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संगम युग  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sudoor dakshin bharat men krishna evn tungabhadra nadiyon ke bich ke kshetr ko 'tamil pradesh' kaha jata tha. is pradesh men anek chhote-chhote rajyon ka astitv tha, jinamen cher, chol aur pandy pramukh the. dakshin bharat ke is pradesh men tamil kaviyon dvara sabhaon tatha goshthiyon ka ayojan kiya jata tha. in goshthiyon men vidvanon ke madhy vibhinn vishayon par vichar-vimarsh kiya jata tha, ise hi 'sngam' ke nam se jana jata hai. 100 ee. se 250 ee. ke madhy dakshin bharat men tin sngamon ko ayojit kiya gaya. is yug ko hi itihas men "sngam yug" ke nam se jana jata hai. sarvapratham in goshthiyon ka ayojan pandy rajaon ke rajakiy snrakshan men kiya gaya tha, jisaki rajadhani maduree thi.

samajik sthiti

sngam sahityon ke anusar is samay samaj men varn vyavastha ka spasht vibhajan nahin tha, phir bhi samaj men brahmanon ko sammanajanak sthan prapt tha. sngam yug men keval brahman hi ygyopavit dharan kar sakate the. samaj ke any varg ke logon ko unake prantiy mool ke nam se jana jata tha. jaise- parvatiy kshetr ke logon ko 'kutinji', samudratatiy kshetr ke logon ko 'naiidal' adi namon se jana jata tha. is kal ki pramukh jatiyon ke vishay men 'tolakappiyam' namak grnth men vistar se janakari di gee hai. is grnth ke anusar is kal ki pramukh jatiyan thin-

  1. tudiyan
  2. paraiyan
  3. kadamban
  4. panan adi.

brahmanon ke atirikt 'sngam sahity' men samaj ke char vargon men vibhajan ki janakari bhi prapt hoti hai. ye char varg the- 'arasar' (rajaparivar se juda vyakti), 'benigar' (vanik varg), 'ballal' (bade prithakh varg, jo ki pratishthit the) tatha 'vellar' (mazadoor krishak varg).

vivah snskar

is yug men vivah ko ek snskar mana jata tha aur prachin kal ke saman hi ath prakar ke vivah ka prachalan tha. 'sngam kal' men 'das pratha' ka prachalan nahin tha. uchch evn sampann varg ke log pakki eenton tatha choone dvara nirmit bhavanon ki oopari mnjil men rahate the tatha nichali mnjil men vyaparik kary kiya jata tha. bhavanon ka nirman shastriy niyamon ke anusar kiya jata tha. nimn varg ke logon ki sthiti atyant hi samany thi.

shiksha ka star

sngam yug men samaj ke sabhi vargon men shiksha ka samuchit prachalan tha, jo ki tatkalin yug ki ek bahut badi visheshata hai. sahity, vigyan, jyotish, ganit, vyakaran adi vishayon ki shiksha di jati thi. shikshakon ko 'kanakkatamh' tatha vidyarthiyon ko 'pillai' kaha jata tha. mndir shiksha ke pramukh kendr the tatha gurudakshina dene ki pratha ka prachalan tha. is kal men chitrakala ya moortikala ka bhi vikas ho gaya tha. shikar khelana, kushti ladana, dyoot, goli khelana, kavita, natak, nrity, sngit adi manornjan ke pramukh sadhan the. is samay ka ek pramukh vady yntr tha- 'yal', jo tarayukt hota tha.

samaj men stri ka sthan

purushon ki apeksha striyon ko samaj men nimn sthan prapt tha. kanya ka janm ashubh mana jata tha. striyon ko sampatti men koee adhikar prapt nahin tha. striyan shiksha grahan karati thin tatha samajik anushthanon men bhag le sakati thin. raja ke angarakshak ke roop men striyon ki niyukti ki jati thi. patni ko ghar men adaraniy sthan prapt tha. nrity karane vali stri ghareloo stri ke lie ashubh mani jati thi. vidhavaon ko abhooshanon ko tyagakar sir mudavana padata tha tatha kalash ke sath ya bina kalash ke bhi daphanane ki pratha prachalit thi. parivar pitrisattatmak hota tha. nimnavarg ki stri kheton men kam karati thin. uchch varg ki kuchh striyan, jaise 'ovaiyar' evn 'nachcheliyar' ne ek saphal kavayitri ke roop men apane ko sthapit kiya aur is varg ki striyan shiksha prapt karati thin. vidhivaon ki sthiti itani badatar thi ki ve svechchha se "sati" hona adhik saral samajhati thin. svaichchhik sati pratha ka prachalan sngam kalin samaj men tha. sngam kalin samaj men ganikaon evn nartakiyon ke roop men kramashah 'parattiyar' v 'kanigaichar' ka ullekh milata hai. ye veshyavriti dvara jivanayapan karati thin.

shasan vyavastha

sngamakalin sahityanusar is samay raja ka pad vnshanugat hota tha, jo jyeshthata par adharit tha. raja ka charitravan, prajapalak, nishpaksh tatha snyami hona anivary tha. rajasabha ko 'manaday' kaha jata tha, jahan raja dvara nyayik kary kiye jate the. apane jivan kal men hi raja yuvaraj ki niyukti kar dete the. yuvaraj ko 'komahan' tatha any putron ko 'ilengon' kaha jata tha. raja ke ni:sntan marane par mntriyon tatha praja dvara raja ka chunav kiya jata tha. raja ka janm din is yug men mahotsav ke roop men manaya jata tha. rajyabhishek ka prachalan nahin tha, lekin raja ke sinhasanaroodh hone ke samay utsav ka ayojan kiya jata tha. darabar men kaviyon evn vidvanon ka sthan sammanajanak tha.

rajy snchalan

raja apane paramarshadataon ki sahayata se shasan kary ka snchalan karate the. mukhy paramarshadata the- purohit, vaishy, jyotish evn mntrigan. paramarshadataon ki sabha ko 'pnchavarak' kaha jata tha. raja shasan kary ke snchalan men guptacharon ki bhi sahayata liya karata tha. guptacharon ko 'ortar' kaha jata tha. dand vyavastha atyant kathor thi. raja sabase bada nyayadhish hota tha. 'manaday' arthath rajasabha rajy ka sabase bada nyayalay tha tatha 'mannaram' nyay ki sabase chhoti ikaee thi.

sainy prabandhan

raja ke pas rath, hathi, ashv tatha paidal sena ke char ang hote the. sainikon dvara jin shastron ka mukhyataya prayog kiya jata tha, ve the- 'vel' (bhala), 'vil' (dhanush), 'kol' (ban), 'val' (khadag) tatha 'kavach' adi. shahid sainikon ki yad men shilapatt lagaye jate the. viragati prapt yauddhaon ki pashan moortiyan banakar devataon ki tarah unaki pooja ki jati thi. senaon ke lie ek vishesh samaroh ka ayojan kiya jata tha, jisamen senapatiyon ko 'egadi' ki vishesh upadhi pradan ki jati thi. nagar evn gram prashasan ki mukhy ikaiyan thin, jahan ka prashasan sthaniy janapratinidhiyon dvara chalaya jata tha. 'ur' nam ki snstha dvara nagar prashasan ka snchalan kiya jata tha. gram prashasan 'mannaram', 'podil', 'ambalay' tatha 'apai' ke nirdeshan men snbhala jata tha.

arthik sthiti

krishi desh ki arthik sthiti ka mooladhar thi. chaval, raee, ganna tatha kapas adi ki kheti ki jati thi. is samay nadiyon tatha talabon ke dvara sinchaee ki jati thi. bhoomikar rajy ki ay ka pramukh sadhan tha, jo upaj ka 1/6 bhag vasool kiya jata tha. bhoomikar ko 'karaee' kaha jata tha. us samay 'pari' namak rajy katahal aur shahad tatha cher rajy katahal, kali mirch evn haldi ki paidavar ke lie vikhyat the. sampatti, bndaragah tatha loot ke dhan adi par bhi kar lagaye jate the. samnton dvara diya jane vala kar evn loot dvara prapt dhan 'duraee' kahalata tha. avashyakatanusar praja se atirikt kar bhi vasool kiya jata tha, jise 'iravu' kaha jata tha. krishi ke atirikt kapada bunana pramukh udyog tha. uraiyar tatha maduree vastr udyog ke pramukh kendr the. vastr udyog ke atirikt rassi bantana, hathi dant ki vastuen banana, jahaz nirman, sone ke abhooshan banana tatha samudr se moti nikalane ka kary bhi kiya jata tha, jo rajy ke arthik adhar ko sashakt banata tha.

vyapar

antarik evn videshi vyapar ki dasha unnat thi. antarik vyapar mukhyataya adan pradan ke dvara kiya jata tha. 'pandi' is samay vinimay ka mukhy sadhan tha. maduree tatha puhar pramukh vyaparik kendr the. puhar tatha shalipur bndaragah se videsh vyapar hota tha. isake atirikt any pramukh bndaragah the- 'gaura', 'mujirit', 'nelasida', 'toshdi' adi. ye bndaragah bharat ke pashchimi samudr tat par sthit the. kali mirch, mashala, hathi dant, moti, sooti vastron ka niryat tatha tanba, tin, sharab adi vastuon ka ayat kiya jata tha.

dharmik sthiti

is samay vaidik tatha brahman dharmon ka samaj men prachar prasar hua. brahmanon ko adar ki drishti se dekha jata tha tatha raja dvara unhen dan bhi diya jata tha. ygyon ka ayojan kiya jata tha. dharmik karyon ka sampadan brahmanon ke dvar kiya jata tha. jain dharm tatha bauddh dharm ka samaj men nam matr hi prachalan tha. is samay mukhy upasy devata the-

  1. vishnu
  2. shiv
  3. shrikrishn
  4. balaram adi.

'vir pooja' tatha 'sati pooja' ka bhi prachalan samaj men tha. 'murugan' dakshin bharat ka sabase adhik lokapriy devata tha. kalantar men murugan hi 'subrahmanyam' kaha gaya, aur skand-kartikey se is devata ka ekikaran kiya gaya. murugan ka ek any nam 'vellan' bhi milata hai. vellan ka sambandh bel se hai, jisaka arth vahi hai. yah is devata ka pramukh astr tha. kisan log 'marudam' (indr) ki pooja karate the. puhar ke varshik utsav men indr ki vishesh prakar ki pooja hoti thi. 'kaurralai' vijay ki devi thi. skand-kartikey ko uttar bharat men shiv-parvati ke putr ke roop men jana jata hai. tamil pradesh men murugan ka pratik 'murga' (kukkat) ko mana gaya hai, jise parvat-shikhar par krida karana pasand hai. murugan tamilon ke sarvashreshth devata the. sngam kal men tamil pradesh men 'bali pratha' ka prachalan tha. devataon ki pooja-archana karane ke lie mndiron ki bhi vyavastha thi, jinhen 'nagar', 'kottam', 'puraee' ya 'koli' kaha jata tha. yadyapi mndir apane astitv men the tathapi dharmik karyon ka adhikanshat: ayojan khule vrikshon ke niche kiya jata tha.

sngam sahity

'sngam' shabd ka arth hai- 'sngh', 'parishadh', 'goshthi' athava 'snsthan'. vastav men sngam tamil kaviyon, vidvanon, acharyon, jyotishiyon evn buddhijiviyon ki ek parishadh thi. tamil bhasha men likhe gaye prachin sahity ko hi 'sngam sahity' kaha jata hai. tamil anushrutiyon ke anusar tin parishadon (sngam) ka ayojan hua tha- 'pratham sngam', 'dvitiy sngam' aur 'tritiy sngam'. tinon sngam kul 9950 varsh tak chale. is avadhi men lagabhag 8598 kaviyon ne apani rachanaon se 'sngam sahity' ki unnati ki. koee 197 pandy shasakon ne in sngamon ko apana snrakshan pradan kiya. 'sngam sahity' ka rachanakal vivadaspad hai. is vishay men pramanik janakari ka abhav hai, phir bhi jo snket milate hain, unake adhar par yahi anuman lagaya ja sakata hai ki 'sngam sahity' ka snkalan 100 se 600 ee. ke madhy hua hoga. 'sngam sahity' men ullikhit 'narakul' shabd 'smaran prashn' ke arth men prayukt hota tha.


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adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

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