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samudragupt (335-376)
samudrgupt gupt rajavnsh ka chautha raja aur chandragupt pratham ka uttaradhikari tha. vah bharatiy itihas men sabase bade aur saphal senanayak men se ek mana jata hai. samudragupt, gupt rajavnsh ka tisara shasak tha aur usaka shasanakal bharat ke liye svarnayug ki shurooat kaha jata hai. samudragupt ek udar shasak, vir yoddha aur kala ka snrakshak tha. usaka nam java path men 'tanatrikamandaka' ke nam se prakat hai. samudragupt ke kee agraj bhaee the, phir bhi usake pita ne samudragupt ki pratibha ko dekhakar use apana uttaradhikari niyukt kiya tha. samudragupt ne apane jivan kal men kabhi bhi parajay ka svad nahin chakha. usake bare men vi. e. smith ne akalan kiya hai ki samudragupt prachin kal men bharat ka nepoliyan tha.

gupt vnsh ka uttaradhikari

chndragupt pratham ke bad samudragupt magadh ke sinhasan par baitha. chndragupt ke anek putr the. par gun aur virata men samudragupt sabase badh-chadhakar tha. lichchhavi kumari shrikumaradevi ka putr hone ke karan bhi usaka vishesh mahattv tha. chndragupt ne use hi apana uttaradhikari chuna, aur apane is nirnay ko rajyasabha bulakar sabhi sabhyon ke sammukh udghoshit kiya. yah karate hue prasannata ke karan usake sare sharir men romanch ho aya tha, aur ankhon men ansoo a ge the. usane sabake samane samudragupt ko gale lagaya, aur kaha - 'tum sachamuch ary ho, aur ab rajy ka palan karo.' is nirnay se rajyasabha men ekatr hue sab sabhyon ko prasannata huee.

grihakalah

sambhavatah chndragupt ne apane jivan kal men hi samudragupt ko rajyabhar sambhalava diya tha. prachin ary rajaon ki yahi parampara thi. chndragupt ke is nirnay se usake any putr prasann nahin hue. unhonne samudragupt ke viruddh vidroh kiya. inaka neta 'kach' tha. pratit hota hai, ki unhen apane vidroh men saphalata bhi mili. 'kach' nam ke kuchh sone ke sikke bhi upalabdh hue hain. inamen gupt kal ke any sone ki sikkon ki apeksha sone ki matra bahut kam hai. isase anuman hota hai, ki bhaiyon ki is kalah men rajyakosh ke oopar bahut bura asar pada tha, aur isilie kach ne apane sikkon men sone ki matra kam kar di thi. par kach der tak samudragupt ka muqabala nahin kar saka. samudragupt anupam vir tha. usane shighr hi bhaiyon ke is vidroh ko shant kar diya, aur pataliputr ke sinhasan par dridhata ke sath apana adhikar jama liya. kach ne ek sal ke lagabhag tak rajy kiya. kach namak gupt raja ki satta ko manane ka adhar keval ve sikke hain, jin par usaka nam 'sarvarajochchheta' visheshan ke sath diya gaya hai. anek vidvanon ka mat hai, ki kach samudragupt ka hi nam tha. ye sikke usi ke hain, aur bad men digvijay karake jab vah 'asamudrakshitish' ban gaya tha, tab usane kach ke sthan par samudragupt nam dharan kar liya tha.

digvijay

grihakalah ko shant kar samudragupt ne apane samrajy ke vistar ke lie sngharsh prarambh kiya. is vijay yatra ka varnan prayag men ashok ke maury ke prachin stambh par bade sundar dhng se utkirn hai. sabase pahale aryavart ke tin rajaon ko jitakar apane adhin kiya gaya. inake nam hain—

  1. ahichchhatr ka raja achyut,
  2. padmavati ka raja nagasen aur
  3. raja kotakulaj.

sambhavatah achyut aur nagasen bharashiv ke vnsh ke sath sambandh rakhane vo raja the. yadyapi bharashiv nagon ki shakti ka pahale hi patan ho chuka tha, par kuchh pradeshon men inake chhote-chhote raja ab bhi rajy kar rahe the. gupton ke utkarsh ke samay inhonne chndragupt pratham jaise shaktishali raja ki adhinata men 'samant' ki sthiti svikar kar li thi. par samudragupt aur usake bhaiyon ki grihakalah se labh uthakar ye ab phir se svatntr ho ge the. yahi dasha kotakul men utpann raja ki bhi thi, jisaka nam prayag ke stambh ki prashasti men mit gaya hai. 'kot' nam se ankit sikke pnjab aur dilli men upalabdh hue hai. is kul ka rajy sambhavatah isi pradesh men tha. sabase poorv samudragupt ne in tinon rajaon ko jitakar apane adhin kiya, aur in vijayon ke bad badi dhoomadham ke sath pushpapur pataliputr men punah pravesh kiya.

bharatavarsh par ekadhikar

usaka samay bharatiy itihas men `digvijay` namak vijay abhiyan ke lie prasiddh hai; samudragupt ne mathura aur padmavati ke nag rajaon ko parajit kar unake rajyon ko apane adhikar men le liya. usane vakatak rajy par vijay prapt kar usaka dakshini bhag, jisamen chedi, maharashtr rajy the, vakatak raja rudrasen ke adhikar men chhod diya tha. usane pashchim men arjunayan, malav gan aur pashchim-uttar men yaudhey, madr ganon ko apane adhin kar, saptasindhu ko par kar valhik rajy par bhi apana shasan sthapit kiya. samast bharatavarsh par ekadhikar qayam kar usane `digvijay` ki. samudr gupt ki yah vijay-gatha itihasakaron men 'prayag prashasti` ke nam se jani jati hai.

samudrgupt ki digvijay

is vijay ke bad samudr gupt ka rajy uttar men himalay, dakshin men vindhy parvat, poorv men brahmaputr nadi aur pashchim men chnbal aur yamuna nadiyon tak ho gaya tha. pashchim-uttar ke malav, yaughay, bhadraganon adi dakshin ke rajyon ko usane apane samrajy men n mila kar unhen apane adhin shasak banaya. isi prakar usane pashchim aur uttar ke videshi shak aur 'devaputr shahanushahi` kushan rajaon aur dakshin ke sinhal dvip-vasiyon se bhi usane vividh upahar liye jo unaki adhinata ke pratik the. usake dvara bharat ki digvijay ki gee, jisaka vivaran ilahabad qile ke prasiddh shila-stambh par vistarapoorvak diya hai.[1]

`vikramadity' samudrgupt

aryavat men samudragupt ne 'sarvarajochchhetta'[2] niti ka palan nahin kiya . aryavat ke anek rajaon ko harane ke pashchath usane un rajaon ke rajy ko apane rajy men mila liya. parajit rajaon ke nam ilahabad - stambh par milate hain - achyut, nagadatt, chndr-varman, baladharma, ganapati nag, rudradev, nagasen, nndi tatha matil. is mahanh vijay ke bad usane ashvamedh ygy kiya aur `vikramadity' ki upadhi dharan ki thi. is prakar samudragupt ne samast bharat par apani pataka phahara kar gupt-shasan ki dhak jama di thi.

mathura par vijay

uttarapath ke jite gaye rajyon men mathura bhi tha, samudragupt ne mathura rajy ko bhi apane samrajy men shamil kiya. mathura ke jis raja ko usane haraya. usaka nam ganapati nag milata hai. us samay men padmavati ka nag shasak nagasen tha, jisaka nam prayag-lekh men bhi ata hai. is shilalekh men nndi nam ke ek raja ka nam bhi hai. vah bhi nag raja tha aur vidisha ke nagavnsh se tha.[3] samudragupt ke samay men gupt samrajy ki rajadhani pataliputr thi. is samrajy ko usane kee rajyon men banta.

samudragupt ke paravarti rajaon ke abhilekhon se gyat hota hai ki gnga-yamuna ka doab 'antarvedi' vishay ke nam se jana jata tha. skandagupt ke rajy kal men antarvedi ka shasak 'sharvanag' tha. is ke poorvaj bhi is rajy ke raja rahe honge. sambhavah samudragupt ne mathura aur padmavati ke nagon ki shakti ko dekhate hue unhen shasan men uchch padon par rakhana sahi samajha ho. samudragupt ne yaudhey, malava, arjunayan, madr adi prajatantrik rajyon ko kar lekar apane adhin kar liya. digvijay ke pashchath samudragupt ne ek ashvamedh ygy bhi kiya. ygy ke soochak sone ke sikke bhi samudragupt ne chalaye. in sikkon ke atirikt anek bhanti ke svarn sikke bhi milate hai.

dakshin vijay

aryavart men apani shakti ko bhali-bhanti sthapit kar samudragupt ne dakshin disha ki or prasthan kiya. is vijay yatra men usane kul barah rajaon ko jitakar apane adhin kiya. jis kram se inako jita gaya tha, usi ke anusar inaka ullekh bhi prashasti men kiya gaya hai. ye raja nimnalikhit hain -

koshal ka mahendr

yahan koshal ka abhipray dakshin koshal se hai, jisamen adhunik madhy pradesh ke vilasapur, rayapur aur sambalapur pradesh sammilit the. isaki rajadhani shripur (vartaman sirapur) thi. dakshin koshal se uttar ki or ka sab pradesh gupt samrajy ke antargat tha, aur achyut tatha nagasen ki parajay ke bad yah poornataya usake adhin ho gaya tha. aryavart men parajit hue nagasen ki rajadhani gvaliyar kshetr men 'padmavati' thi. ab dakshin ki or vijay yatra karate hue sabase pahale dakshin koshal ka hi svatntr rajy padata tha. isake raja mahendr ko jitakar samudragupt ne apane adhin kiya.

mahakantar ka vyaghraraj

mahakoshal ke dakshin-poorv men mahakantar (jngali pradesh) tha. isi ke sthan men ajakal gondavana ke saghan jngal hai.

kaural ka mntraraj

mahakantar ke bad 'kaural' rajy ki bari aee. yah rajy dakshini madhy pradesh ke sonapur pradesh ke asapas tha.

pishtapur ka mahenndragiri

godavari zile men sthit vartaman pithapuram hi prachin samay men pishtapur kahalata tha. vahan ke raja mahendragiri ko bhi parast kar ke samudragupt ne apane adhin kiya.

kottar ka raja svamidatt

kottar ka rajy gnjam zile men tha.

airandapall ka daman

airandapall ka rajy kaling ke dakshin men tha. isaki sthiti 'pishtapur' aur 'kottar' ke pados men sambhavatah vijagapattam zile men thi.

kanchi ka vishnugop

kanchi ka abhipray dakshin bharat ke kanjivaram se hai. andhr pradesh ke poorvi zilon aur kaling ko jitakar apane adhin kiya.

avamukt ka nilaraj

yah rajy kanchi ke samip men hi tha.

vengi ka hastavarman

yah rajy krishna aur godavari nadiyon ke bich men sthit tha. vengi nam ki nagari is pradesh men ab bhi vidyaman hai.

pallak ka ugrasen

yah rajy nellor zile men tha.

devarashtr ka kuber

is raja ke pradesh ke sambandh men aitihasikon men matabhed hai. kuchh vidvan ise satara zile men manate hain, aur any vijagapattam zile men. kanchi, vengi aur avamukt rajyon ke shasak pallav vnsh ke the. sambhavatah un sab ki sammilit shakti ko samudragupt ne ek sath hi parast kiya tha. devarashtr ka pradesh dakshin se uttar ki or lautate hue marg men aya tha.

kausthalapur ka dhannjay

yah rajy uttari arkot zile men tha. isaki smriti kuttaloor ke roop men ab bhi surakshit hai.

pun: yuddh

dakshin bharat ke in vibhinn rajyon ko jitakar samudragupt vapas laut aya. dakshin men vah kanchi se age nahin gaya tha. in rajaon ko keval parast hi kiya gaya tha, unaka mool se uchchhed nahin kiya gaya tha. prayag ki samudragupt prashasti ke anusar in rajaon ko harakar pahale qaid kar liya gaya tha, par bad men anugrah karake unhen mukt kar diya gaya tha.

gupt samrajy men vilay

aisa pratit hota hai, ki jab samudragupt vijay yatra ke lie dakshin gaya hua tha, uttari bharat (aryavart) ke adhinasth rajaon ne phir se vidroh ka jhnda khada kar diya. unhen phir se dobara jita gaya. is bar samudragupt unase adhinata svikar karake hi sntusht nahin hua, apitu usane unaka mool se uchchhed kar diya. is prakar jad se ukhade hue rajaon ke nam ye hain - rudradev, matil, nagadatt, chandravarma, ganapatinag, nagasen, achyutanandi aur balavarma. inamen se nagasen aur achyut ke sath samudragupt ke yuddh ho chuke the. unhin ko parast karane ke bad samudragupt ne dhoomadham ke sath pataliputr (pushpapur) men pravesh kiya tha. ab ye raja phir se svatntr ho ge the, aur is bar samudragupt ne inaka samoolonmoolan karake inake rajyon ko apane rajy men mila liya. rudradev vakatak vnshi prasiddh raja rudrasen pratham tha. matil ki ek mudra bulandashahar ke samip mili hai. isaka rajy sambhavatah isi pradesh men tha. nagadatt aur ganapatinath ke namon se yah soochit hota hai, ki ve bharashiv nagon ke vnsh ke the, aur unake chhote-chhote rajy aryavart men hi vidyaman the. ganapatinath ke kuchh sikke besanagar men bhi upalabdh hue hain. chandravarma pushkaran ka raja tha. dakshini rajapootana men sisuniya ki ek chattan par usaka ek shilalekh bhi mila hai. sambhavatah balavarma kotakulaj nripati tha, jise pahali bar bhi samudragupt ne parajit kiya tha. ye sab aryavarti raja is bar poorn roop se gupt samrat dvara parast hue, aur inake pradesh poori tarah se gupt samrajy men shamil kar lie ge.

kautily arthashastr ke anusar

atavik rajaon ke prati samudragupt ne prachin maury niti ka prayog kiya. kautily arthashastr ke anusar atavik rajaon ko apana sahayogi aur sahayak banane ka udyog karana chahie. atavik senaen yuddh ke lie bahut upayogi hoti thin. samudragupt ne in rajaon ka apana 'paricharak' bana liya tha.

samudragupt ki adhinata

isake bad samudragupt ko yuddhon ki avashyakata ki nahin huee. in vijayon se usaki dhak aisi baith gee thi, ki any pratyant (sima-pranton men vartaman) nripatiyon tatha yaudhey, malav adi ganarajyon ne svayamev usaki adhinata svikrit kar li thi. ye sab kar dekar, agyaon ka palan kar, pranam kar, tatha rajadarabar men upasthit hokar samrat samudragupt ki adhinata svikrit karate the. is prakar karad banakar rahale vale pratyant rajyon ke nam hain -

  1. samatat ya dakshin-poorvi bngal
  2. kamaroop ya asam
  3. nepal
  4. davak ya asam ka noganv pradesh
  5. kartripur ya kumayoon aur gadhaval ke parvaty pradesh.

niahsandeh ye sab gupt samrajy ke pratyant ya sima pradesh men sthit rajy the.

adhinasth rajy

is prakar jin ganarajyon ne gupt samrat ki adhinata ko svikar kiya, ve nimnalikhit the - malav, arjunayan, yaudhey, madrak, abhir, prarjun, sanakanik, kaq aur kharaparik. inamen se malav, arjunayan, yaudhey, madrak aur abhir prasiddh ganarajy the. kushan samrajy ke viruddh vidroh kar inhonne apani svatntrata ko punah sthapit kiya tha, aur dhire-dhire apani shakti bahut badha li thi. ab samudragupt ne inhen apane adhin kar liya, par usane inako jad se ukhad phainkane ka prayatn nahin kiya. vah keval kar, pranam, rajadarabar men upasthiti tatha agyavirtita se hi sntusht ho gaya. in ganarajyon ne bhi samrat ki adhinata svikar kar apani prithakh satta ko banae rakha. prarjun, kak, sanakadik aur kharaparik chhote-chhote ganarajy the, jo vidisha ke samipavarti pradesh men sthit the. anek vidvanon ke mat men inaki sthiti uttar-pashchim ke gandhar sadrish rajyon ke kshetr men thi.

samudragupt ka prashasti gayan

dakshin aur pashchim ke any bahut se raja bhi samrat samudragupt ke prabhav men the, aur use adarasoochak upahar adi bhejakar sntusht rakhate the. is prakar ke tin rajaon ka to samudragupt prashasti men ullekh bhi kiya gaya hai. ye 'devaputr hishahanushahi', 'shak-murund' aur 'shaihalak' hain. daivaputr shahanushahi se kushan raja ka abhipray hai. shak-murund se un shak kshatrapon ka grahan kiya jata hai, jinake anek chhote-chhote rajy is yug men bhi uttar-pashchimi bharat men vidyaman the. uttari bharat se bharashiv, vakatak aur gupt vnshon ne shakon aur kushanon ke shasan ka ant kar diya tha. par unake anek rajy uttar-pashchimi bharat men ab bhi vidyaman the. sinhal ke raja ko saihalak kaha gaya hai. in shaktishali rajaon ke dvara samudragupt ka adar karane ka prakar bhi prayag ki prashasti men spasht roop se likha gaya hai.

kanyopayan

ye raja atmanivedan, kanyopayan, dan, garudadhvaj se ankit agyapatron ke grahan adi upayon se samrat samudragupt ko prasann rakhane ka prayatn karate the. atmanivedan ka abhipray hai, apani sevaon ko samrat ke lie arpit karana. kanyopayan ka arth hai - kanya vivah men dena. raja log kisi shaktishali samrat se maitri sambandh banaye rakhane ke lie is upay ka prayah prayog karate the. sambhavatah sinhal, shak aur kushan rajaon ne bhi samudragupt ko apani kanyaen vivah men pradan ki thin. dan ka abhipray bhent-upahar se hai. samrat samudragupt se ye raja shasan (agyapatr) bhi grahan karate the. in sab upayon se ve mahapratapi gupt samrat ko sntusht rakhate the, aur usake kop se bache rahate the. is prakar pashchim men gandhar se lagakar poorv men asam tak aur dakshin men sinhal (lnka) dvip se shuroo kar uttar men himalay ke kirtipur janapad tak, sarvatr samudragupt ka dnka baj raha tha. aryavart ke pradesh sidhe usake shasan men the, dakshin ke raja usake anugrah se apani satta qayam rakhe hue the. simapradeshon ke janapad aur ganarajy use baqayada kar dete the, aur doorasth raja bhent-upahar se tatha apani sevaen samarpan kar usake sath maitri sambandh sthapit kie hue the. prayag ki prashasti men gupt samrat ki is anupam shakti ko kitane sundar shabdon men yah kahakar prakat kiya hai, ki prithvi bhar men koee usaka 'pratirath' (khilaf khada ho sakane vala) nahin tha, sari dharani ko usane ek prakar se apane bahubal se bandh sa rakha tha.

ashvamedh ygy

sampoorn bharat men ekachhatr abadhit shasan sthapit kar aur digvijay ko poorn kar samudragupt ne ashvamedh ygy kiya. shilalekhon men use 'chirotsann ashvamedhaharta' (der se n hue ashvamedh ko phir se prarambh karane vala) aur 'anekashvamedhayaji' (anek ashvamedh ygy karane vala) kaha gaya hai. in ashvamedhon men keval ek purani paripati ka hi anusaran nahin kiya gaya tha, apitu is avasar se labh uthakar kripan, din, anath aur atur logon ko bharapoor sahayata dekar unake uddhar ka bhi prayatn kiya gaya tha. prayag ki prashasti men isaka bahut spasht snket hai. samudragupt ke kuchh sikkon men ygyiy ashv ka bhi chitr diya gaya hai. ye sikke ashvamedh ygy ke upalakshy men hi jari kie ge the. in sikkon men ek taraf jahan ygyiy ashv ka chitr hai, vahin doosari taraf ashvamedh ki bhavana ko in sundar shabdon men prakat kiya gaya hai - 'rajadhirajah prithivimavajity divn jayati aprativary viryah'—rajadhiraj prithvi ko jitakar ab svarg ki jay kar raha hai, usaki shakti aur tez apratim hai.

gun aur charitr

samrat samudragupt ke vaiyaktik gunon aur charitr ke sambandh men prayag ki prashasti men bade sundar sndarbh paye jate hain. ise mahadand nayak dhruvabhooti ke putr, sndhivigrahik mahadandanayak harishen ne taiyar kiya tha. harishen ke shabdon men samudragupt ka charitr is prakar ka tha - 'usaka man vidvanon ke satsng-sukh ka vyasani tha. usake jivan men sarasvati aur lakshmi ka avirodh tha. vah vaidik marg ka anuyayi tha. usaka kavy aisa tha, ki kaviyon ki buddhi vibhav ka bhi usase vikas hota tha, yahi karan hai ki use 'kaviraj' ki upadhi di gee thi. aisa kaun sa aisa gun hai, jo usamen nahin tha. saikadon deshon men vijay prapt karane ki usamen apoorv kshamata thi. apani bhujaon ka parakram hi usaka sabase uttam sathi tha. parashu, ban, shnku, shakti adi astron-shastron ke saikadon ghavon se usaka sharir sushobhit tha. usaki niti yah thi, ki sadhu ka uday aur asadhu ka pralay ho. usaka hriday itana komal tha, ki bhakti aur jhuk jane matr se vash men a jata tha.'

samudragupt ke sikke

samudragupt ke sat prakar ke sikke is samay men milate hain.

  1. pahale prakar ke sikkon men usaka jo chitr hai, usamen vah yuddh ki poshak pahane hue hai. usake baen hath men dhanush hai, aur daen hath men ban. sikke ke doosari taraf likha hai, "samarashatavitat-vijayi jitari aparajiton divn jayati" saikadon yuddhon ke dvara vijay ka prasar kar, sab shatruon ko parast kar, ab svarg ko vijay karata hai.
  2. doosare prakar ke sikkon men usaka jo chitr hai, usamen vah parashu lie khada hai. in sikkon par likha hai, "kritant (yam) ka parashu lie hue aparajit vijayi ki jay hon.
  3. tisare prakar ke sikkon men usaka jo chitr hai, usamen usake sir par ushnish hai, aur vah ek sinh ke sath yuddh kar use ban se marata hua dikhaya gaya hai. ye tin prakar ke sikke samudragupt ke vir roop ko chitrit karate hain.
  4. par inake atirikt usake bahut se sikke aise bhi hain, jinamen vah asan par aram se baithakar vina bajata hua pradarshit kiya gaya hai. in sikkon par samudragupt ka keval nam hi hai, usake sambandh men koee ukti nahin likhi gee hai. isamen sandeh nahin ki jahan samudragupt vir yoddha tha, vahan vah sngit aur kavita ka bhi premi tha.

sinhal se sambandh

samudragupt ke itihas ki kuchh any baten bhi ullekh yogy hain. is kal men silon (sinhal) ka raja meghavarn tha. usake shasan kal men do bauddh-bhikshu bodhagaya ki tirthayatra ke lie ae the. vahan par unake rahane ke lie samuchit prabandh nahin tha. jab ve apane desh ko vapis ge, to unhonne is vishay men apane raja meghavarn se shikayat ki. meghavarn ne nishchay kiya, ki bodhagaya men ek bauddh-vihar sinhali yatriyon ke lie banava diya jae. isaki anumati prapt karane ke lie usane ek doot-mandal samudragupt ki seva men bheja. samudragupt ne badi prasannata se is kary ke lie apani anumati de di, aur raja meghavarn ne 'baudhivriksh' ke uttar men ek vishal vihar ka nirman kara diya. jis samay prasiddh chini yatri hyoo-tsang bodhagaya ki yatra ke lie aya tha, yahan ek hazar se oopar bhikshu nivas karate the.

patarani

samrat samudragupt ki anek raniyan thi, par patarani (agramahishi pattamahadevi) ka pad dattadevi ko prapt tha. isi se chndragupt dvitiy vikramadity ka janm hua tha. pachas varsh ke lagabhag shasan karake 378 ee. men samudragupt svarg ko sidhare.

putr

samudr gupt ke do putr the-

  1. ramagupt
  2. chndragupt .
  • samudr gupt ke bad usaka jyeshth putr ramagupt magadh ka samrat hua tha .


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. isi stambh par samrat ashok ka ek lekh bhi khuda hua hai .
  2. samudrgupt ke kuchh sikkon par 'sarvarajochchhetta' upadhi milati hai. usaki doosari prasiddh upadhi 'parakramank ' se bhi samudragupt ke parakram ka pata chalata hai.
  3. shishunndi namak ek raja ka ullekh puranon men milata hai.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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