अभिलेख  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ashok ka kndhar abhilekh

kisi vishesh mahatv athava prayojan ke lekh ko abhilekh kaha jata hai. yah samany vyavaharik lekhon se bhinn hota hai. prastar, dhatu athava kisi any kathor aur sthayi padarth par vigypti, prachar, smriti adi ke lie utkirn lekhon ki ganana pray: abhilekh ke antargat hoti hai. kagaj, kapade, patte adi komal padarthon par masi athava any kisi rng se ankit lekh hastalekh ke antargat ate hain. kade patton (tadapatradi) par lauhashalaka se khachit lekh abhilekh tatha hastalekh ke biche men rakhe ja sakate hain. mitti ki takhtiyon tatha bartanon aur divaron par utkhachit lekh abhilekh ki sima men ate hain. samanyat: kisi abhilekh ki mukhy pahachan usaka mahatv aur usake madhyam ka sthayitv hai.

abhilekhan samagri aur yantrik upakaran

abhilekhan ke lie kade madhyam ki avashyakata hoti thi, isalie patthar, dhatu, eent, mitti ki takhti, kashth, tadapatr ka upayog kiya jata tha, yadyapi antim do ki ayu adhik nahin hoti thi. bharat, sumer, misr, yoonan, itali adi sabhi prachin deshon men patthar ka upayog kiya gaya. ashok ne to apane stnbhalekh men spasht likha hai ki vah apane dharmalekh ke lie prastar ka prayog isalie kar raha tha ki ve chirasthayi ho saken. kintu isake bahut poorv adim manushy ne apane guhajivan men hi guha ki divaron par apane chihnon ko sthayi banaya tha. bharat men prastar ka upayog abhilekhan ke lie kee prakar se hua hai-guha ki divaren, patthar ki chattanen (chikani aur kabhi kabhi khuradari), stnbh, shilakhnd, moortiyon ki pith athava charanapith, prastarabhand athava prastaramnjoosha ke kinare ya dhakkan, patthar ki takhtiyan, mudra, kavach adi, mndir ki divaren, stnbh, pharsh adi. misr men abhilekh ke lie bahut hi kathor patthar ka upayog kiya jata tha. yoonan men pray: sngamaramar ka upayog hota tha. yadyapi mausam ke prabhav se is par utkirn lekh ghis jate the. visheshakar, sumer, babul, krit adi men mitti ki takhtiyon ka adhik upayog hota tha. bharat men bhi abhilekh ke lie eetn ka prayog ygy tatha mndir ke snbndh men hua hai. dhatuon men sona, chandi, tanba, pital, kansa, loha, jaste ka upayog bhi kiya jata tha. bharat men tamrapatr adhikata se pae jate hain. kath ka upayog bhi hua hai, kintu isake udaharan misr ke atirikt any kahin avashisht nahin hai. tadapatr ke udaharan bhi bahut prachin nahin milate.

abhilekh men akshar athava chihnon ki khudaee ke lie roonkhani, chheni, hathaude, (nukile), lauhashalaka athava lauhavartika adi ka upayog hota tha. abhilekh taiyar karane ke lie vyavasayik karigar hote the. sadharan hastalekh taiyar karane valon ko lekhak, lipikar, divir, kayasth, karan, karnik, karrinanh‌, adi kahate the; abhilekh taiyar karane valon ki sngya shilpon, roopakar, shilakoot adi hoti thi. prarnbhik abhilekh bahut sundar nahin hote the, parntu dhire dhire sthayitv aur akarshan ki drishti se bahut sundar aur alnkrit akshar likhe jane lage aur abhilekh ki kee shailiyan vikasit huee. aksharon ki akriti aur shailiyon se abhilekhon ke tithikram ko nishchit karane men sahayata milati hai.

chitr, pratikriti pratik tatha akshar

tithikram men abhilekhon men inaka upayog kiya gaya hai.[1] vibhinn deshon men vibhinn lipiyon aur aksharon ka prayog kiya gaya hai. inamen chitratmak, bhavatmak aur dhvanyatmak sabhi prakar ki lipiyan hai. dhvanyatmak lipiyon men bhi ankon ke lie jin chihnon ka prayog kiya jata hai ve dhvanyatmak nahin hain. brahmi aur devanagari donon ke prachin aur arvachin ank 1 se 9 tak dhvanyatmak nahin hain. prachin aksharatmak tatha chitratmak ankon ki bhi yahi avastha hai. sami, yoonani aur roman lipiyon ke bhi ank ghvanyatmak nahin hain. yoonani men ankon ke pratham akshar hi ankon ke lie prayukt hote the, jaisa em (M), di (D), si (C), vi (V, aur ai (I) ka prayog ab tak 1000, 500, 100, 50, 10 (V ko hi ulata jodakar), 5 aur 1 ke lie hota hai. isi prakar viram aur ganit ke bahut se chihn ghvanyatmak nahin hote.

lekhanapaddhati

lekhanapaddhati men sabase pahale prashn ata hai vyaktigat aksharon ki disha ka. atynt prachin kal se ab tak aksharon ki banavat aur ankan men pray: ekaroopata paee jati hai. akshar oopar se niche lnbavath‌ khachit athava utkirn hote hain manon kisi kalpit rekha se ve latakate hon.
abhilekh
adhunik kannad ke ade akshar bhi usi kalpit rekha ke niche snjoe jate hain. aksharon ka grnthan pray: ek sidhi adharavath‌ rekha ke oopar hota hai. is paddhati ke apavad chini aur japani abhilekh hain, jinamen pnktiyan lnbavath‌ oopar se niche likhi jati hain. lekhan paddhati ka doosara prashn hai lekhan ki disha. bharopiy lipiyan ki lekhanadisha baen se daen tatha sami aur hami lipiyon ki daen se baen milati hai. kuchh prachin yoonani abhilekhon aur bahut thode bharatiy abhilekhon men lekhanadisha gomootrika sadrish (pahali pnkti men daen se baen, doosari pnkti men baen se daen aur age kramash: is prakar) paee jati hai. chini aur japani abhilekhon men pnktiyan oopar se niche aur lekhanadisha daen se baen hoti hai. prarnbhik kal men aksharon ke oopar ki rekha kalpanik thi athava kisi asthayi padarth se likhakar mita di jati thi. age chalakar vah vastavik ho gee, yadyapi yoonani aur roman abhilekhon men vah aksharon ke niche a gee.

bharatiy aksharon men kramash: shirorekha banane ki pratha chal gee jo kalpit (pun: vastavik) rekha par banaee jati thi. prachin abhilekhon men ek shabd ke aksharon ka samoohikaran aur shabdon ke prithakkaran par dhyan kam diya jata tha, jahan tak ki vakyon ko alag karane ke lie bhi kisi chihn ka prayog nahin hota tha jin bhashaon ka vyakaran niyamit tha unake abhilekh padhane aur samajhane men kathinaee nahin hoti, shesh men kathinaee uthani padati hai. viram chihnon ka prayog bhi pichhe chalakar prachalit hua. bharatiy abhilekhon men poorn viram ke lie dndavath‌ rekha (.), do rekha (..) athava shirorekha ke lie dndavath‌ rekha (T) ka prayog hota tha. kisi abhilekh ke ant men tin dndavath‌ dekhaon (...) ka bhi prayog hota tha. sami tatha yooropiy abhilekhon men vaky ke ant men ek vindu (.), do bindu (:) athava shoony (0) lagane ki pratha thi. isi prakar abhilekhon men prishthikaran , snshodhan,snkshiptikaran tatha chhoot mangalik chihnon ka vikas hua. pray: sabhi deshon men mangalik chihnon, pratikon aur alnkaranon ka prayog abhilekhon men hota tha. bharat men svastik, soory, chndr, triratn, buddhamngal, chaity, bodhivriksh, dharmachakr, vritt, oumh‌ ka alnkarik roop, shnkh, pady, nndi, matsy, tara, shastr, kavach adi is prayojan ke lie kam men ate the. sami deshon men chndr aur tara, eesaee deshon men svastik, kras adi mangalik chihn prayukt hote the. abhilekh ke oopar, niche ya any kisi upayukt sthan par lanchhan athava ank pramanikata ke lie lagae jate the.

abhilekh ke prakar

yadi atynt prachin kal se lekar adhunik kal tak ke abhilekhon ka vargikaran kiya jae to unake prakar is bhanti pae jate hain: (1) vyaparik tatha vyavaharik, (2) abhicharik (jadoo tona se snbaddh), (3) dharmik aur karmakandiy, (4) upadeshatmak athava naitik, (5) samarpan tatha chadhava snbndhi, (6) dan snbndhi, (7) prashasakiy, (8) prashastiparak, (9) smarak tatha (10) sahityik.

vyaparik tatha vyavaharik

barahavin shatabdi ka abhilekh

bharat, pashchimi eshiya, misr, krit, yoonan adi sabhi prachin deshon men vyapariyon ki mudraon par aur unake lekhe jokhe-se snbndh rakhane vale abhilekh pae ge hain. prachin bharat ke nigamon aur shreniyon ki mudraen abhilekhankit hoti thin aur ve vyaparik evn vyavaharik karyo ke lie bhi sthayi aur kadi samagri ka upayog karati thin. kabhi-kabhi to any prakar ke abhilekhon men bhi vyaparik vigyapan paya jata hai. kumaragupt tatha bndhuvarmankalin malav[2] ke abhilekh men vahan ke tntuvayon (julahon) ke kapadon ka vigyapan is prakar diya hua hai: taruny aur saundary se yukt, suvarnahar, tanbool, pushp adi se sushobhit stri tab tak apane priyatam se milane nahin jati, jab tak ki vah dashapur ke bane pattamay (resham) vastron ke jode ko nahin dharan karati. is prakar sparsh karane men komal, vibhinn rngon se chitrit, nayanabhiram reshami vastron se snpoorn prithvital alnkrit hai.

abhicharak

sindhu ghati (hadappa aur mohan jodado) men prapt bahut si takhtiyon par abhicharik yntr hain. inamen vibhinn pashuon dvara pratinihit snbhavat: devataon ki stutiyan hain. pray: kavachon par ye abhilekh milate hain. sumer, mistr, yoonan adi men bhi abhicharik abhilekh pae jate hain.

dharmik aur karmakandiy

mndir, ygy, havan, poojapath adi se snbndh rakhane vale bahusnkhyak abhilekh pae jate hain. inamen dharmik vidhinishedh, havan prakriya, poojapaddhati, havan tatha pooja ki samagri, ygy dakshina adi ka ullekh milata hai. ashok ne to apane abhilekhon ko 'dharmalipi' hi kaha hai jinamen bauddh dharm ke sarvamany tattvon ka vivaran hai. yoonani abhilekhon men mndir, karmakand, purohit tatha dharmik snghon ke bare men prachur samagri milati hai.

upadeshatmak

dharmik prayojan ki tarah abhilekhon ka naitik upayog bhi hota tha. ashok ke dharmalekhon men upadeshatmak ansh bahut adhik matra men paya jata hai. besanagar (vidisha) ke chhote garoodadhvaj abhilekh men bhi upadesh hai: tin amrit pad hain. yadi inaka sundar anushthan ho to ye svarg ko prapt karate hain. ye hain--dam, tyag aur apramad. chin aur yoonan men bhi upadeshatmak abhilekh milate hain.

hari-vishnu abhilekh

samarpan athava chadhava

dharmik sthapatyon, vidhiyon aur any prakar ki snpati ka kisi devata athava dharmik snsthan ko sthayi roop se samarpan ankit karane ke lie is prakar ke abhilekh prastut kie jate the.

dan snbndhi

prachin dharmik aur naitik jivan men dan ka bahut ooncha sthan tha. pratyek desh aur dharm men dan ko snstha ka roop prapt tha. sthayi dan ko ankit karane ke lie pahale patthar aur phir tamrapatr ka prayog hota tha.

prashasakiy

prashasakiy abhilekhon men vidhi (qanoon), niyam, rajagya, jayapatr, rajaon aur rajapurushon ke patr, rajakiy lekhajokha, kosh ke prakar aur vivaran, samnton se prapt kar evn upahar, rajakiy samman aur shishtachar, aitihasik ghatanaon ka ullekh, sadhadhilekh adi ki ganana hai. patthar ke stnbh par likhi huee babuli samrath hammurabi ki vidhisnhita prasiddh hai. ashok ke dharmalekhon men usaka rajakiy shasan (agya) bhara pada hai.

prashasti

ashok ka rumminadeee abhilekh

rajaon dvara vijayon aur kirti ka varnan sthayi roop se shilakhndon aur prastarastnbhon par likhavane ki pratha bahut prachalit rahi hai. bharat men rajaon ki digvijay ke varnan badi snkhya men pae jate hain. misri samrath ramasez tritiy, eerani samrath dara, bharatiy rajaon men kharavel, gautamiputr shatakarni, roodradaman, samudragupt, chndragupt dvitiy, skndagupt, dvitiy pulakeshinh‌ adi ki prashastiyan paee jati hain.

smarak

choonki abhilekhon ka mukhy kary ankan ko sthayi banana tha, at: ghatanaon, vyaktiyon tatha kritiyon ke smarakaroop men aganit abhilekh pae ge hain.

sahityik

abhilekhon men sarvamany dharmik grnthon athava unake avataran aur kabhi kabhi samooche navin, kavy, natak adi grnth abhilikhit pae jate hain.

abhilekh siddhant

abhilekh taiyar karane ke lie samany roop ke kuchh siddhant aur niyam prachalit the. abhilekh ka prarnbh kisi dharmik athava mangalik chihn ya shabd se kiya jata tha. isake pashchath‌ kisi isht devata ki stuti athava amntran hota tha. tatpashchath‌ ashirvadatmak vaky ata tha. pun: dan athava kirtivishesh ki prashnsa hoti thi. phir dan athava kirti bhng karane vale ki ninda ki jati thi. ant men upasnhar hota tha. abhilekh ke ant men lekhak aur utkirn karane vale ka nam aur mangalik chihn hota tha. bharat men yah niyam pray: sarvaprachalit tha. any deshon men in siddhanton ke palan men dridhata nahin thi.

tithikram aur snvath‌ ka prayog

abhilekhon men tithi aur snvath‌ likhane ki pratha dhire-dhire prachalit huee. prarnbh men bharat men sthayi evn kramabaddh snvaton ke abhav men rajaon ke shasanavarsh se tithi gini jati thi. phir katipay mahattvakankshi rajaon aur shasakon ne apani kirti sthayi karane ke lie apane padasin hone ke samay se snvath‌ chalaya jo unake bad bhi prachalit raha. phir mahanh‌ ghatanaon aur dharmapravarttakon evn snt mahatmaon ke janm athava nidhanakal se bhi snvaton ka pravartan hua. phalasvaroop abhilekhon men inaka prayog hone laga. tithiyon ke ankan men din, var, paksh, mas aur snvath‌ ka ullekh paya jata hai.

aitihasik abhilekh

tithikram se prachin abhilekh misr ki chitralipi ke mane jate hain. phir prachin irak ke abhilekhon ka sthan hai, jo pahale ardhachitr aur pun: irak ke abhilekhon ka sthan hai, jo pahale ardhachitralipi aur pun: kilaksharon men ankit hain. sindhughati ke abhilekh iraki abhilekhon ke pray: samakalin hain. inake pashchath‌ krit, yoonan aur rom ke abhilekhon ki ganana ki ja sakati hai. eeran ke kilakshar aur aramaee lipi ke lekh bhi prasiddh hain. chin men chitr evn bhavalipi ke lekh bahut prachin kal se pae jate hain. bharat men sindhughati ke paravarti abhilekhon ka mote taur par nimnalikhit prakar se vargikaran kiya ja sakata hai-

ashok ka shilalekh, dhauli
  1. mauryapoorv
  2. maury
  3. shung
  4. bharat-bakhtri
  5. shak
  6. kushan
  7. andhr-shatavahan
  8. gupt
  9. madhyakalin (isamen vividh pradeshik shailiyon ka samavesh hai) tatha
  10. adhunik

bharatiy shaili ke abhilekh snpoorn dakshin-poorv eshiya men pae jate hain.

ashok ke abhilekh

maury samrat ashok ke itihas ki sampoorn janakari usake abhilekhon se milati hai. yah mana jata hai ki, ashok ko abhilekhon ki prerana eeran ke shasak 'deriyas' se mili thi. ashok ke abhilekhon ko tin bhagon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai- 'shilalekh', 'stambhalekh' aur 'guhalekh'. shilalekhon aur stambh lekhon ko do upashreniyon men rakha jata hai. 14 shilalekh silasilevar hain, jinako chaturdash shilalekh kaha jata hai. ye shilalekh shahabajagadhi, manasera, kalasi, giranar, sopara, dhauli aur jaugadh men mile hain. kuchh phutakar shilalekh asambaddh roop men hain aur snkshipt hain. shayad isilie unhen 'laghu shilalekh' kaha jata hai. is prakar ke shilalekh roopanath, sasaram, bairat, maski, siddhapur, jatingarameshvar aur brahmagiri men paye gaye hain.

maury kal ke shilaon tatha stnbhon par utkirn lekhon ke anushilan se ham is nishkarsh par pahunchate hain ki ashok ka dhamm vyavaharik phalamoolak (arthath phal ko drishti men rakhane vala) aur atyadhik manaviy tha. is dharm ke prachar se ashok apane samrajy ke logon men tatha bahar achchhe jivan ke adarsh ko charitarth karana chahata tha. isake lie usane jahan kuchh baten lakar bauddh dharm men sudhar kiya, vahin logon ko dharm parivartan ke lie vivash nahin kiya. vastutah usane apane shasanakal men nirantar yah prayas kiya ki praja ke sabhi vargon aur sampradayon ke bich sahamati ka adhar dhoondha jae aur samany adhar ke anusar niti apanaee jae.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. is snbndh men vistrit vivechan ke lie drn.akshar
  2. bndhuvarmankalin malav sn.529

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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