उपनयन संस्कार  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Warning-sign-small.png yah lekh pauranik grnthon athava manyataon par adharit hai at: isamen varnit samagri ke vaigyanik praman hone ka ashvasan nahin diya ja sakata. vistar men dekhen asvikaran
upanayan
Upanayana
  • hindoo dharm snskaron men upanayan snskar dasham snskar hai.
  • manushy jivan ke lie yah snskar vishesh mahattvapoorn hai.
  • is snskar ke anantar hi balak ke jivan men bhautik tatha adhyatmik unnati ka marg prashast hota hai.
  • is snskar men vedarambh-snskar ka bhi samavesh hai.
  • isi ko ygyopavit-snskar bhi kahate hain. is snskar men vatuk ko gayatri mntr ki diksha di jati hai aur ygyopavit dharan karaya jata hai. visheshakar apani-apani shakha ke anusar vedadhyayan kiya jata hai.
  • yah snskar brahman balak ka athaven varsh men, kshatriy balak ka gyarahaven varsh men aur vaishy balak ka barahaven varsh men hota hai.
  • kanyaon ko is snskar ka adhikar nahin diya gaya hai.
  • keval vivah-snskar hi unake liye dvijatv ke roop men parinat karane vala snskar mana gaya hai.

upanayan ka arth

'upanayan' ka arth hai "pas ya sannikat le jana." kintu kisake pas le jana? sambhavat: arambh men isaka tatpary tha "achary ke pas (shikshan ke lie) le jana." ho sakata hai; isaka tatpary raha ho navashishy ko vidyarthipan ki avastha tak pahuncha dena. kuchh grihyasootron se aisa abhas mil jata hai, yatha hiranyakeshi.[1] ke anusar; tab guru bachche se yah kahalavata hai "main brahmasootron ko prapt ho gaya hoon. mujhe isake pas le chalie. savita devata dvara prerit mujhe brahmachari hone dijie."[2] manavagrahyasootr evn kathak. ne 'upanayan' ke sthan par 'upayan' shabd ka prayog kiya hai. kathak ke tikakar adityadarshan ne kaha hai ki upanay, upanayan, maunchibandhan, batukaran, vratabandh samanarthak hain.

udgam evn vikas

is snskar ke udgam evn vikas ke vishay men kuchh charcha ho jana avashyak hai, kyonki yah snskar sab snskaron men ati mahattvapoorn mana gaya hai. upanayan snskar ka mool bharatiy evn eerani hai, kyonki prachin zoranstrien (parasi) shastron ke anusar pavitr mekhala adhovasan (lungi) ka sambandh adhunik parasiyon se bhi hai. kintu is vishay men ham pravesh nahin karenge. ham apane ko bharatiy sahity tak hi simit rakhenge. rigved[3] men 'brahmachari' shabd aya hai.[4] 'upanayan' shabd do prakar se samajhaya ja sakata hai[5]
1. bachche ko achary ke sannikat le jana,
2. vah snskar ya krity jisake dvara balak achary ke pas le jaya jata hai.
pahala arth arambhik hai, kintu kalantar men jab vistarapoorvak yah krity kiya jane laga to doosara arth bhi prayukt ho gaya. apastambadharmasootr[6] ne doosara arth liya hai. usake anusar upanayan ek snskar hai jo usake lie kiya jata hai, jo vidya sikhana chahata hai; "yah aisa snskar hai jo vidya sikhane vale ko gayatri mantr sikhakar kiya jata hai." spasht hai, upanayan pramukhataya gayatri-upadesh (pavitr gayatri mantr ka upadesh) hai. is vishay men jaiminiy[7] bhi drashtavy hai.[8]

upanayan snskar ke lakshan

rigved[9] se pata chalata hai ki grihyasootron men varnit upanayan snskar ke kuchh lakshan us samay bhi vidit the.[10] vahan ek yuvak ke saman yoop (bali-stambh) ki prashnsa ki gayi hai;.."yahan yuvak a raha hai, vah bhali bhanti sajjit hai (yuvak mekhala dvara tatha yoop rashan dvara); vah, jab utpann hua, mahatta prapt karata hai; he chatur rishiyon, ap apane hridayon men devon ke prati shraddha rakhate hain aur svasth vichar vale hain, ise oopar uthaie." yahan "unnayanti" men vahi dhatu hai, jo upanayan men hai. bahut-se grihmasootron ne is mantr ko uddhrit kiya hai, yatha- ashvalayan.[11], paraskar..[12] taittiriy snhita[13] men tin rinon ke varnan men 'brahmachari' evn 'brahmachary' shabd aye hain- 'brahman jab janm leta hai to tin vargon ke vyaktiyon ka rini hota hai; brahmachary men rishiyon ke prati (rini hota hai), ygy men devon ke prati tatha santati men pitaron ke prati; jisako putr hota hai, jo ygy karata hai aur jo brahmachari roop men guru ke pas rahata hai, vah anrini ho jata hai."[14] upanayan evn brahmachary ke lakshanon par prakash vedon evn brahman sahity men upalabdh ho jata hai. atharvaved[15] ka ek poora sookt brahmachari (vaidik chhatr) evn brahmachary ke vishay men atishayokti ki prashnsa se poorn hai.[16]

brahmachary-jivan

taittiriy brahman[17] men bharadvaj ke vishay men ek gatha hai, jisamen kaha gaya hai ki bharadvaj apani ayu ke tin bhagon (75 varshon) tak brahmachari rahe. unase indr ne kaha tha ki unhonne itane varshon tak vedon ke bahut hi kam ansh (3 parvaton ki dheri men se 3 mutthiyan) sikhe hain, kyonki ved to asim hain. manu ke putr nabhanedishth ki gatha se pata chalata hai ki ve apane guru ke yahan brahmachari roop se rahate the, tabhi unhen pita ki sampatti ka koee bhag nahin mila.[18] grihyasootron men varnit brahmachary-jivan ke vishay men shatapath-brahman[19] men bhi bahut-kuchh prapt hota hain, jo bahut hi snkshep men yon hai- balak kahata hai- 'main brahmachary ke lie aya hoon' aur mujhe brahmachari ho jane dijie.' guru poochhata hai- 'tumhara nam kya hai?' tab guru (achary) use pas men le leta hai,(up nayati). tab guru bachche ka hath pakad leta hai aur kahata hai- 'tum indr ke brahmachari ho, agni tumhare guru hain, main tumhara guru hoon" (yahan par guru usaka nam lekar sambodhit karata hai). 'tab vah balak ko bhooton ko de deta hain, arthath bhautik tattvon men niyojit kar deta hai. guru shiksha deta hai 'jal pio, kam karo (guru ke ghar men), agni men samidha dalo, (din men) n soo.' vah savitri mantr duharata hai. pahale bachche ke ane ke ek varsh uparant savitri ka path hota tha, phir 6 mason, 24 dinon, 12 dinon, 3 dinon ke uparant. kintu brahman bachche ke lie upanayan ke din hi path kiya jata tha, pahale pratyek pad alag-alag phir adha aur tab poora mantr duharaya jata tha. brahmachari ho jane par madhu khana varjit ho jata tha.[20]

shatapath brahman[21] evn taittiriyopanishad[22] men 'antevasi'[23] shabd aya hai. shatapathabrahman[24] ka kathan hai "jo brahmachary grahanh karata hai, vah lambe samay ki ygyavadhi grahan karata hai." gopath brahman[25], baudhayanadharmasootr[26] adi men bhi brahmachary-jivan ki or snket milata hai. parikshit janamejay hnson (ahavaniy evn dakshin namak agniyon) se poochhaten hain- pavitr kya hai? to ve donon uttar dete hain- brahmachary (pavitr) hai.[27] gopath brahman[28] ke anusar sabhi vedon ke poorn pandity ke lie 48 varsh ka chhatr-jivan avashyak hai. at: pratyek ved ke lie 12 varsh ki avadhi nishchit si thi. brahmachari ki bhiksha-vritti, usake saral jivan adi par gopathabrahman prabhoot prakash dalata hai.[29] uparyukt vivechan se gyat hota hai ki arambhik kal men upanayan apekshakrit paryapt saral tha. bhavi vidyarthi samidha kashth ke sath (hath men liye hue) guru ke pas ata tha aur unase apani abhikanksha prakat kar brahmachari roop men unake sath hi rahane dene ki prarthana karata tha. grihyasootron men varnit kiya-snskar pahale nahin prachalit the. kathopanishad[30], mundakopanishad[31], chhandogy upanishad[32] evn any upanishadon men brahmachary shabd ka prayog hua hai. chhandogy evn brihadaranyakopanishad sambhavat: sabase prachin upanishad hain. ye donon moolyavan vrittant upasthit karati hai. upanishadon ke kal men hi kuchh krity avashy prachalit the, jaisa ki chhandogy upanishad[33] se gyat hota hai.[34] jab prachinashal aupamanyav evn any char vidyarthi apane hathon men samidha lekar ashvapati kekay ke pas pahunche to ve (ashvapati) unase bina unayan ki kriyaen kiye hi baten karane lage. jab satyakam jabal ne apane gotr ka sachcha parichay de diya to gautam haridrumat ne kaha-"he pyare bachche, jao samidha le ao, main tumhen dikshit karoonga. tum saty se hate nahin".[35] [36]

brahmachary ashram

ati prachin kal men sambhavat: pita hi apane putr ko padhata tha.[37] kintu taittiriyasnhita evn brahmanon ke kalon se pata chalata hai ki chhatr sadharanat: guru ke pas jate the aur usake yahan rahate the. uddalak aruni ne, jo svayn brahmachari evn pahunche hue darshanik the, apane putr shvetaketu ko brahmachari roop se vedadhyayan ke lie guru ke pas jane ko prerit kiya.[38] chhandogyopanishad men brahmacharyashram ka bhi varnan hua hai, jahan par vidyarthi (brahmachari) apane antim din tak gurugeh men rahakar sharir ko sukhata raha hai[39], yahan par naishthik brahmachari ki or snket hai. is upanishad men gotr-nam[40], bhiksha-vritti[41], agni-raksha[42], pashu-palan[43] ka bhi varnan hai. upanayan karane ki avastha par aupanishadik prakash nahin prapt hota, yadyapi hamen yah gyat hai ki shvetaketu ne jab brahmachary dharan kiya to unaki avastha 12 varsh ki thi. sadharanat: vidyarthi-jivan 12 varsh ka tha[44], yadyapi indr ke brahmachary ki avadhi 101 varsh ki thi.[45] ek sthan par chhandogyopanishad[46] ne jivanaparyant brahmachary ki charcha ki hai.

ab ham sootron evn smritiyon men varnit upanayanasnskar ka varnan karenge. is vishay men ek bat smaraniy hai ki is snskar se sambandhit sabhi baten sabhi smritiyon men nahin payi jatin aur n unamen vividh vishayon ka ek anukram men varnan hi paya jata hai. itana hi nahin, vaidik mantron ke prayog ke vishay men sabhi sootr ekamat nahin hain. ab ham kram se upanayan snskar ke vividh roopon par prakash dalenge.

upanayan ke lie uchit avastha evn kal

ved path

ashvnlayanagrihyasootr[47] ke mat se brahmanakumar ka upanayan garbhadhan ya janm se lekar athaven varsh men, kshatriy ka 11ven varsh men evn vaishy ka 12ven varsh men hona chahie; yahi nahin, kram se 16ven, 22ven evn 24ven varsh tak bhi upanayan ka samay bana rahata hai.[48] apastamb[49], shankhayan[50], baudhayan[51], bharadvaj[52] evn gobhil[53] grihyasootr tatha yagyvalky[54], apastambadharmasootr[55] spasht kahate hain ki varshon ki ganana garbhadhan se honi chahie. yahi bat mahabhashy men bhi hai. paraskaragrihyasootr[56] ke mat se upanayan garbhadhan ya janm se athaven varsh men hona chahie, kintu is vishay men kuladharm ka palan bhi karana chahie. yagyvalky[57] ne bhi kuladharm ki bat chalayi hai. shankhayanagrihyasootr[58] ne garbhadhan se 8van ya 10van varsh, manav[59] ne 7van ya 9van varsh, kathak[60] ne tinon varnon ke lie kram se 7van, 9van evn 11van varsh svikrit kiya hai; kintu yah chhoot keval kram se adhyatmik, sainik evn dhan-sngrah ki mahatta ke lie hi di gayi hai. adhyatmikata, lambi ay evn dhan ki abhikanksha vale brahman pita ke lie putr ka upanayan garbhadhan se 5ven, 8ven evn 9ven varsh men bhi kiya ja sakata hai.[61] apastambadharmasootr[62] evn baudhayan grihyasootr'[63] ne adhyatmik mahatta, lambi ayu, dipti, paryapt bhojan, sharirik bal evn pashu ke lie kram se 7van, 8van, 9van, 10van, 11van evn 12van varsh svikrit kiya hai. at: janm se 8van, 11van evn 12van varsh kram se brahman, kshatriy evn vaishy ke lie pramukh samay mana jata raha hai. 5ven varsh se 11ven varsh tak brahmanon ke lie gaun, 9ven varsh se 16 varsh tak kshatriyon ke lie gaun mana jata raha hai. brahmanon ke lie 12ven se 16ven tak gaunatar kal tatha 16ven ke uparant gaunnatam kal mana gaya hai.[64] apastambagrihyasootr evn apastambadharmasootr[65], hiranyakeshigrihyasootr[66] evn vaikhanas ke mat se tinon varnon ke lie kram se shubh muhoort padate hain vasant, grishm evn sharadh ke din. bharadvaj[67] ke anusar vasant brahman ke lie, grishm ya hemant kshatriy ke lie, sharadh vaishy ke lie, varsha badhee ke lie ya shishir sabhi ke lie many hai. bharadvaj ne vahin yah bhi kaha hai ki upanayan mas ke shuklapaksh men kisi shubh nakshatr men, bharasak purush nakshatr men karana chahie.

kalantar ke dharmashastrakaron ne upanayan ke lie mason, tithiyon evn dinon ke vishay men jyotish-sambandhi vidhan bade vistar ke sath diye hain, jin par likhana yahan uchit evn avashyak nahin jan padatan kintu thoda-bahut likh dena avashyak hai, kyonki ajakal ye hi vidhan many hain. vriddhagargy ne likha hai ki magh se lekar chh: mas upanayan ke lie upayukt hain, kintu any logon ne magh se lekar panch mas hi upayukt thaharaye hain. pratham, chauthi, satavin, athavin, navin, terahavin, chaudahavin, poornamasi evn amavas ki tithiyan bahudha chhod di jati hain. jab shukr soory ke bahut pas ho aur dekha n ja sake, jab soory rashi ke pratham ansh men ho, anadhyay ke dinon men tatha galagrah men upanayan nahin karana chahie.[68] brihaspati, shukr, mngal evn budh kram se rigved evn any vedon ke devata mane jate hain. at: in vedon ke adhyayanakartaon ka unake devon ke varon men hi upanayan hona chahie. saptah men budh, brihaspati evn shukr sarvottam din hain, ravivar madhyam tatha somavar bahut kam yogy hai. kintu mngal evn shanivar nishiddh mane jate hain (samaved ke chhatron evn kshatriyon ke lie mngal many hai). nakshatron men hast, chitra, svati, pushy, ghanishtha, ashvini, mrigashira, punarvasu, shravan evn ravati achchhe mane jate hain vishisht ved valon ke lie nakshatr-sambandhi any niyamon ki charcha yahan nahin ki ja rahi hai. ek niyam yah hai ki bharani, krittika, magha, vishakha, jyeshtha, shatataraka ko chhodakar sabhi any nakshatr sabake lie achchhe hain. ladake ki kundali ke lie chandr evn brihaspati jyotish-roop se shaktishali hone chahie. brihaspati ka sambandh gyan evn sukh se hai, at: upanayan ke lie usaki param mahatta gayi gayi hai. yadi brihaspati evn shukr n dikhaee paden to upanayan nahin kiya ja sakata. any jyotish-sambandhi niyamon ka udghatan yahan sthanabhav ke karan nahin kiya jayaga.

vastr

  • brahmachari do vastr dharan karata tha, jinamen ek adhobhag ke lie (vasash) aur doosara oopari bhag ke lie (uttariy).
  • apastambadharmasootr[69] ke anusar brahman, kshatriy evn vaishy brahmachari ke lie vastr kram se patua ke soot ka, sanh ke soot ka evn mrigacharm ka hota tha.
  • kuchh dharmashastrakaron ke mat se adhobhag ka vastr rooee ke soot ka (brahmanon ke lie lal rng, kshatriyon ke lie majith rng evn vaishyon ke lie haldi rng) hona chahien vastr ke vishay men bahut matabhed hain.[70]
  • apastambadharmasootr[71] ne sabhi varnon ke lie bhed ka charm (uttariy ke lie) ya kambal vikalp roop se svikar kar liya hai.
  • adhobhag ya oopari bhag ke paridhan ke vishay men brahman-granthon men bhi snket milata hai.[72] jo vaidik gyan badhana chahe usake adhovastr evn uttariy mrigacharm ke, jo sainik shakti chahe usake lie rooee ka vastr aur jo donon chahe vah donon prakar ke vastron ka upayog kare.[73]

dand

dand kis vriksh ka banaya jay, is vishay men bhi bahut matabhed raha hai. ashvalayanagrihyasootr[74] ke mat se brahman, kshatriy evn vaishy ke lie kram se palash, udumbar evn bilv ka dand hona chahie, ya koee bhi varn unamen se kisi ek ka dand bana sakata hai. apastambagrihy sootr[75] ke anusar brahman kshatriy evn vaishy ke lie kram se palash nyagrodh ki shakha (jisaka nichala bhag dand ka oopari bhag mana jay) evn badar ya udumbar ka dand hona chahie. yahi bat apastambadharmasootr[76] men bhi payi jati hai. isi prakar bahut se mat hain jinaka udghatan anavashyak hai.[77] poorvakal men sahare ke lie, achary ke pashuon ko niyantran men rakhane ke lie, ratri men jane par suraksha ke lie evn nadi men pravesh karate samay pathapradarshan ke lie dand ki avashyakata padati thi.[78]

balak ke varn ke anusar dand ki lambaee men antar tha. ashvalayanagrihyasootr[79], gautam[80], vasishthadharmasootr[81], paraskaragrihyasootr[82], manu[83] ke maton se brahman kshatriy evn vaishv ka dand kram se sir tak, mastak tak evn nak tak lamba hona chahie. shankhayanagrihyasootr[84] ne is anukram ko ulat diya hai, arthath isake anusar brahman ka dand sabase chhota evn vaishy ka sabase bada hona chahie. gautam[85] ka kahana hai ki dand ghuna hua nahin hona chahie. usaki chhal lagi rahani chahie, oopari bhag tedha hona chahie. kintu manu[86] ke anusar dand sidha, sundar evn agnisparsh se rahit hona chahie. shankhayanagrihyasootr[87] ke anusar brahmachari ko chahie ki vah kisi ko apane evn dand ke bich se nikalane n de, yadi dand, mekhala evn ygyopavit toot jayen to use prayashchitt karana chahie (vaisa hi jaisa ki vivah ke samay varayatra ka rath tootane par kiya jata hai). brahmachary ke ant men ygyopavit, dand, mekhala evn mrigacharm ko jal men tyag dena chahie. aisa karate samay varun ke mantr[88] ka path karana chahie ya keval 'omh' ka uchcharan karana chahie.[89] manu[90] evn vishnudharmasootr[91] ne bhi yahi bat kahi hai.

mekhala

gautam[92], ashvalayanagrihyasootr[93], baudhayanagrihyasootr[94], manu[95], kathakagrihyasootr[96], bharadvajagrihasootr[97] tatha any logon ke mat se brahman, kshatriy evn vaishy bachche ke lie kram se munj, moorva (jisase pratyncha banati hai) evn patua ki mekhala (karadhani) honi chahie. manu[98] ne paraskaragrihyasootr evn apastambadharmasootr[99] [100] ki bhanti hi niyam kahe hain kintu vikalp se kaha hai ki kshatriyon ke lie moonj tatha loh se gunthi huee ho sakati hai tatha vaishyon ke lie soot ka dhaga ya jue ki rassi ya tamal (san) ki chhal ka dhaga ho sakata hai. baudhayanagrihyasootr[101] ne moonj ki mekhala sabake lie many kahi hai. mekhala men kitani ganthe honi chahie, yah praveron ki snkhya par nirbhar hai.

upanayan-vidhi

ashvalayanagrihyasootr men upanayan snskar ka snkshipt vivaran diya hua hai, jo pathaniy hai. sthanabhav ke karan vah varnan yahan upasthit nahin kiya ja raha hai. upanayan-vidhi ka vistar apastambagrihyasootr, hiranyakeshigrihyasootr evn gobhilagrihyasootr men paya jata hai. kuchh baten yahan di ja rahi hain, jisase mataiky evn matantar par kuchh prakash pad jay. ashvalayan evn apastamb tatha kuchh any sootrakaron ne janeoo ke bare men kuchh bhi nahin likha hai, kintu hiranyakeshi[102], bharadvajagrihasootr[103] evn manavagrihasootr[104] ne hog ke poorv ygyopavit dharan karana batalaya hai. baudhayanagrihasootr[105] ka kahana hai ki ygyopavit pane ke uparant hi batuk "ygyopavitn paramn pavitrn prajapateryatsahajn purastath. ayushyamagryn pratimunch shubhrn ygyopavitn balamastu tej:॥" namak ati prasiddh mantr ka uchcharan karata hai, pavitr janeoo ko "ygyopavitamh" mantr ke sath tatha krishn mrigacharm ko "mitrasy chakshu:" kahakar deta hai. yahi bat snskaratattv[106] men bhi payi jati hai. snskararatnamala ne hom ke poorv ygyopavit pahanane ko kaha hai. ygyopavit ke udgam evn vikas ke vishay men ham age padhege. is avasar par dharmashastrakaron ne chaulakarm kar lene ko kaha hai. arambhik kal men chaulakarm svayn achary karata tha. nimnalikhit vidhiyan bhi dhyan dene yogy hain—
(k) apastambagrihyasootr[107], manavagrihasootr[108], baudhayan[109], khadir.[110] evn bharadvajagrihasootr[111] ne batuk ko hom ke uparant agni ke uttar dahine pair se prastar par chadhane ko kaha hai. prastar par pair rakhana dridh nishchay ka dyotak hai.
(kh) manavagrihasootr[112] evn khadir.[113] ne hom ke uparant "dadhikravno akarishamh"[114] mantr ko duharate hue dadhi tin bar khane ko kaha hai.
(g) paraskaragrihyasootr[115], bharadvaj[116], apastambagrihasootr[117], apastamb-mantrapath[118], baudhayanagrihasootr[119], manavagrihasootr[120] evn khadir.[121] ke mat se batuk se achary usaka nam poochhata hai aur vah batata hai. achary usase yah bhi poochhata hai "tum kisake brahmachari ho?" sabhi smritiyon men yah bat payi jati hai ki upanayan tinon varnon men hota tha. upanayan-vidhi ke vishay men bahut se bhed-vibhed hain, jinaki charcha karana yahan anavashriyak hai. kalantar ke lekhakon ne mantron ko jod-jodakar vistar badha diya hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hiranyakeshi., 1.5.2
  2. athainamabhivyaharayati. brahmacharyamagamup ma nayasv brahmachari bhavani deven savitra prasoot:. hiranyakeshi. (1.5.2); brahmacharyamagamiti vachayati brahmacharyasaniti ch. par. 2.2; aur dekhie gobhil. (2.10.21). "brahmacharyamagamh" evn "brahmacharyasani" shatapath. (11.5.4.1) men bhi aye hain; aur dekhie apastambiy mantrapath (2.3.26) "brahmachary... prasoot:." yagyvalky (1.14) ki vyakhya men vishvaroop ne likha hai- "vedadhyayanayachary samipe nayanamupanayann tadevopanayanamityuktn chhandonurodhath. tadarth va karm." hiranyakeshi. (1.1.1) par matridatt ko bhi dekhie.
  3. rigved, 10.109.5
  4. brahmachari charati vevishadh vish: s devanan bhavatyekamngamh. ten jayamanvavindadh brihaspati: somen nitan juhv n deva:॥ rigved 10.109.5; atharvaved 5.17.5. som ki or snket se rigved (10.85.45) ka 'somo dadadh gandharvay' smaran ho ata hai. kisi manaviy var se parinay hone ke poorv pratyek kumari som, gandharv evn agni ke rakshan ke bhitar kalpit mani gayi hai.
  5. tatropanayanashabd: karmanamadheyamh..... tachch yaugikamudh bhidnyayath. yogashch bhavavyutpatya karanavyutpattya vetyah bharuchi:. s yatha- upasamipe acharyadinan batornayann prapanamupanayanamh. samipe acharyadinan niyate baturyen tadupanayanamiti va.... tatr ch bhavayutpattirev sadhiyasiti gamyate. shrautarthavidhisnbhavath. snskaraprakash, pri0 334.
  6. apastambadharmasootr, 1.1.1.19
  7. jaiminiy , 6.1.35
  8. snskarasy tadarthatvadh vidyayan purushashruti:. jaimini 6.1.35; 'vidyayamebaisha shruti: (vasante brahmanamupanayit). upanayanasy snskarasy tadarthatvath. vidyarthamupadhyayasy samipamaniyate nadrishtarth napi knt kudayn va katumh. drishtarthamev saisha vidyayan purushashruti:. kathamavagabhyate. acharyakaranametadavagabhyate. kut:. atmanepadadarshanath.' shabar.
  9. rigved, 3.8.4
  10. yuva suvasa: parivit agath s u shreyanbhabati jayaman:. tn dhiras: kavay unnayanti svadhyo manasa devayant:॥ rigved, 3.8.4; ashvalayanagrihyasootr (1.19.8) ke anusar bachche ko alnkrit kiya jata hai aur naye vastr diye jate hain 'alnkritn kumarn... ahaten vasasa snvitn' ... adi; evn dekhie 1.20.8--'yuva suvasa: parivit agadityarshrarbenainn pradakshinamavartayeth.'
  11. ashvalayan, 1.20.8
  12. paraskar., 2.2
  13. taittiriy snhita, 3.10.5
  14. gyayamano h vai brahmanastribhirhrinavan jayate brahmacharyen rishibhyo ygyen devebhy: prajaya pitribhy esh va anrino y: putri yajva brahmacharivasi. taittiriy snhita 6.3.10.5 .
  15. atharvaved, 11.7.1-26
  16. brahmacharishnnshcharati rodasi ubhe tasmindeva: snmanaso bhavanti. s dadhar prithivin divn ch s achary tapasa piparti ॥ atharvaved 11.7... gopath brahman (2.1) men yah shlok vyakhyayit hai. achary upanayamano brahmacharinn krinute garbhamant:. atharvaved 11.7.3; yahi bhavana apastambadharmasootr (1.1.1.16-18) men bhi payi jati hai, yatha- s hi vidyatastn janayati. tachchhreshthn janm. sharir mev matapitarau janayat:. shatapath brahman (11.5.4.12) se milaie- acharyon garbhibhavati hastamashram dakshinamh. tritiyasyan s jayate savitrya sah brahman:॥ brahmacharyeti sabhisha samiddh: karshn vasano dikshito dirghashmashru:. atharvaved 11.7.6.
  17. taittiriy brahman, 3.10.11
  18. aitarey brahman 22.9 evn taittiriy brahman 3.1.9.15
  19. shatapath-brahman, 11.5.4
  20. shatapathabrahman 11.5.4.1-17
  21. shatapathabrahman, 5.1.5.17
  22. taittiriyopanishad, 1.11
  23. shatapathabrahman 11.5.4.1-17
  24. shatapathabrahman, 11.3.3.2
  25. gopathabrahman, 2.3
  26. baudhayanadharmasootr, 1.2.53
  27. gopath brahman 2.5
  28. gopath brahman, 2.5
  29. gopathabrahman 2.7
  30. kathopanishad, 1.1.15
  31. mundakopanishad, 2.1.7
  32. chhandogy upanishad, 6.1.1
  33. chhandogy upanishad, 5.11.7
  34. dirdhasatrn va esh apaiti yo brahmacharyamupaiti. shatapath0 11.3.3.2. baudhayanadharmasootr (1.2.52) men bhi yah uddhrit hai. "apoashan" shabd ka bhojan karane ke poorv evn ant men "amritopastaranamasi svaha" evn "amritapidhanamasi svaha" namak shabdon ke sath jalachaman ki or snket hai. dekhie snskaratattv pri0 893. ye donon mantr apastambiy mantrapath (2.10.3-4) men aye hain.
  35. chhandogy upanishad 4.4.5
  36. te h samitpanay: poorvahle pratichakamire tanhanupaniyaivaitaduvach. chhandogy upanishad 5.2.7; samidhn sobhyaharop tva neshye n satyadaga iti. chhandogy upanishad 4.4.5; upaimyahn bhavantamiti vacha h smaiv poorv upayanti s hopayanakirtyovas. brihadaranyakopanishad 6.2.7.
  37. dekhie brih0 u0 6.2.1 "anushishto nvasi pitretyomiti hovach." yagyvakl (1.15) ki tika men vishvaroop ne likha hai- gurugrahann tu mukhyn pituyapanetritvamiti. tatha ch shruti:. tasmatputramanu shishtn lokyamahuriti. acharyopanayann tu brahmanasyanukalp:.
  38. shvetaketurharuney as tn h pitovach shvetavach shvetaketo vas brahmachary... s h dvadashavarsh upety chaturvishativarsh: sarvanvedanadhity mahamana anoochanamani stabdh eyay tn h pitovach shvetaketo... ut tamadeshamaprakshy: yenashrutn shrutn bhavati. chhandogy upanishad 6.1.1.1-2.
  39. chhandogy upanishad 2.23.1
  40. chhandogy upanishad, 4.4.4
  41. chhandogy upanishad, 4.3.5
  42. chhandogy upanishad, 4.10.1-2
  43. chhandogy upanishad, 4.4.5
  44. chhandogy upanishad, 2.23.1, 4.10.1 tatha 6.1.2
  45. chhandogy upanishad, 8.2.3
  46. chhandogy upanishad, 2.23.1
  47. ashvnlayanagrihyasootr, 1.19.1-6
  48. ashtame varshe brahmanamupanayeth. garbhashtame va. ekadashe kshatriyamh. dvadashe vaishyamh. a shodashadh brahmanasyanatit: kal:. a dvarvishatkshatriyasy. a chaturvinshadvaishyasy. ashvalayanagrihyasootr 1.19.1-6.
  49. apastamb, 10.2
  50. shankhayan, 2.1
  51. baudhayan, 2.5.2
  52. bharadvaj, 1.1
  53. gobhil, 2.10
  54. grihyasootr tatha yagyvalky, 1.14
  55. apastambadharmasootr, 1.1.1.19
  56. paraskaragrihyasootr, 2.2
  57. yagyvalky, 1.14
  58. shankhayanagrihyasootr, 2.1.1
  59. manavagrihasootr, 1.22.1
  60. kathak, 41.1-3
  61. vaikhanas 3.3
  62. apastambadharmasootr, 41.1.1.21
  63. baudhayan grihyasootr, 2.5
  64. dekhie snskaraprakash, pri0 342
  65. apastambagrihyasootr evn apastambadharmasootr, 1.1.1.19
  66. hiranyakeshigrihyasootr, 1.1
  67. bharadvaj, 1.1
  68. nashte chandreastage shukre nirnshe chaiv bhaskare. kartavyabhaupanayann nanadhyaye galagrihe॥... trayodashichatushkn tu saptabhyaditrayn tatha. chaturshyekadashi prokta ashtavete galagraha:॥ smritichandrika, jild 1, pri0 27.
  69. apastambadharmasootr, 1.1.2.39-9.1.3.1-2
  70. vas:. shanikshaumajinani. kashayn chaike vastramupadishanti. manjishthn rajanyasy. haridrn veshyasy. apastambadharm 1.1.2.39-41-1.1.3.1-2; shuklamahatn vaso brahmanasy, manjishthn kshatriyasy. haridrn kausheyn va vaishyast. sarveshan va tantavamaraktamh. vasishthadharmasootr 11.64-67. dekhie paraskar (2.5)- aineyamajinamuttariyn brahmanasy rauravn rajanyasyajn gavyn va vaishyasy sarveshan va gavyamasati pradhanatvath.
  71. apastambadharmasootr, 1.1.3.7-8
  72. apastambadharmasootr 1.1.3.9
  73. brahmavriddhimichchhannajinanyev vasit kshatravriddhimichchhanvastranyevobhayavriddhimichchhannubhayamiti hi brahmanamh. ajinn tvetottarn dharayeth. apastambadharmasootr 1.1.3.9-10. milaie bharadvajagrihy sootr (1.1)- yadajinn dharayedabrahmavarchasavadvaso dharayetsatrn vardhayedubhayn dharyamubhayorvriddhaya iti vigyayate; milaie gopathabrahman (2.4)- n tantavn vasit yastantavn vasate kshayn vardhate n brahm tasmattantavn n vasit brahm vardhatan ma kshatramiti.
  74. ashvalayanagrihyasootr, 1.19.13 evn 1.20.1
  75. apastambagrihy sootr, 11.15-16
  76. apastambadharmasootr, 1.1.2.38
  77. dekhie gautam 1.21; baudhayanadharmasootr 2.5.17; gautam 1.22-23; paraskaragrihyasootr 2.5; kathakagrihyasootr 41.22; manu 2.45 adi
  78. dandajinopavitani mekhalan chaiv dharayeth. yagyvalky 1.29; tatr dandasy karyamavalambann gavadinivarann tamovagahanamapsu praveshanamityadi. aparark.
  79. ashvalayanagrihyasootr, 1.19.13
  80. gautam, 1.25
  81. vasishthadharmasootr, 11.55-57
  82. paraskaragrihyasootr, 2.5
  83. manu, 2.46
  84. shankhayanagrihyasootr, 2.1.21-23
  85. gautam, 1.26
  86. manu, 2.47
  87. shankhayanagrihyasootr, 2.13.2-3
  88. rigvend 1.24.6
  89. upavitn ch dande badhnati. tadapyetath. ygyopavitadandn ch mekhalamajinn tatha. juhuyadapsu vrate poorne varunyarcha rasen. shankhayanagrihy0 2.39-31; 'ras' ka arth hai 'omh'.
  90. manu, 2.64
  91. vishnudharmasootr, 27.29
  92. gautam, 1.15
  93. ashvalayanagrihyasootr, 1.19.11
  94. baudhayanagrihyasootr, 2.5.13
  95. manu, 2.42
  96. kathakagrihyasootr, 41.12
  97. bharadvajagrihasootr, 1.2
  98. manu, 2.42-43
  99. paraskaragrihyasootr evn apastambadharmasootr, 1.1.2.35-37
  100. jya rajanyasy maunji vayomishrita. avisootrn vaishyasy. sairi tamali vetyeke. apastambadharnasootr 1.1.2.34-37. gobhil (2.10.10) ki tika men tamal ko shan (san) kaha gaya hai.
  101. baudhayanagrihyasootr, 2.5.13
  102. hiranyakeshi, 1.2.6
  103. bharadvajagrihasootr, 1.3
  104. manavagrihasootr, 1.22.3
  105. baudhayanagrihasootr, 2.5.7
  106. prishth 934
  107. apastambagrihyasootr, 10.9
  108. manavagrihasootr, 1.23.12
  109. baudhayan, 2.5.10
  110. khadir., 2.4
  111. bharadvajagrihasootr, 1.8
  112. manavagrihasootr, 1.22.3
  113. khadir., 41.10
  114. rigved 4.39.6, taittiriyasnhita 1.5.4.11
  115. paraskaragrihyasootr, 2.2
  116. bharadvaj, 1.7
  117. apastambagrihasootr, 2.1-4
  118. apastamb-mantrapath, 2.3.27-30
  119. baudhayanagrihasootr, 2.5.25, shatyayanak ko uddhrit kar
  120. manavagrihasootr, 1.22.4-5
  121. khadir., 2.4.12

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