गौड़  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gaud bngal ka prachin samany nam hai. skndapuran ke anusar gaud desh ki sthiti vngadesh se lekar bhuvanesh[1] tak thi- 'vngadeshn samarabhy bhuvaneshantag: shive, gaud desh: samakhyat: sarvavidya visharad:.' padm puran[2] men gaud naresh narasinh ka nam aya hai. abhilekhon men gaud desh ka sarvapratham ullekh 553 ee. ke haraha abhilekh men hai jisamen eeshvar varman maukhari ki gaudadesh par vijay ka ullekh hai. banabhatt ne gaudanaresh shashank ka varnan kiya hai jisane harshavardhan ke jyeshth bhrata rajyavardhan ka vadh kiya tha. madhaeenagar ke tamrapatt lekh se soochit hota hai ki gaudanaresh lakshmanasen ka kaling tak prabhutv tha. gaud desh ke nam par snskrit kavy ki purushavritti ka nam hi gaudi pad gaya tha. kayasthon adi ki kee jatiyan aj bhi gaud kahalati hai. kuchh vidvanon ka mat hai ki gud ke vyapar ka kendr hone ke karan hi is pradesh ka nam gaud ho gaya tha.[3]

any nam

prachin 'lakshmanavati' ya 'lakhanauti' (bngal) ka madhyayugin nam tha. kaha jata hai ki is pradesh se prachur matra men gud ka niryat hone ke karan hi ise 'gaud' kaha jata tha. banabhatt ke 'harshacharit' men gaud ke naresh shashank ka ullekh milata hai. aj is madhyayugin sundar nagar ke matr khndahar hi shesh hain.

itihas

navin-dasavin shatabdi men gaud par pal vnsh ke rajaon ka adhipaty tha. sen vnsh ke shasanakal (12vin shatabdi) men bngal ki rajadhani lakhanauti thi. mugal shasakon men humayoon ne bngal ki rajadhani gaud par kuchh varshon ke lie adhikar kar liya tha, parntu afaganon ne turnt hi use vahan se bahar nikal diya. san 1576 ee. men do varsh ke sngharshapoorn ghatana-chakr ke pashchath bngal mugal samrajy ka ek sooba bana diya gaya.

rajadhani parivartan

muslimon ke bngal par adhipaty hone ke bad is soobe ki rajadhani kabhi gaud aur kabhi pandua men rahi. pandua gaud se 20 mil (lagabhag 32 ki.mi.) door hai. aj is madhyayugin bhavy nagar ke keval khndahar hi shesh hain. inamen anek hindoo mndiron tatha moortiyon ke avashesh hain, jinaka masajidon ke nirman men prayog kiya tha. 1575 ee. men badashah akabar ke soobedar ne gaud ke saundary se akrisht hokar rajadhani pandua se hatakar gaud men banaee, jisake phalasvaroop gaud men ek baragi bahut bhidabhad ho gee thi.

mahamari ka prakop

apani sampannata ke thode hi dinon bad gaud men mahamari ka bhi prakop hua, jisase gaud ki janasnkhya ko bhari kshati pahunchi. bahut se nivasi gaud chhodakar bhag ge. pandua men bhi mahamari ka prakop phaila aur bngal ke ye donon pramukh nagar jahan bhavy imaraten khadi hueen thin tatha charon or vyast nar-nariyon ka kolahal rahata tha, is mahamari ke pashchath shmashanavath dikhalaee padane lage aur unaki sadakon par ab ghas ug aee aur din dahade hinsak pashu ghoomane lage. pandua se gaud jane vali sadak par ab ghane jngal ban ge the. tatpashchath pray: 300 varshon tak bngal ki shanadar nagari gaud khndaharon ke roop men ghane jngalon ke bich chhipi rahi. ab kuchh hi varsh pahale vahan ke prachin vaibhav ko khudaee dvara prakash men lane ka prayatn kiya gaya hai.

sthapaty

lakhanauti men 9vin-10vin shati ee. men pal rajaon ka adhipaty tha tatha 12vin shati tak sen nareshon ka. is kal men yahan anek hindoo mndir bane, jinhen gaud ke paravarti muslim badashahon ne nasht-bhrasht kar diya. gaud ki muslim kalin imaraton ke bahut se avashesh ab bhi yahan hain. inaki mukhy visheshata inaki thos banavat tatha vishalata hai. sona masajid prachin mndiron ki samagri se bani hai. yah yahan ke jirn kile ke andar sthit hai. isaki nirman-tithi 1526 ee. hai. isake atirikt 1530 ee. men bani nusaratashah ki masajid bhi kala ki drishti se ullekhaniy hai.

any prasng

ek any prasnganusar gaud bngal ka ek prachin samany nam tha. 'gaud' ya 'gaudapur' ka ullekh panini[4] ne bhi men kiya hai. kaha jata hai ki 'pundr' ya 'paundr'[5] desh se gud ka prachur matra men niryat is pradesh dvara hone ke karan hi ise gaud kaha jata tha. gaudapur ko gaudabhrityapur bhi kaha gaya hai. ban ke 'harshacharit' men gaud (bngal) ke naresh shashank ka ullekh hai. snskrit kavy ki ek vritti ka nam bhi gaudi hai, jo gaud desh se hi snbndhit hai. isake atirikt kee jatiyon ko bhi gaud nam se abhihit kiya jata tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. bhuvaneshvar, udisa
  2. padmapuran (189- 2)
  3. gaud (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 19 julaee, 2014.
  4. panini 6, 2, 200
  5. paundr=paunda ya ganna

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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