पाल साम्राज्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

buddh aur bodhisatv, 11 vin shatabdi, pal samrajy

harsh ke samay ke bad se uttari bharat ke prabhutv ka pratik kannauj mana jata tha. bad men yah sthan dilli ne prapt kar liya. pal samrajy ki ninv 750 ee. men 'gopal' namak raja ne dali. bataya jata hai ki us kshetr men phaili ashanti ko dabane ke lie kuchh pramukh logon ne usako raja ke roop men chuna. is prakar raja ka nirvachan ek abhootapoorv ghatana thi. isaka arth shayad yah hai ki gopal us kshetr ke sabhi mahattvapoorn logon ka samarthan prapt karane men saphal ho saka aur isase use apani sthiti mazaboot karan men kafi sahayata mili.

pal vnsh ka sabase bada samrat 'gopal' ka putr 'dharmapal' tha. isane 770 se lekar 810 ee. tak rajy kiya. kannauj ke prabhutv ke lie sngharsh isi ke shasanakal men arambh hua. is samay ke shasakon ki yah manyata thi ki jo kannauj ka shasak hoga, use sampoorn uttari bharat ke samrat ke roop men svikar kar liya jaega. kannauj par niyntran ka arth yah bhi thi ki us shasak ka, oopari gnga ghati aur usake vishal prakritik sadhanon par bhi niyntran ho jaega. pahale pratihar shasak 'vatsaraj' ne dharmapal ko parajit kar kannauj par adhikar prapt kar liya. par isi samay rashtrakoot samrat 'dhruv', jo gujarat aur malava par prabhutv ke lie pratiharon se sngharsh kar raha tha, usane uttari bharat par dhava bol diya. kafi taiyariyon ke bad usane narmada par kar adhunik jhansi ke nikat vatsaraj ko yuddh men parajit kiya. isake bad usane age badhakar gnga ghati men dharmapal ko haraya. in vijayon ke bad yah rashtrakoot samrat 790 men dakshin laut aya. aisa lagata hai ki kannauj par adhikar prapt karane ki isaki koee vishesh ichchha nahin thi aur ye keval gujarat aur malava ko apane adhin karane ke lie pratiharon ki shakti ko samapt kar dena chahata tha. vah apane donon lakshyon men saphal raha. udhar pratiharon ke kamazor padane se dharmapal ko bhi labh pahuncha. vah apani har se shighr uth khada hua aur usane apane ek vyakti ko kannauj ke sinhasan par baitha diya. yahan usane ek vishal darabar ka ayojan kiya. jisamen as-pados ke kshetron ke kee chhotai rajaon ne bhag liya. inamen gandhar (pashchimi pnjab tatha kabul ghati), madr (madhy pnjab), poorvi rajasthan tatha malava ke raja shamil the. is prakar dharmapal ko sachche arthon men uttarapathasvamin kaha ja sakata hai. pratihar samrajy ko isase bada dhakka laga aur rashtrakooton dvara parajit hone ke bad vatsaraj ka nam bhi nahin suna jata.

in tinon samrajyon ke bich qarib 200 sal tak apasi sngharsh chala. ek bar phir kannauj ke prabhutv ke lie dharmapal ko pratihar samrat 'nagabhatt' dvitiy se yuddh karana pada. gvaliyar ke nikat ek abhilekh mila hai, jo nagabhatt ki mrityu ke 50 varshon bad likha gaya aur jisamen usaki vijay ki charcha ki gee hai. isamen bataya gaya hai ki nagabhatt dvitiy ne malava tatha madhy bharat ke kuchh hisson par vijay prapt ki tatha 'turushk tatha saindhav' ko parajit kiya jo shayad sindh men arab shasak aur unake turki sipahi the. usane bng samrat ko, jo shayad dharmapal tha, ko bhi parajit kiya aur use munger tak khaded diya. lekin ek bar phir rashtrakoot bich men a ge. rashtrakoot samrat govind tritiy ne uttari bharat men apane pair rakhe aur nagabhatt dvitiy ko pichhe hatana pada. bundelakhand ke nikat ek yuddh men govind tritiy ne use parajit kar diya. lekin ek bar punah rashtrakoot samrat malava aur gujarat par adhikar prapt karane ke bad vapas dakshin laut aya. ye ghatanaen lagabhag 806 se 870 ee. ke bich huee. jab pal shasak kannauj tatha oopari gnga ghati par apana prabhutv qayam karane men asaphal hue, to unhonne any kshetron ki taraph apana dhyan diya. dharmapal ke putr devapal ne, jo 810 ee. men sinhasan par baitha aur 40 varshon tak rajy kiya, pragajyotishapur (asam) tatha udisa ke kuchh kshetron men apana prabhav qayam kar liya. nepal ka kuchh hissa bhi shayad pal samraton ke adhin tha. devapal ki mrityu ke bad pal samrajy ka vighatan ho gaya. par dasavin shatabdi ke ant men yah phir se uth khada hua aur terahavin shatabdi tak isaka prabhav qayam raha.

arab vyapari suleman ke anusar

pal vnsh ke arambh ke shasakon ne athavin shatabdi ke madhy se lekar dasavin shatabdi ke madhy, arthath qarib 200 varshon tak uttari bharat ke poorvi kshetron par apana prabhutv qayam rakha. dasavin shatabdi ke madhy men bharat ane vale ek arab vyapari suleman ne pal samrajy ki shakti aur samriddhi ki charcha ki hai. usane pal rajy ko 'roohama' kahakar pukara hai (yah shayad dharmapal ke chhote roop 'dharm' par adharit hai) aur kaha hai ki pal shasak aur usake padosi rajyon, pratiharon aur rashtrakooton men ladaee chalati rahati thi, lekin pal shasan ki sena usake donon shatruon ki senaon se badi thi. suleman ne bataya hai ki pal shasak 50 hazar hathiyon ke sath yuddh men jata tha aur 10 se 15 hazar vyakti keval usake sainikon ke kapadon ko dhone ke lie niyukt the. isase usaki sena ka anuman lagaya ja sakata hai.

tibbati grnthon se

pal vnsh ke bare men hamen tibbati grnthon se bhi pata chalata hai, yadyapi yah satarahavin shatabdi men likhe ge. inake anusar pal shasak bauddh dharm tatha gyan ko snrakshan aur badhava dete the. nalanda vishvavidyalay ko, jo sare poorvi kshetr men vikhyat hai, dharmapal ne punah jivit kiya aur usake kharche ke lie 200 ganvon ka dan diya. usane vikramashila vishh‍vavidyalay ki bhi sthapana ki. jisaki khyati keval nalanda ke bad hai. yah magadh men gnga ke nikat ek pahadi choti par sthit tha. pal shasakon ne kee bar viharon ka bhi nirman kiya jisamen badi snkhya men bauddh rahate the.

pal shasak aur tibbat

pal shasakon ke tibbat ke sath bhi bade nikat ke sanskritik sambandh the. unhonne prasiddh bauddh vidvanh santarakshit tatha dipakar (jo atisa ke nam se bhi jane jate hain) ko tibbat ane ka nimntran diya aur vahan unhonne bauddh dharm ke ek ne roop ko prachalit kiya. nalanda tatha vikramashil vishvavidyalayon men badi snkhya men tibbati vidvanh bauddh adhyayan ke lie ate the.

pal shasakon ke dakshin poorv eshiya ke sath arthik tatha vyaparik sambandh the. dakshin poorv eshiya ke sath unaka vyapar unake lie bada labhadayak tha aur isase pal samrajy ki samriddhi badhi. malaya, java, sumatra tatha padosi dvipon par rajy karane vale shailendr vnsh ke bauddh shasakon ne pal-darabar men apane rajadooton ko bheja aur nalanda men ek math ki sthapana ki anumati mangi. unhonne pal shasak devapal se is math ke kharch ke lie panch gramon ka anudan manga. devapal ne usaka yah anurodh svikar kar liya. isase hamen in donon ke nikat sambandhon ke bare men pata chalata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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