पाण्ड्य साम्राज्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

pandy samrajy ka 'bharatiy itihas' men bahut hi khas sthan hai. tamilanadu men jahan ajakal madura aur tenevali ke zile hain, vahan par prachin samay men pandy rajavnsh ke rajaon ka rajy tha. cholamandal ke saman pandy rajy ki sima bhi usake raja ki shakti ke anusar ghatati-badhati rahi. is rajy ki rajadhani madura thi, jo tamil snskriti aur sahity ka prasiddh kendr tha.

shasak raja

pandy rajy ka prachin rajanitik itihas adhnkar men hai, yadyapi sahity dvara is rajy ke katipay rajaon ke nam hamen gyat hain. chhathi sadi ke antim bhag men 'kndugon' namak raja ne pandy rajy ke utkarsh ka sootrapat kiya. usake vnsh ke arikeshari maravarma, kochchadayanh, ranadhir, maravarma, rajasinh pratham aur nedunjadayanh varagun namak raja hue, jinake shasan kal men pandy rajy ne achchhi unnati ki aur samip ke pradeshon ko jitakar apane rajy ke kshetr ka vistar bhi kiya. ye raja athavin sadi men hue the. pandy desh ke bad ke rajaon men shrimar shrivallabh bahut prasiddh hua. usaka shasan kal lagabhag 815 se 832 ee. tak tha. shrimar shrivallabh ne sinhal dvip (vartaman shrilnka) par akraman kar use apane adhin kiya, aur phir chol, pallav tatha gng rajaon ko parast kiya. niahsandeh shrivallabh is rajy ka bahut pratapi raja tha aur usake samay men pandy desh ek mahattvapoorn evn prabal rajy ban gaya tha.

cholon se sngharsh

pandy rajy ki samriddhi adhik samay tak qayam nahin rahi. dasavin sadi men chol rajy ka kis prakar utkarsh hua. cholaraj parantak pratham (907-949) ne apane rajy ka vistar karate hue pandy desh par bhi akraman kiya aur use vijay kar liya. is samay madura ke rajasinhasan par maravarma jayasinh dvitiy aroodh tha, jo parantak ke dvara parast ho gaya aur madura par chol raj ka adhikar ho gaya. isi upalakshy men parantak ne 'maduraikond' ki upadhi dharan ki thi. cholon ki is vijay ke karan pandy desh ki sthiti ek samant rajy ke saman rah gee, kyonki bad ke pandy raja pratapi chol samraton ke viruddh vidroh kar svatntr hone ki shakti nahin rakhate the. par isase yah nahin samajhana chahie ki pandy rajaon ne cholon ka jua utar phainkane ka kabhi prayatn hi nahin kiya.

rashtrakooton ki adhinata

dasavin sadi ke madhy men rashtrakoot raja krishn tritiy ne cholon ko buri tarah se parajit kiya, tab pandy raja ne is sthiti se labh uthakar svatntr hone ka prayatn kiya. par jo pratapi rashtrakoot samrat cholon ko jitane men samarth hua, usane pandy rajy ko bhi apana vashavarti bana liya aur apane putr jatavarma ko vahan ka shasan karane ke lie niyat kiya. isake bad bhi anek bar pandy rajy ne svatntr hone ka prayatn kiya, kintu barahavin sadi ke ant tak use saphalata prapt nahin huee aur usaki sthiti adhinasth rajy ke saman hi bani rahi.

pandy rajaon ka pun: utkarsh

barahavin sadi ke ant men jab chol rajy nirbal ho gaya to pandy rajy ko apane utkarsh ka avasar prapt ho gaya aur usake raja jatavarma kulashekhar (1190-1216) ne apane ko svatntr kar liya. ek bar phir se pandy rajy ka utkarsh kal prarambh hua aur vah sudoor dakshin ki pradhan rajashakti ban gaya. jatavarma kulashekhar ka uttaradhikari maravarma sundar pandy (1216-1238) bahut prasiddh hua. chol mandal se bhi age badhakar usane kanji par adhikar kar liya. dakshin bharat ke hoyasal, kakatiy adi rajavnshon ke any anek rajyon ko bhi is pratapi raja ne apane adhin kiya.

patan

terahavin sadi is rajy ke utkarsh ki sadi thi aur isake raja jahan vir aur pratapi the, vahan sath hi mandiron ka nirman kar apane rajy ko nagaron ko vibhooshit karane par bhi ve bahut dhyan dete the. chaudahavin sadi ke prarambh bhag men jab alauddin khilazi ke senapati malik kafoor ne dakshin bharat ki vijay yatra ki, to usane madura ka bhi dhvns kiya. isi samay pandy rajy ki svatntrata aur utkarsh ka bhi ant ho gaya.

inhen bhi dekhen: pandy rajavnsh evn pandy desh


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah