बंगाल (आज़ादी से पूर्व)  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

12vin shatabdi ke antim dashak men 'ikhtiyaruddin muhammad bin bakhtiyar khilaji' ne bngal ko dilli saltanat men milaya. bich men bngal ke svatntr hone par balaban ne ise punah dilli saltanat ke adhin kiya. balaban ke uparant usake putr bugara khan ne bngal ko svatntr ghoshit kar liya. gayasuddin tugalaq ne bngal ko tin bhagon- ‘lakhanauti[1], ‘sonaraganv’ [2] tatha ‘sataganv’[3] men vibhajit kiya. muhammad bin tugalaq ke antim dinon men fakharuddin ke vidroh ke karan bngal ek bar punah svatntr ho gaya. 1345 ee. men haji iliyas bngal ke vibhajan ko samapt kar 'shamsuddin iliyas shah' ke nam se bngal ka shasak bana.

iliyasashah (1342-1357 ee.)

apane shasanakal men isane 'tirahut' tatha udisa par akraman kar use bngal men mila liya. firozashah tugalaq ne iliyasashah ke viruddh abhiyan kiya, kintu asaphal raha. usane sonaraganv tatha lakhanauti par bhi akraman kiya aur us par adhikar kar liya. 1357 ee. men usaki mrityu ho gayi. isaki mrityu ke bad sikandarashah shasak bana.

sikandarashah (1357-1398 ee.)

isake shasanakal men firozashah tugalaq ne bngal par akraman kiya, kintu asaphal raha. usane pandua men ‘adina masjid’ ka nirman karavaya.

gayasuddin ajamashah(1389-1409 ee.)

sikandar shah ke bad agale shasak ke roop men gayasuddin ajamashah bngal ka shasak bana. vah apani nyay priyata ke lie prasiddh tha. prasiddh farasi kavi ‘haphij shiraji’ evn anek viddhano se usaka sampark tha. usane apane samakalin chin ke ‘migavnsh’ ke samrat 'chuee-li' se kootanitik sambandh qayam kie. 1409 ee. men chini samrat ne sultan gayasuddin se bauddh bhikshuon ko chin bhejane ka prarthana ki thi. 1410 ee. men usaki mrityu ho gee.

1410 ee. men gayasuddin ki hatya ke bad usake kamazor uttaradhikariyon ko uthakar ek hindoo zamindar raja ganesh ne 1415 ee. me bngal ki gaddi par adhikar kar liya. farasi pandulipiyon men raja ganesh ko ‘kes’ nam se jana jata hai. usane ‘danujamardan’ ki upadhi dharan ki. 1418 ee. me usaki mrityu ho gee. isi varsh pandua aur chataganv se ‘chandi ke upasak mahendradev’ namak raja dvara bngala-aksharankit sikke chalaye gaye. sambhavatah vah ganesh ka chhota beta tha. raja ganesh ek hindoo shasak tha. isalie vahan ke soofi santon aur ulemaon ne usaka virodh kiya tha. is arajakata ki sthiti se nipatane ke lie ganesh ke putr jadusen ko islam dharm men dikshit kar 'jalaluddin' ke nam se bngal ka shasak banaya gaya. 1431 ee. men jalaluddin ki mrityu ho gayi. jalaluddin ki mrityu ke bad usaka putr shamasuddin ahamad bngal ki gaddi par baitha. shamasuddin ke shasanakal men jaunapur ke ibrahim sharki ne bngal par akraman kar diya. shamasuddin ne 1442 ee. tak shasan kiya.

nasiruddin abul mujaphphar mahamood (1442-1448 ee.)

isane bngal men 'iliyas shahi rajavnsh' ki sthapana ki. isane 1458 ee. tak shasan kiya aur gaud ko apani rajadhani banaya.

rooknaddin barabak shah (1459-74 ee.)

rooknaddin barabak shah ek yogy shasak tha. isane apane shasan kal men prasaravadi niti apanaee tatha rajy ki simaen gnga nadi ke uttar men baranar tatha dakshin men jaissor khulana tak badhaee. is niti men usane abisiniyaee sainikon ki sahayata prapt ki 1794 ee. men abisiniya ke senapati saifuddin firoj ne bngal ki satta par adhikar kar liya. ruknuddin barabak ke samay men maladhar basu ne 'shrikrishn vijay' namak granth likha. barabak shah ne maladhar basu ko gunaraj khan ki upadhi se sammanit kiya.

alauddin husainashah (1493-1519 ee.)

bngal ke amiron ne 1493 ee. men muslim sultanon men yogy alauddin husainashah ko bngal ki gaddi par baithaya. usane apani rajadhani ko pandua se gaud sthanantarit kiya. hinduo ko oonche padon jaise- vazir, mukhy chikitsak, mukhy angarakshak evn takasal ke mukhy adhikari ke pad par niyukt kiya gaya. vah ek dharm nirapeksh shasak tha. chaitany mahaprabhu alauddin ke samakalin the. usane ‘satyapir’ namak andolan ki shuruat ki. usake samay men bngali sahity kafi vikasit hua. do vidvanh vaishnav bhaee roop evn sanatan usake pramukh adhikari the. ahomo ke sahayog se sultan kamataraja ko nasht kiya. hindoo log use krishn avatar manate the. usane ‘nripati tilak’ evn ‘jagatabhooshan’ adi ki upadhiyan dharan kin. 1518 ee. men usaki mrityu ho gee.

nusaratashah (1519-1532 ee.)

alauddin ka putr nasib khan nasiruddin nusarat shah ki upadhi se sinhasan par baitha. usake samay men ‘mahabharat’ ka bangla bhasha men anuvad karavaya gaya. usane gaud men bada sona evn qadam rasool masjid ka nirman karavaya. 1533 ee. men nusaratashah ki mrityu ho gee. is vnsh ke antim shasak gayasuddin mahamoodashah ko 1538 ee. men sherashah ne bngal se bhagakar samast bngal par adhikar kar liya.

sthapaty kala men yogadan

bngal shaili ke antargat nirmit adhikansh imaraton men patthar ke sthan par eent ka prayog kiya gaya hai. bngali sthapaty kala ki kuchh mahattvapoorn visheshataen nimnalikhit thin-

  1. chhote-chhote khambhon par nukili meharaben banavaee gee thin.
  2. bans ki imaraton se li gayi hindoo mandiron ki lahariyedar karnison ki paramparagat shaili ka musalamanon dvara anukaran kiya gaya.
  3. kamal jaise sundar khudaee ke hindoo sajavat ke pratik chihyen ko apanaya gaya.

is samay men nirmit kuchh mahattvapoorn imaraten nimnalikhit hain-

  • pandua ki adina masjid- is masjid ka nirman 1364 ee.men sultan sikandarashah ne karavaya tha. is masjid ke namaz ada karane vale bhavan ka mukhy kaksh sarvadhik alnkrit hai. masjid ki pichhali divar aur uttar hal se sate vargakar kaksh men sultan sikandarashah ki qabr hai. is masjid ko bngal men snsar ke ashcharyon men gina jata hai. is vishal masjid men hazaron log ek sath namaz padh sakate the.
  • jalaluddin muhammadashah ka maqabara- pandua men sthit is maqabare ko ‘lakkhi maqabare’ ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. hindoo bhavanon ki eento se nirmit yah maqabara ek gumbad ki vargakar imarat hai. isamen meharab aur dharan ka bakhoobi istemal kiya gaya hai.
  • dakhil daravaza gaud men sthit yah daravaza bharatiy shaili ke antargat eent se nirmit imaraton men sarvotkrit mana jata hai. isaka nirman 1465 ee. men hua. gaud men sthit firoj minir jisame bngali shaili ke antargat nukili chhat ka prayog kiya gaya hai, 5 mnjilon ki 84 phit oonchi minar hai. kuchh any nirman kary is prakar hain- gaud sthit ‘chhota sona masjid’ (1510 ee.), gaud ki ‘tantipura masjid’ (1475 ee.), bada sona masjid (1526 ee.), lotan masjid (1480 ee.), darasavari masjid (1480 ee.), qadam rasool masjid, ‘chakakatti masjid’ adi. chhota sona masjid ka nirman husainashah ke shasan kal men vali muhammad ne karaya tha. bada sona masjid evn qadam rasool masjid ka nirman kary nusaratashah dvara karavaya gaya. choonki bngal men patthar ka abhav tha, isalie yahan ki adhikansh imaraton ka nirman eenton se kiya gaya. yahi karan tha ki, in imaraton ki ayu bahut kam rahi.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. uttari bngal
  2. poorvi bngal
  3. dakshini bngal

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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