvari nadi ka nikasi marg ban jata hai. dhaleshvari ki ek upanadi budhi gnga, dhaka se age nikalakar munshignj se oopar meghana nadi men milati hai.
  • gvalndon ghat ke uttar men jamuna (brahmaputr) gnga se milati hai, jisake bad padma ke roop men unaka mishrit jal dakshin-poorv men 121 kilomitar ki doori tak bahata hai. padma, meghana nadi se sngam ke lie chandapur ke nikat pahunchati hai aur tab meghana nadi mukh aur chhote jalamargon dvara bngal ki khadi men pravesh karati hai.

jalavayu

brahmaputr ghati ki jalavayu tibbat men paee jane vali rookhi thndi aur shushk paristhitiyon se asam ghati aur bangladesh men paee jane vali amataur par garm aur ardr paristhitiyon tak vividh hai. tibbat men shit ritu atyadhik thndi hoti hai. jisamen nyoonatam tapaman 0° se. niche rahata hai. jabaki grishm ritu suhani aur ujali hoti hai. nadi ghati himalay ke manasoon kshetr men sthit hai aur yahan par varsha apekshakrit kam hai. lhasa men 400 mimi varshik varsha hoti hai. ghati ke bharatiy aur bangladeshi hisse men manasooni jalavayu kuchh had tak bhinn hai. grishm ritu samany se chhoti hoti hai aur ausat tapaman dhuburi, asam men 26° se. se dhaka men 29° se. tak rahata hai. varsha apekshakrit adhik hai aur nami varsh bhar kafi zyada rahati hai. 1,778 aur 3,810 mimi ke bich ki varshik varsha mukhyatah joon aur shuruati aktoobar mah ke bich hoti hai, march se mee tak halki barish hoti hai.

jal vigyan

  • nadi ke marg men nirntar badalav brahmaputr ke jal vigyan men mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhata hai. inamen sabase ashcharyajanak badalav tista nadi ke poorv ki or mudane aur phalasvaroop jamuna ki nee nahar ka vikas tha, jo 1787 men tista men aee apekshakrit vishal badh se utpann hua tha. tista ka pani achanak poorv ki or ek purane parityakt marg ki or mud gaya tha. jisake phalasvaroop nadi mayemenasinh zile men bahadurabad ghat ke samane brahmaputr se mili. 18vin shatabdi ke ant tak brahmaputr mayamenasinh nagar se hokar guzarati thi aur bhairab bazar ke pas meghana nadi men milati thi (vartaman men purani brahmaputr dhara ka marg). us samay jamuna nadi ka marg (ab mukhy brahmaputr dhara) konaee-jenaee namak ek chhoti-si dhara hua karata tha. jo sambhavatah purani brahmaputr se alag huee nahar thi. 1787 ki tista men aee badh ke adhik shaktishali hone par brahmaputr konaee-jenaee ke nikat ek nee nahar katane lagi aur 1810 ke bad vah dhire-dhire jamuna ke nam se gyat mukhyadhara men badal gee.
brahmaputr nadi
  • gnga aur brahmaputr ke nichale margon ke kinare aur meghana ke taton par in kriyashil nadiyon ke margon ke hatane aur badalane ke karan dharati men nirntar ksharan aur ret ka jamav hota rahata hai. joon se sitnbar ke manasoon ke mahinon men bahut bada ilaqa badh se ghir jata hai. 1787 se jamuna ne anek bar marg badala hai aur nadi kabhi bhi lagatar do varsho tak ek jagah par nahin tiki. mausam ke sath nadi men tapoo aur zamin ke ne avasadit tukade (char) prakat hokar gayab ho jate hain. bangladesh ki arthavyavastha men ye 'char' atirikt kheti ke kshetron ke roop men mahattvapoorn hain.
  • tibbat men brahmaputr ka pani saf hai, kyonki pravah ke sath bahut kam ret bahati hai, kintu jaise hi nadi asam ghati men pravesh karati hai, ret ki matra badh jati hai. barish men bhigi himalayi dhalan se niche utarane vali uttari upanadiyon men gati aur pani ki matra ke karan bahane vali mitti ki matra un upanadiyon ke muqabale zyada hai, jo dakshin ki or purane pathar ki chattanon ko par karati hai. asam men brahmaputr ki gahari dhara uttari tat ke muqabale dakshini tat par zyada rahati hai. mitti se ladi uttari upanadiyon dvara nahar ko dakshin ki or dhakelane se yah pravritti aur balavati hoti hai.
  • nadi ki ek aur mahattvapoorn jal vaigyanik khoobi isaki badh ki pravritti hai. bharat aur bangladesh men brahmaputr dvara vahit pani ki matra bahut adhik hai, barasat ke mausam men pani ka bahav 14,200 kyoobik mitar prati sekend anumanit hai. asam ghati uttar, poorv aur dakshin men pahadi shrinkhalaon se ghiri huee hai aur yahan par varsh men 2,540 mimi se adhik varsha hoti hai. jabaki bngal ke maidanon men 1,778 se 2,540 mimi ki bhari varsha tista, torasa aur jaladhaka nadiyon ke bhari bahav se badh jati hai. brahmaputr ghati men vrihad badh, 1950 ke asam bhookamp se jude bhooskhalan lagabhag prativarsh ki ghatanaen ho gee hain. isake atirikt bngal ki khadi se andar ki or ate hue ushnakatibndhiy chakravaton ke sath jvar-bhate ki laharen nadimukh kshetr men samay-samay par bhari tabahi machati hain.

vanaspati evn prani jivan

asam ka bahut bada bhoobhag sal (ral dene vale bahumooly lakadi ke ped) ke jngalon se ghira hai aur vishal badh se maidanon ke pani bhare kshetron (jhilon) aur daladalon men lambe sarakndon ke jngal ug jate hain. asam ghati ke asapas ki bastiyon men kee phalon ke ped, jaise kele, papite, am aur katahal ugae jate hain. har jagah bans ke jhuramut prachur matra men hain.

asam men daladalon ka sabase ullekhaniy pashu ek sing vala gainda hai, jo ab vishv ke doosare bhagon se lupt ho chuka hai. kazirnga rashtriy udyan ghati men gaindon aur doosare vany jiv, jinamen hathi, bagh,tendue, jngali bhainse aur hiran sammilit hain, ko ashray pradan karata hai. machhaliyon ki bahut si qismon men betaki, pabada, roohi, chital aur mrigal shamil hai. 1928 men sthapit, 360 varg kilomitar men phaila manas senchuri aind taigar rizarv projekt taigar ke antargat a gaya hai. yah abhayarany sabhi bharatiy udyanon men sabase akarshak mana jata hai. yahan par vany jivan ke sath hi samriddh pakshi-jivan bhi vishisht aur prachur hai. isi tarah vany jiv baranadi abhayarany (1980 men sthapit) aur garamapan abhayarany (1952 men sthapit) men tenduon, sheron, hathiyon, dridhalomi kharagoshon aur shoodr shookaron ko dekha ja sakata hai.

janajivan

brahmaputr ghati ke vibhinn hisson men rah rahe logon ki utpatti aur snskriti vividhatapoorn hai. himalayi parakote ke uttar men rahane vale tibbati bauddh dharm ka palan karate hain aur tibbati bhasha bolate hain. ye pashupalan men snlagn hain aur nadi se lie ge sinchaee jal se ghati ke kheton men krish karate hain.

asami log mngoliyaee-tibbati, ary aur barmi mool ka mila-jula samooh hai. unaki bhasha bangla bharat men pashchim bngal rajy aur bangladesh men boli jane vali bhasha se milati julati hai.

19vin sadi ke ant se ab tak bangladesh ke bngal maidan se pravasiyon ka bhari snkhya men lati men pravesh hua hai. jahan vah lagabhag khali zaminon, vishesh roop se nichale badh ke maidanon ko jotane ke lie bas ge hain. bngal maidan men nadi un kshetron se pravahit hoti hai, jisamen bngali saghan roop se base hue hain aur upajaoo ghati men krishi karate hain. maidan ke parvatiy kinaron par garo, khasi aur hajog namak pahadi janajatiyan nivas karati hain.

arthavyavastha

sinchaee aur badh niyntran

1954 ke bad badh niyntran yojanaen aur tatabndhon ka nirman prarambh kie ge the, bangladesh men jamuna nadi ke pashchim men dakshin tak bana brahmaputr tatabndh badh ko niyntrit karane men sahayak siddh hota hai. tista baraj pariyojana, sinchaee aur badh, donon ki suraksha yojana hai. brahmaputr ya asam ghati se bahut thodi vidyut paida ki jati hai. jabaki usaki anumanit kshamata kafi hai. akele bharat men hi yah lagabhag ho sakati hai 12,000 megavat hai. asam men kuchh jalavidyut kendr banae ge hain. jinamen se sabase ullekhaniy 'kopali haidal projekt' hai aur any ka nirman kary jari hai.

brahmaputr nadi, asam

nau-snchalan aur parivahan

tibbat men la-tjoo (lhatse dazong) ke pas nadi lagabhag 644 kilomitar ke ek naukayan yogy jalamarg se milati hai. charmavrit naukaen (pashu-charm aur bans se bani naukaen) aur badi naukaen samudr tal se 3,962 mitar ki oonchaee par isamen yatra karati hain. tsangapo par kee sthanon par jhoolate pul banae ge hain.

asam aur bangladesh ke bhari vale kshetron men bahane ke karan brahmaputr sinchaee se zyada antahsthaliy nau-snchalan ke lie mahattvapoorn hai. nadi ne pnshchim bngal aur asam ke bich purane samay se ek jalamarg bana rakha hai. yadyapi yada-kada rajanitik vivadon ke karan bangladesh jane vala yatayat ast-vyast hua hai. brahmaputr bngal ke maidan aur asam se samudr se 1,126 kilomitar ki doori par dibragadh tak naukayan yogy hai. sabhi prakar ke sthaniy jalayanon ke sath hi yntrachalit lanch aur stimar bhari bharakam kachcha mal, imarati lakadi aur kachche tel ko dhote hue asani se nadi marg men oopar aur niche chalate hain.

1962 men asam men guvahati ke pas sadak aur rel, donon ke lie saraeeghat pul banane tak brahmaputr nadi maidanon men apane poore marg par bina pul ke thi. 1987 men tezapur ke nikat ek doosara kaliya bhomaura sadak pul arambh hua. brahmaputr ko par karane ka sabase mahattvapoorn aur bangladesh men to ekamatr adhan naukaen hi hain. sadiya, dibragadh, jorahat, tezapur, guvahati, govalapara aur dhuburi asam men mukhy shahar aur nadi par karane ke sthan hain. bangladesh men mahattvapoorn sthan hain, kurigram, rahumari, chilamari, bahadurabad ghat, phoolachari, sarishabadi, jagannathagnj ghat, nagarabadi, siragnj aur goundo ghat, antim rel bindu bahadurabad ghat, phoolachari, jagannathagnj ghat, sirajagnj aur govalndo ghat par sthit hai.

adhyayan aur anveshan

brahmaputr ka oopari marg 18vin shatabdi men hi khoj liya gaya tha. halanki 19vin shatabdi tak yah lagabhag agyat hi tha. asam men 1886 men bharatiy sarvekshak kinthoop (1884 men prativedit) aur je.ef. nidhaim ki khoj ne tsangpo nadi ko brahmaputr ke oopari marg ke roop men sthapit kiya. 20vin shatabdi ke pratham chaturthansh men kee british abhiyanon ne tsangpo ki dhara ke pratikool jakar tibbat men jih-ka-tse tak nadi ke pahadi darron ki khoj ki.

snskritiyon aur sabhyataon ke milan ki gavah

brahmaputr nadi vibhinn snskritiyon aur sabhyataon ke samanvay ka jinda misal bhi hai. vikhyat gayak daau. bhoopen hajarika ke git ki in pnktiyon men mahabahu brahmaputr ki gaharaee ko mahasoos kiya ja sakata hai - mahabahu brahmaputr, mahamilanar tirth koto jug dhari, aise prakasi samanvayar tirth (o mahabahu brahmaputr, mahamilan ka tirth, kitane yugon se vyakt karate rahe samanvay ka arth) lokagiton ke alava brahmaputr par n jane kitane git likhe ge hain aur ab bhi likhe ja rahe hain. sirph bhoopen da ne is par kam se kam darjan bhar giton ko avaj di hai. brahmaputr asamiya rachanakaron ka pramukh patr raha hai. chitrakaron ke lie akarshak vishay. navikon ke lie jivan ki gati hai to machhuaron ke lie jindagi. poorvottar men pravesh karane ka sabase purana rasta. jab yatayat ka any koee sadhan nahin tha, tab isi ke sahare poore desh ka snbndh poorvottar ke sath tha.

brahmaputr sirph ek nadi nahin hai. yah ek darshan hai-samanvay ka. isake taton par kee sabhyataon aur snskritiyon ka milan hua hai. ary-anary, mngol-tibbati, barmi-dravid, mugal-ahom snskritiyon ki takarahat aur milan ka gavah yah brahmaputr raha hai. jis tarah anek nadiyan isamen samahit hokar age badhi hain, usi tarah kee snskritiyon ne milakar ek alag snskriti ka gathan kiya hai. brahmaputr poorvottar ki, asam ki pahachan hai, jivan hai aur snskriti bhi. asam ka jivan to isi par nirbhar hai. asamiya samaj, sabhyata aur snskriti par isaka prabhav yugon-yugon se prachalit lokakathaon aur lokagiton men dekha ja sakata hai. udaharan ke lie ek asamiya lokagit ko dekha ja sakata hai-

brahmaputr kano te, barahamookhari joopi, ami khara lora jaee
ootoobaee niniba, brahmaputr devata, tamol di manota naee.

(brahmaputr ke kinare hain barahamoothari ke ped, jahan ham jalavan lane jate hain. ise nigal mat lena, brahmaputr dev! hamari kshamata to tumhen kachchi supadi arpan karane tak ki bhi nahin hai)[2]

eshiya ki sabase lnbi nadi

brahmaputr bharat hi nahin balki eshiya ki sabase lnbi nadi hai. yadi ise deshon ke adhar par vibhajit karen to tibbat men isaki lnbaee 1625 kilomitar hai, bharat men 918 kilomitar aur bangladesh men 363 kilomitar lnbi hai yani [[bngal ki khadi]] men samane se pahale yah karib tin hazar kilomitar ka lnba saphar tay kar chuki hoti hai. is dauran anek nadiyan aur unaki up-nadiyan akar isamen sama jati hain. har nadi ki apani kahani hai aur unake kinare basi janajatiyon ki apani snskriti hai. yah bhale hi tibbat se nikalakar bharat ke arunachal pradesh ke raste asam ko uttar par aur dakshin par men vibhajit karati huee pashchim bngal ke raste sikkim ki pahadiyon ko chhookar tista se milane ke bad bangladesh men jakar sagar men sama jati hai lekin isake pahale yah meghalay ki garo pahadiyon ka charan sparsh karati hai. is kram men arunachal pradesh, nagalaind, meghalay, bhootan, pashchim bngal aur sikkim ke pahadon se nikali any anek nadiyan isamen samahit ho jati hain. kisi nadi ka pani lal hota hai to kisi ka nila, koee matamaila to koee shvet. yah sabhi ko unake mool rng men svikar kar apane rng men rng leti hai. udar bahmaputr kisi ki upeksha nahin karati. nadi chhoti ho ya badi, sabhi ko sath lekar age badhati jati hai. bhale hi kee nadiyan kafi door tak apani alag pahachan banae rakhane men saksham hoti hain ya brahmaputr ke samanantar chalane ka upakram karati hain, yah phir brahmaputr ko angikar karane men sharmati huee age badhati hai lekin kitani door tak chalega yah lukachhipi ka khel. ant men unhen akar samarpan kar dena padata hai aur usi kram men badam ke akar ke kee nadi dvip (sthaniy bhasha men chapari) bahmaputr ki chhati par ug ate hain. phir manasoon ate hi adhikansh dvipon ko apane sine se laga leti hai. brahmaputr aur luit ke bich isi tarah ke khel men taja pani ka sabase bada nadi dvip-majuli ban gaya. yah dvip har manasoon men banate-bigadate hain. ek dvip vilin hota hai to doosara ug jata hai. kahin par nadiyon ka sngam parilakshit hota hai to kahin par yah milan gupt tarike se hota hai. yah sngam kisi abadi vale ilake men hota hai to kahin ghane jngalon ke bich. brahmaputr men samane vale asnkhy nalon ki ginati to asnbhav hai. sabase khas bat yah hai ki isake donon or pahadiyon ki lnbi shrrinkhalaen hain.[2]

samachar

budhavar, 24 agast, 2011

chin ne khoja brahmaputr-sindhu ka udgam sthal
chin ke vaigyanikon ne brahmaputr aur sindhu nadi ke udgam sthal ka pata laga liya hai. brahmaputr nadi par bandh banane samet tibbat men kee jal pariyojanaon ko anjam dene ke lie taiyar baithe chini vaigyanikon ne in nadiyon ke marg ki lnbaee ka vyapak upagrah adhyayan poora karane ki bat bhi kahi hai.
brahmaputr nadi
chainij ekedami aauph sainsej (siees) ke vaigyanikon ne yah adhyayan kiya hai. brahmaputr ke marg ka upagrah se li gee tasviron ka vishleshan kar vaigyanikon ne usake poore marg ka adhyayan kiya. isi tarah bharat-pakistan se bahane vali sindhu aur myanmar ke raste bahane vali salavin aur irravadi ke bahav ke bare men bhi poora vivaran jutaya gaya. siees ki ikaee instityoot aauph rimot sensing eplikeshns ke shodhakarta liyoo shaochuang ne shinhua snvad samiti ko yah janakari di.

unhonne bataya ki isase pahale in char nadiyon ke udgam ke snbndh men koee spasht janakari nahin thi. itana hi nahin inaki lnbaee aur kshetr ko lekar bhi bhram bana hua tha. is kary men prakritik paristhitiyon se judi kee badhaen hone aur sarvekshan ki takanik simit hone ke karan bhram ki sthiti bani huee thi.

samachar ko vibhinn sroton par padhen


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. gayabnda ke dakshin men purani brahmaputr mukhy dhara ka bayan tat chhodati hai aur jamalapur aur mayamenasinh ke nikat se bahakar bhairab bazar ke nikat meghana nadi men milati hai.
  2. 2.0 2.1 snskritiyon ke milan ki gavah rahi hain brahmaputr nadi (hindi) (html) veb duniya hindi. abhigaman tithi: 4 faravari, 2016.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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