पाण्ड्य राजवंश  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

pandy rajavnsh ka prarambhik ullekh panini ki ashtadhyayi men milata hai. isake atirikt ashok ke abhilekh, mahabharat evn ramayan men bhi pandy samrajy ke vishay men janakari milati hai. megasthanij pandy rajy ka ullekh ‘mabar‘ nam se karata hai. usake vivarananusar pandy rajy par ‘hairakt‘ ki putri ka shasan tha, tatha vah rajy motiyon ke lie prasiddh tha. pandyon ki rajadhani 'madura' (maduree) thi, jisake vishay men kautily ke arthashastr se janakari milati hai. madura apane kimati motiyon, uchchakoti ke vastron evn unnatishil vyapar ke lie prasiddh tha. 'irithriyan si' ke vivaran ke adhar par pandyon ki prarambhik rajadhani 'korakee' ko mana jata hai. sambhavatah pandy rajy maduree, ramanathapuram, tirunelveli, tiruchirapalli evn trankor tak vistrit tha. pandyon ka rajachihn matsy (machhali) tha. pandy rajy ko 'minavar', 'kabooriyar', 'pnchavar', 'tennar', 'marar', 'valudi' tatha 'seliyar' namon se jana jata hai.

pramukh shasak

pandy rajavnsh ke nimn shasak pramukh roop se ullekhaniy hain-

  1. nediyon
  2. palashalaimudukudami
  3. nedunjeliyan
  4. verivarasheliy korakai

rajanitik dasha

dakshin bharat ke cher, chol tatha pandy rajyon ke udbhav ke sndarbh men sabase mahattvapoorn bat yah hai ki, ye rajy kul sngh pratit hote hain. is prakar ke rajy uttari bharat men bhi the, jinhen kautily ne kul sngh kaha hai.

sngamakalin shasan ka svaroop rajatntratmak th. raja ka pad vnshanugat evn jyeshthata par adharit tha. prashasan ka samast adhikar raja ke pas hota tha, isalie usaki pravritti men nirnkushata ka samavesh hota tha. raja ka mukhy adarsh tha- digvijay karana, praja ka putravat palana karana evn nishpaksh bhav se shasan ke karyon ka snchalan karana. raja pratyek din apani sabha (nalavai) men praja ki kathinaiyon ko sunata tha. rajy ka sarvochch nyayalay manaram hota tha, jisaka sarvochch nyayadhish raja hota tha. raja ka janmadin prativarsh manaya jata tha jise 'peroonal' bhi kaha jata tha. pratinidhi parishaden raja ki nirnkushata par ankush lagati thin, sath hi vah prashasan men raja ka sahayog karati thin. in parishadon ke sadasy janapratinidhi, purohit, jyotishi, vaidy evn mntrigan hote the. is parishad ko 'pnchavaram' ya 'pnchamahasabha' bhi kaha jata tha. inamen-

  1. mntri - amiyachar
  2. purohit - purohitar
  3. senanayak - senapatiyar
  4. doot ya rajadoot - dootar
  5. guptachar - orrar

sainy vyavastha

sngamakalin shasakon ke pas peshevar sainik hote the. rath, hathi ghode ev paidal sainik hi sena ke mahattvapoorn ang the. hathiyar ke roop men talavar, dhanush ban (bil kol), bhala (bel), khadag (bal), baghambar adi ka prayog kiya jata tha. yuddh ke samay sthapit kiye jane vale shiviron ka vishesh mahattv hota tha. samay ke vishay men janakari jal ghadi dvara milati thi. raja ke mahal par sashastr mahilaon ka pahara hota tha. sena ke kaptan ko 'enadi' ki upadhi di jati thi. sena ki agr tukadi 'tusi' aur pichhadi tukadi 'kulai' kahalati thi. chol aur pandy donon ke shasan kal men nagarik aur sainik padon par bellal (dhani kisan) niyukt kie jate the. kalavaramh sngam tamilon ki ek vishisht snstha thi. mntriyon ke bad dooton ka prashasan men vishesh mahattv hota tha. shasan men guptachar bhi mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhate the, unhen 'orrar' ya 've' kaha jata tha.

nagar vibhajan

prashasanik suvidha ke lie rajy ya mndalam 'nadu' men tatha nadu 'ur' men vibhajit tha. 'pattinam' samudr tatiy kasbe ko kahate the. bade ganv ko 'peroor', chhote ganv ko 'siroor' tatha purane ganv ko 'mudoor' kahate the. avai chhote gramon ki sabha thi, jo vivadon v vyapar tatha rozagar adi se sambandhit thi. salai pramukh sadak ko kahate the. teroo nagar ke pramukh gvale the. pediyal sarvajanik sthal ko kaha jata tha. pediyan gram prashasan ki sabase chhoti eekaee thi. manaram ki gramin evn nagar prashasan men mahattvapoorn bhoomika hoti thi. nagaramh shabd varnik gramon hetu prayukt hua hai.

rajakiy ay ke srot evn kar vyavastha

sngam kalin rajakiy ay ke mahattvapoorn sroton men krishi tatha vyapar par lagane vale kar the. bhoomi par lagane vale kar ko 'karaee' tatha samanton dvara diye jane vale kar evn loot dvara prapt dhan ko 'eeraee' kaha jata tha. sima shulk dvara prapt dhan ko 'ulgoo' ya 'sngam' kaha jata tha. rajy ki or se dhan ke atirikt mang evn zabaran lie gaye upahar ko 'iraboo'. ma ya velli bhoomi ki prasiddh map thi. angul raikhik map ki eekaee thi. kalam taral map ki eekaee thi. kadamai ya padu raja ko ada kiya jane vala kar tha. kar ada karane vale kshetr ki eekaee variyamavari thi. bhoomi ke is ikaee se kar vasool karane vala adhikari 'variyar' kahalata tha.

arthik sthiti

sngam kal men mahattvapoorn krishi utpadan ke roop men ganna, ragi, chaval evn kapas ka utpadan kiya jata tha. cher rajy katahal, kali mirch, bhains evn haldi ke lie prasiddh tha. pari jaise kam kshetraphal vale rajy men anek prakar ke anaj, katahal, anek tarah ke kndamool, phal adi ki paidavar hoti thi. tamil desh ki bhoomi apani urvarata ke lie prasiddh thi. sngam kaviyon ke ye ullekh- “hathi ke letane ke lie jitani bhoomi ki zaroorat padati hai, usase sat vyaktiyon ke pet bharane ka anaj mil jata hai” tatha “ek velli bhoomi men ek sahasr kalam chaval paida hota hai”. is pradesh ki urvarata ke dipt praman hain. krishakon men sngam kal men 'vellal' varg ka mahattvapoorn sthan tha. vellal varg do bhagon men bnte the-

  1. sampann krishak ya vellal varg- inaki niyukti sena evn prashasakiy karyo ke lie ki jati thi.
  2. vipann krishak ya mazadoor krishak varg- inake pas apani svayn ki zamin nahin hoti thi aur ye sampann vellalon ki zamin par kam karake apana jivan-yapan karate the. inaki snkhya sngam yug men adhik thi. inake pramukh ko 'velari' kaha jata tha. adhikansh vyapar vastu vinimay dvara hota tha. anaj (dhan) vinimay ka madhyam tha.

vyapar

sngam sahity men vyapari varg ko 'venigar' kaha gaya hai. is varg ke log hi antarik evn videshi vyapar ka snchalan karate the. sngamakalin videshi vyapar ka adhikansh bhag puhar bandaragah se snchalit hota tha, isalie yahan ke nivasi kafi sampann the. pandy desh ke 'shaliyoor' aur cher desh ke 'bakndar' nagar ke sarvadhik mahattvapoorn bndaragah the. puhar, tondi, mushir evn vajji sthalon ki khudaee se aise avashesh mile hain, jinase yah pramanit hota hai ki, yahan yavan log badi snkhya men rahate the. cheron ki prarambhik rajadhani 'kuroor' men kiye gaye utkhanan men roman surahiyon ke tukade evn roman tamr sikke mile hain. yavan log 'mukhiri' bandaragah par apane jahajon par sona ladakar late the aur badale men yahan se kali mirch evn aisi vastuen le jate the, jo unake yahan upalabdh nahin hoti thi. puhar ka kaveri pattanam ek vishal vanijy kendr tha, jisaka talmi ne khaberis ke rooph men ullekh kiya hai. nir peyaoo ek any samudr bandaragah tha, jahan par pashchim se ghode aur uttar se utpadit vastuen lae jati thi. manigramam, nanadesis, valnjiyar, valngai, ilngai adi pramukh vyaparik sngh the.

pura sakshyon se praman

puratatvik sakshyon se yah pramanit hota hai ki tatkalin nagar 'arikamedu' ek prasiddh vyaparik kendr tha. jahan par vastuon ko ekatr kar bharat ke vibhinn bhagon men bheja jata tha. roman samrat 'aaugastas' tatha 'riveriyas' ke muhar vale sone ke sikke mujiris, puhar evn arikamedu se mile hain. mujiris men roman samrat 'aphagastas' ka mndir romanon dvara banavaya gaya tha. 'virukampuliyar' namak sthan chol, cher evn pandy tinon rajyon ke sngam sthal ke roop men prasiddh tha. uraiyoor sooti kapadon ke vyapar ke lie prasiddh tha. yahan ke mahin sooti kapadon ki vishv ke bazaron men badi khapat thi. puhar ek sarvadeshiy nagar tha, jahan vividh bhashaen bolane vale desh-videsh ke nagarik ek sath sauhardapoorvak rahate the. yahan mukhy niryatak vastuyen thin- kali mirch, hathi dant, moti, malamal, reshami kapade, qimati ratn, hire, nilam, qimati patthar adi. yahan ki ayat ki jane vali mukhy vastuain thin, kanch, praval, moonga, sharab, sona, tanba, chandi, sikke, adi. roman samrajy ke logon ke atirikt tamil pradesh ke logon ka vyapar misr, arab, chin evn malay dvip se tha. pashchimi tat ke pramukh bandaragah naura (kainnaur), tondi, mushiri aur nailsinda adi the. sngam yugin rajyon ke kuchh bhagon se nira (54-68 ee.) ke sone evn chandi ke sikke mile hain. strebon ke anusar aaugastas-sijar ke darabar men kisi pandy naresh ne lagabhag doosari sadi ee.poo. men do dootamandal bheje the. sambhavatah isaka uddeshy vyaparik sambandhon ko pragandh banana tha. sngam kal ke any vyavasayik varg the- 'pulaiyan' (rassi banane vala), charavahe, eniyar (shikari), machhuare, kumhar, luhar, svarnakar, badhee adi. 'malavar' nam ke logon ka vyavasay daka dalana tha. 'avanam' sngam kal men bazar ko kahate the. is kal ke vyapar ke vishay men vistrit janakari pahali sadi men kisi agyat rachayita dvara likhi gayi pustak 'periplas aauf di erithriyan si' se milati hai. is samay vyaparik karavan ka netritv karane vale sthal sarthavah ko 'masattuvan' evn samudri sarthavah ko 'manamikanh' kaha jata tha.

samajik sthiti

sngamakalin samaj vyavastha poori tarah se ek vyavastha ke anusar hi vyavasthit ki gee thi-

varn evn jati vyavastha

tamil pradesh men uttar bharat ki tarah chaturvarn vyavastha manyata prapt nahin ho saki thi. sngam sahity men samaj ko panch vargon men vibhakt kiye jane ke praman milate hain, jo is prakar hain-

1. brahman (purohit varg) - inhen samaj men uchch sthan prapt tha. inaka padarpan tamil pradesh men sngam kal men hua.
2. arasar (shasak varg) - rajaparivar se jude ye log rajanitik drishti se pratishthit hote the.
3. venigar (vanikh varg) - ye log tamil pradesh ke antarik evn bahm vyapar ka snchalan karate the.
4. vellal (bade krishak evn shasak varg) - tamil grnth 'purananooroo' ke ullekh ke adhar par yah gyat hota hai ki, yah varg shasak varg ke saman hi pratishthit tha. inaki niyukti sena men uchch padon par ki jati thi. chol sena men is varg ko 'arashu' evn 'bel' tatha pandy sena men inhen 'kavidi' kaha jata tha.
5. bellar (mazadoor krishak varg) - inaka mukhy vyavasay krishi karana tha. inake mukhiyon ko 'vellari' kaha jata tha. das pratha ka prachalan sngam kal men nahin tha.

vaidik snskrit ke prachalan ke karan rajadarabaron men brahmanon tatha purohiton ki pratishtha punah sthapit ho gayi. rajadarabar men kavi ke roop men brahanon ko rakha jata tha. raja karikal ne ek kavi ko 1,60,000 svarn mudraon se puraskrit kiya tha. tamil bhoomi men brahman ka darshan pahale sngam yug men hota hai. vellal chauthi jati ke antargat ate the. adhikatar bhoomi inhin ke pas rahati thi. khet-mazadoor ka kam sabase nichale varg ke log karate the, jinhen 'kadaisiyar' kaha jata tha. periyar log khet-mazadoor ke atirikt pashu khal ya charm ka kam karate the. eniyar baghikon (shikariyon) ki jati thi. malavar aur kalavar namak do jatiyan tamil pradesh ke uttari sima par rahati thin. loot-pat karana inaka mukhy pesha tha. maruvar dhani yavan logon ke nivas sthal ko kahate the.

vivah

sngamakalin grnth tolkappiyam men athon prakar ke vivahon ka ullekh milata hai. vaise ek patni pratha ka prachalan tha, parantu sampann varg ke log ek se adhik patni rakhate the. sngamayugin grnthon men prem vivah ko ‘pnchatinai‘, ek pakshiy prem ko ‘kaikkinai‘ evn anuchit prem ko perundinai‘ kaha gaya hai.

striyon ki sthiti

sngam kal men striyon ki sthiti bahut santoshajanak nahin thi, ladaki ke janm ko ashubh mana jata tha. parivar pitrisattatmak hota tha. nimnavarg ki stri kheton men kam karati thin. uchch varg ki kuchh striyan, jaise ovaiyar evn nachcheliyar ne ek saphal kavayitri ke roop men apane ko sthapit kiya aur is varg ki striyan shiksha prapt karati thin. vidhivaon ki sthiti itani badatar thi ki, ve svechchha se sati hona adhik saral samajhati thin. svaichchhik sati pratha ka prachalan sngamakalim samaj men tha. sngamakalin samaj men ganikaon evn nartakiyon ke roop men kramashah 'parattiyar' v 'kanigaichar' ka ullekh milata hai. ye veshyavriti dvara jivanayapan karati thin.

manornjan

prayah kavita path sngit, gayan, vadan, nrity kala, natak adi dvara manornjan kiya jata tha. 'yal' namak kisi vady yntr ka zikr milata hai. manornjan ke any sadhan bhi the jaise- 'shikar khelana', 'kushti ladana', 'pasa khelana', 'goli khelana' adi. periyal, phlaee-yal tatha senagotritapal jaise vibhinn prakar ke vady yantron ka bhi varnan milata hai.

dharmik sthiti

vaidik dharm v brahman dharm ka prachalan tamil pradesh men adhik tha. brahman, raja ke purohit ka kam karate the aur badale men dan prapt karate the. sngam kal men tamil pradesh men murugan, shiv, balaram ev krishn ki upasana ki jati thi. inamen se marugan ya murakan ki upasana, sarvadhik purani thi. kalantar men murugan ko 'subrahmanyam' kaha gaya aur skand-kartikey se is devata ka ekikaran kiya gaya. murugan ka ek any nam 'vellan' bhi milata hai. vellan ka sambandh bel se hai, jisaka arth vahi hai. yah is devata ka pramukh astr tha. kisan log marudam indr dev ki pooja karate the. puhar ke varshik utsav men indr ki vishesh prakar ki pooja hoti thi. kaurralai vijay ki devi thi. skand-kartikey ko uttar bharat men shiv-parvati ke putr ke roop men jana jata hai. tamil pradesh men murugan ka pratik murga (kukkat) ko mana gaya hai, jise parvat-shikhar par krida karana pasand hai. murugan tamilon ke sarvashreshth devata the. sngam kal men tamil pradesh men bali pratha ka prachalan tha.

dharmik vishvas

manimekhalai men shaiv dharm men ‘'palik' sampraday ka varnan milata hai. bauddh dharm ke prachalan ka bhi ullekh hamen sngam sahity se milata hai. 'shilappadikaram' tatha 'manimekhalai' mahakavyon tatha kaveripatnam se bhi bauddh dharm tatha jain dharm ke snsthanon ke ullekh milate hain. 'mariyamma' (parashuram ki mata) chechak se snbndhit shitala mata thi, jabaki velamma sima ki devi thi. sngamakalin mndiron men vibhinn devataon ke anek mndiron ka vishesh ullekh hua hai. mndir nagar, koil, kottam, puraee ya devalay kahalate the. van devi (kuduraikaradabalu) ki tulana prayah durga ke sath tulana ki jati hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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