संस्कार  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

'snskar' shabd prachin vaidik sahity men nahin milata, kintu 'samh' ke sath 'kri' dhatu tatha 'snskrit' shabd bahudha mil jate hain. rigved[1] men 'snskrit' shabd dharm (baratan) ke lie prayukt hua hai, yatha 'donon ashvin pavitr hue baratan ko hani nahin pahunchate.' rigved[2] men 'snskritatr' tatha[3] 'ranay snskrita' shabd prayukt hue hain. shatapath brahman[4] men aya hai-- 'sn idn devebhyo havi: snskuru sadhu snskritn snskurvityevaitadahh.' shatapath brahman men aya hai[5] 'stri kisi snskrit (sugathit) ghar men khade purush ke pas pahunchati hai'.[6] chhandogy upanishad men aya hai--[7] 'us ygy ki do vidhiyan hai, man se ya vani se, brahma unamen se ek ko apane man se banata ya chamakata hai.' jaimini ke sootron men snskar shabd anek bar aya hai[8] aur sabhi sthalon par yah ygy ke pavitr ya nirmal kary ke arth men prayukt hua hai, yatha jyotishtom ygy men sir ke kesh mundane, dant svachchh karane, nakhoon katane ke arth men[9]; ya prakshen (jal chhidakane) ke arth men[10], adi. jaimini ke[11] men 'snskar' shabd upanayan ke lie prayukt hua hai. shabar ki vyakhya men 'snskar' shabd ka arth bataya hai ki[12] snskar vah hai jisake hone se koee padarth ya vyakti kisi kary ke lie yogy ho jata hai. tantravartik ke anusar[13] snskar ve kriyaen tatha ritiyan hain jo yogyata pradan karati hain. yah yogyata do prakar ki hoti hai; pap-mochan se utpann yogyata tatha navin gunon se utpann yogyata. snskaron se navin gunon ki prapti tatha tap se papon ya doshon ka marjan hota hai. vir mitroday ne snskar ki paribhasha is tarah ki hai-- yah ek vilakshan yogyata hai jo shastravihit kriyaon ke karane se utpann hoti hai.…yah yogyata do prakar ki hai-

  • jisake dvara vyakti any kriyaon (yatha upanayan snskar se vedadhyayan arambh hota hai) ke yogy ho jata hai, tatha
  • dosh (yatha jatakarm snskar se viry evn garbhashay ka dosh mochan hota hai) se mukt ho jata hai.

snskar shabd grihyasootron men nahin milata (vaikhanas men milata hai), kintu yah dharmasootron men aya hai.[14]

snskaron ka uddeshy

manu[15] ke anusar dvijatiyon men mata-pita ke viry evn garbhashay ke doshon ko garbhadhan-samay ke hom tatha jatakarm (janm ke samay ke snskar) se, chaul (mundan snskar) se tatha moonj ki mekhala pahanane (upanayan) se door kiya jata hai. vedadhyayan, vrat, hom, traividy vrat, pooja, santanotpatti, pnchamahaygyon tatha vaidik ygyon se manavasharir brahm-prapti ke yogy banaya jata hai. yagyvalky[16] ka mat hai ki snskar karane se bij-garbh se utpann dosh mit jate hain. nibandhakaron tatha vyakhyakaron ne manu evn yagyvalky ki in baton ko kee prakar se kaha hai. snskar tattv men uddhrit harit[17] ke anusar jab koee vyakti garbhadhan ki vidhi ke anusar snbhog karata hai, to vah apani patni men vedadhyayan ke yogy bhroon sthapit karata hai, punsavan snskar dvara vah garbh ko purush ya nar banata hai, simantonnayan snskar dvara mata-pita se utpann dosh door karata hai, bij, rakt evn bhroon se utpann dosh jatakarm, namakaran, annaprashan, choodakaran evn samavartan se door hote hain. in ath prakar ke snskaron se, arthath garbhadhan, punsavan, simantonnayan, jatakarm, namakaran, annaprashan, choodakaran evn samavartan se pavitrata ki utpatti hoti hai.

yadi ham snskaron ki snkhya par dhyan den to pata chalega ki unake uddeshy anek the. upanayan jaise snskaron ka sambandh tha adhyatmik evn sanskritik uddeshyon se, unase gun sampann vyaktiyon se sampark sthapit hota tha, vedadhyayan ka marg khulata tha tatha anek prakar ki suvidhaen prapt hoti thi. unaka manauvaigyanik mahattv bhi tha, snskar karane vala vyakti ek naye jivan ka arambh karata tha, jisake lie vah niyamon ke palan ke lie pratishrut hota tha. namakaran, annaprashan evn nishkraman aise snskaron ka keval laukik mahattv tha, unase keval pyar, sneh evn utsavon ki pradhanata matr jhalakati hai. garbhadhan, punsavan, simantonnayan aise snskaron ka mahattv rahasyatmak evn pratikatmak tha. vivah-snskar ka mahattv tha do vyaktiyon ko atmanigrah, atm-tyag evn paraspar sahayog ki bhoomi par lakar samaj ko chalate jane dena.

snskaron ki kotiyan

harit ke anusar snskaron ki do kotiyan hain;

  • brahm evn,
  • daiv.

garbhadhan aise snskar jo keval smritiyon men varnit hain, brahm kahe jate hain. inako sampadit karane vale log rishiyon ke samakaksh a jate hain. pakaygy (pakaye hue bhojan ki ahutiyan), ygy (homahutiyan) evn somaygy adi daiv snskar kahe jate hain.

snskaron ki snkhya

snskaron ki snkhya ke vishay men smritikaron men matabhed raha hai. gautam[18] ne 40 snskaron evn atma ke ath shil-gunon ka varnan kiya hai. 40 snskar ye hain- garbhadhan, punsavan, simantonnayan, jatakarm, namakaran, annaprashan, chaul, upanayan (kul 8), ved ke 4 vrat, snan (ya samavartan), vivah, pnch mahaygy (dev, pitri, manushy, bhoot evn brahm ke lie), 7 pakaygy (ashtaka, parvan-sthalipak, shraddh, shranvani, agrahayani, chaitri, ashvayuji), 7 havirygy jinamen hom hota hai, kintu som nahin (agnayadhan, agnihotr, darshapoornamas, agrayan, chaturmasy, niroodhapashubandh evn sautramani), 7somaygy (agnishtom, atyagnishtom, ukthy, shodashi, vajapey, atiratr, aptoryam).

shnkh evn mitakshara[19] ki subodhini gautam ki snkhya ko manate hain. vaikhanas ne netavark sharir snskaron ke nam ginaye hain (jinamen utthan, pravasagaman, pindavardhan bhi sammilit hain, jinhen kahin bhi snskaron ki koti men nahin gina gaya hai) tatha 22 ygyon ka varnan kiya hai (pnch ahnik ygy, sat pakaygy, sat havirygy evn sat somaygy; yahan pnch ahnik ygyon ko ek hi mana gaya hai, at: kul milakar 22 ygy hue). grihyasootron, dharmasootron evn smritiyon men adhikansh itani lambi snkhya nahin milati. angira ne (snskarabhayookh evn snskaraprakash tatha any nibandhon men uddhrit) 25 snskar ginaye hain. inamen gautam ke garbhadhan se lekar panch ahnik ygyon (jinhen angira ne age chalakar ek hi snskar gina hai) tak tatha namakaran ke uparant nishkraman joda gaya hai. inake atirikt angira ne vishnubali, agrayan, ashtaka, shravani, ashvayuji, margashirshi (agrahayani ke saman), parvan, utsarg evn upakarm ko shesh snskaron men gina hai. vyas[20] ne 16 snskar ginaye hain. manu, yagyvalky, vishnudharmasootr ne koee snkhya nahin di hai, pratyut nishek (garbhadhan) se shmashan (antyeshti) tak ke snskaron ki or snket kiya hai. gautam evn kee grihyasootron ne antyeshti ko gina hi nahin hai. nibandhon men adhikansh ne solah snskaron ki snkhya di hai, yatha- garbhadhan, punsavan, simantonnayan, vishnubali, jatakarm, namakaran, nishkraman, annaprashan, chaul, upanayan, vedavrat-chatushtay, samavartan evn vivah. smritichandrika dvara uddhrit jatookarny men ye 16 snskar varnit hain- garbhadhan, punsavan, simant, jatakarm, namakaran, annaprashan, chaul, maunji (upanayan), vrat (4), godan, samavartan, vivah evn antyeshti. vyas ki di huee talika se isamen kuchh antar hai.

grihyasootron men snskaron ka varnan do anukramon men hua hai. adhikansh vivah se arambh kar samavartan tak chale ate hain. hiranyakeshi grihy, bharadvaj grihy evn manav grihyasootr upanayan se arambh karate hain. kuchh snskar, yatha karnavedh evn vidyarambh grihyasootron men nahin varnit hain. ye kuchh kalantar vali smritiyon evn puranon men hi ullikhit hue hain. ham niche snskaron ka ati snkshipt vivaran upasthit karengen.

ritu-sngaman

vaikhanas[21] ne ise garbhadhan se prithakh snskar mana hai. yah ise nishek bhi kahata hai[22] aur isaka varnan[23] men karata hai. garbhadhan ka varnan[24] men hua hai. vaikhanas ne snskaron ka varnan nishek se arambh kiya hai.

garbhadhan (nishek), chaturthikarm ya hom

manu[25], yagyvalky[26], vishnu dharmasootr[27] ne nishek ko garbhadhan ke saman mana jata hai. shankhayan grihyasootr[28], paraskar grihyasootr[29] tatha apastamb grihyasootr[30] ke mat men chaturthi-karm ya chaturthi-hom ki kriya vaisi hi hoti hai jo anyatr garbhadhan men payi jati hai tatha garbhadhan ke lie prithakh varnan nahin paya jata. kintu baudhayan grihyasootr[31], kathak grihyasootr[32], gautam[33] evn yagyvalky[34] men garbhadhan shabd ka prayog paya jata hai. vaikhanas[35] ke anusar garbhadhan ki snskar-kriya nishek ya ritu-sngaman (masik pravah ke uparant vivahit jode ke snbhog) ke uparant ki jati hai aur vah garbhadhan ko dridh karati hai.

punsavan

yah sabhi grihyasootron men paya jata hai; gautam evn yagyvalky[36] men bhi.

garbharakshan

shankhayan grihyasootr[37] men isaki charcha huee hai. yah anavalobhan ke saman hai jo ashvalayan grihyasootr[38] ke anusar upanishad men varnit hai aur ashvalayan grihyasootr[39] ne jisaka svayn varnan kiya hai.

simantonnayan

yah snskar sabhi dharmashastr-granthon men ullikhit hai. yagyvalky[40] ne keval simant shabd ka vyavahar kiya hai.

vishnubali

isaki charcha baudhayan grihyasootr[41], vaikhanas[42] evn angira ne ki hai kintu gautam tatha any prachin sootrakaron ne isaki charcha nahin ki hai.

soshyanti-karm ya hom

khadir evn gobhil dvara yah ullikhit hai. ise kathak grihyasootr men soshyanti-savan, apastamb grihyasootr evn bharadvaj grihyasootr men kshiprasuvan tatha hiranyakeshi grihyasootr men kshiprasavan kaha gaya hai. budhasmriti[43] men bhi isaki charcha hai.

jatakarm

isaki charcha sabhi sootron evn smritiyon men huee hai.

utthan

keval vaikhanas[44] evn shankhayan grihyasootr[45] ne isaki charcha ki hai.

namakaran

sabhi smritiyon men varnit hai.

nishkraman

ise upanishkraman ya adityadarshan ya nirnayan bhi kahate hain. yagyvalky[46], paraskar grihyasootr[47] tatha manu[48] ne ise kram se nishkraman, nishkramanika tatha nishkraman kaha hai. kintu kaushik sootr[49], baudhayan grihyasootr[50], manav grihyasootr[51] ne kram ne ise nirnayan, upanishkraman evn adityadarshan kaha hai. vishnu dharmasootr[52] evn shnkh[53] ne bhi ise adity darshan kaha hai. gautam, apastamb grihyasootr tatha kuchh any sootr isaka nam hi nahin lete.

karnavedh

sabhi prachin sootron men isaka nam nahin ata. vyas smriti[54], baudhayan grihyasootr[55] evn katyayan-sootr ne isaki charcha ki hai.

annaprashan

pray: sabhi smritiyon ne isaka ullekh kiya hai.

varshavardhan ya abdapoorti

gobhil, shankhayan, paraskar evn baudhayan ne isaka nam liya hai.

chaul ya choodakarm ya choodakaran

sabhi smritiyon men varnit hai.

vidyarambh

kisi bhi smriti men varnit nahin hai, keval aparark evn smritichandrika dvara uddhrit markandey puran men ullikhit hai.

upanayan

sabhi smritiyon men varnit hai. vyas[56] ne isaka vratadesh nam diya hai.

vrat (char)

adhikanshataya sabhi grihyasootron men varnit hain.

keshant ya godan

adhikanshat: sabhi dharmashastr-granthon men ullikhit hai.

samavartan ya snan

in donon ke vishay men kee mat hain. manu[57] ne chhatr-jivanoparant ke snan ko samavartan se bhinn mana hai. gautam, apastamb grihyasootr[58], hiranyakeshi grihyasootr[59], yagyvalky[60], paraskar grihyasootr ne snan shabd ko donon arthath chhatr-jivan ke uparant snan tatha guru-grihy se lautane ki kriya ke arth men prayukt kiya hai. kintu ashvalayan grihyasootr[61], baudhayan grihyasootr[62], shankhayan grihyasootr[63] evn apastamb dharmasootr[64] ne samavartan shabd ka prayog kiya hai.

vivah

sabhi men snskar roop men varnit hai.

mahaygy

prati din ke panch ygyon ke nam gautam, angira tatha any granthon men ate hain.

utsarg

vaikhanas[65] evn angira ne ise snskar roop men ullikhit kiya hai.[66]

upakarm

vaikhanas[67] evn angira men varnit hai.[68]

antyeshti

manu[69] evn yagyvalky[70] ne isaki charcha ki hai.

shastron men aisa aya hai ki jatakarm se lekar choodakarm tak ke snskaron ke krity dvijatiyon ke purush varg men vaidik mantron ke sath kintu nari-varg men bina vaidik mantron ke kiye jayen.[71] kintu tin uchch varnon ke nari-varg ke vivah men vaidik mantron ka prayog hota hai.[72]

snskar evn varn

dvijatiyon men garbhadhan se lekar upanayan tak ke snskar anivary mane gaye hain tatha snan evn vivah namak snskar anivary nahin hain, kyonki ek vyakti chhatr-jivan ke uparant snnyasi bhi ho sakata hai (jabalopanishad). snskaraprakash ne klib bachchon ke lie snskaron ki avashyakata nahin mani hai.

kya shoodron ke lie koee snskar hai? vyas ne kaha hai ki shoodr log bina vaidik mantron ke garbhadhan, punsavan, simantonnayan, jatakarm, namakaran, nishkraman, annaprashan, chaul, karnavedh evn vivah namak snskar kar sakate hain. kintu vaijavap grihyasootr men garbhadhan (nishek) se lekar chaul tak ke sat snskar shoodron ke lie many hain. aparark[73] ke anusar garbhadhan se chaul tak ke ath snskar sabhi varnon ke lie (shoodron ke lie bhi) many hain. kintu madanaratn, roopanarayan tatha nirnayasindhu men uddhrith hariharabhashy ke mat se shoodr log keval chh; snskar, yatha-- jatakarm, namakaran, nishkraman, annaprashan, chooda evn vivah tatha pnchahnik (prati din ke panch) mahaygy kar sakate hain. raghunandan ke shoodrakrityatattv men likha hai ki shoodr ke lie puranon ke mantr brahman dvara uchcharit ho sakate hain, shoodr keval 'nam:' kah sakata hai. nirnayasindhu ne bhi yahi bat kahi hai. brahm puran ke anusar shoodron ke lie keval vivah ka snskar many hai. nirnayasindhu ne mat-vaibhinny ki charcha karate hue likha hai ki udar mat sath-shoodron ke lie tatha anudar mat asath-shoodron ke lie hai. usane yah bhi kaha hai ki vibhinn deshon men vibhinn niyam hain.

snskar-vidhi

adhunik samay men garbhadhan, upanayan evn vivah namak snskaron ko chhodakar any snskar bahudha nahin kiye ja rahe hain. ashchary to yah hai ki brahman log bhi inhen chhodate ja rahe hai. ab kahin-kahin garbhadhan bhi tyaga-sa ja chuka hai. namakaran evn annaprashan snskar manaye jate hain, kintu bina mantrochcharan tatha purohit ko bulaye. adhikatar chaul upanayan ke din tatha samavartan upanayan ke kuchh dinon ke uparant kiye jate hain. bngal aise pranton men jatakarm tatha annaprashan ek hi din sampadit hote hain. smrityarthasar ka kahana hai ki upanayan ko chhodakar yadi any snskar nirdisht samay par n kiye jayen to vyahratihom[74] ke uparant hi ve sampadit ho sakate hain. yadi kisi apatti ke karan koee snskar n sampadit saka ho to padakrichchhr namak prayashchitt karana avashyak mana jata hai. isi prakar samay par chaul n karane par argh-krichchhr karana padata hai. yadi bina ke apatti ke jan-boojhakar snskar n kiye jayen to doona prayashchitt karana padata hai. is vishay men nirnayasindhu ne shaunak ke shlok uddhrit kiye hain.[75] nirnayasindhu ne kee maton ka uddharan diya hai. ek ke anusar prayashchitt ke uparant chhode hue snskar pun: nahin kiye jane chahie, doosare mat ke anusar sabhi chhode hue snskar ek bar hi kar liye ja sakate hain aur tisare mat se chhoda hua chaulakarm upanayan ke sath sampadit ho sakata hai. dharmasindhu (tritiy parichchhed, poorvardh) ne uparyukt prayashchitton ke sthan par apekshakrit saral prayashchitt bataye hain, yatha ek prajapaty tin padakrichchhon ke barabar hai, prajapaty ke sthan par ek gay ka dan tatha gay ke abhav men ek sone ka nishk (320 gunja), poora ya adha ya chauthaee bhag diya ja sakata hai. daridr vyakti chandi ke nishk ka bhag ya usi mooly ka ann de sakata hai. kramash: in saral pariharon (pratyamnayon) ke karan logon ne upanayan evn vivah ko chhodakar any snskar karana chhod diya. adhunik kal men snskaron ke n karane se prayashchitt ka svaroop chaul tak ke lie prati snskar char ana dan rah gaya hai tatha ath ana dan chaul ke lie rah gaya hai.[76]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. rigved, 5.76.2
  2. rigved, 6.28.4
  3. rigved, 8.39.9
  4. shatapath brahman, 1.1.4.10
  5. shatapath brahman, 3.2.1.22-'tasmadu stri pumansn snskrite tishthantamabhyeti'
  6. dekhie isi prakar ke prayog men vajasaneyi snhita, 4.34
  7. 'tasmadesh evn ygystasy manashch vakh ch vartini. tayorantaran manasa snsharoti brahma vacha hota', chhandogyo upanishad, 4.16.1-2
  8. 3.1.3; 3.2.15; 3.8.3; 9.2.9; 42, 44; 9.3.25; 9.4.33; 9.4.50 evn 54; 10.1.2 evn 11 adi
  9. 3.8.3
  10. 9.3.25
  11. jaimini, 6.1.35
  12. 'snskari nam s bhavati yasminjate padartho bhavati yogy: kasyachidarthasy', shabar, 3.1.3
  13. 'yogyatan chadadhana: kriya: snskara ityuchyante'
  14. dekhie, gautam dharmasootr, 8.8; apastamb dharmasootr, 1.1.1.9 evn vasishth dharmasootr, 4.1
  15. manu, 2.27-28
  16. yagyvalky, 1.13
  17. garbhadhanavadupeto brahmagarbhn sndadhati. punsavanatpunsikaromati. phalasthapananmatapitrijn papmanamapohati.
    retoraktagarbhopaghat: panchaguno jatakarmana prathamamapohati namakaranen dvitiyn prashanen tritiyn choodakaranen chaturthn snapanen panchamametairashtabhi: snskarairgarbhopaghatath pooto bhavatiti. snskaratattv (prishth, 857).
  18. gautam, 8.14-24
  19. 2.4
  20. vyas, 1.14-15
  21. 1.1
  22. 6.2
  23. 3.9
  24. 3.10
  25. manu, 2.16 evn 26
  26. yagyvalky, 1.10-11
  27. vishnu dharmasootr, 2.3 evn 27.1
  28. shankhayan grihyasootr, 1.18-19
  29. paraskar grihyasootr, 1.11
  30. apastamb grihyasootr, 8.10-11
  31. baudhayan grihyasootr, 4.6.1
  32. kathak grihyasootr, 30.8
  33. gautam, 8.14
  34. yagyvalky, 1.11
  35. vaikhanas, 3.10
  36. yagyvalky, 1.11
  37. shankhayan grihyasootr, 1.21
  38. ashvalayan grihyasootr, 1.13.1
  39. ashvalayan grihyasootr, 1.13.5-7
  40. yagyvalky, 1.11
  41. baudhayan grihyasootr, 1.10.13-17 tatha 1.11.2
  42. vaikhanas, 3.13
  43. snskaraprakash men uddhrit, prishth 139
  44. vaikhanas, 3.18
  45. shankhayan grihyasootr, 1.25
  46. yagyvalky, 1.11
  47. paraskar grihyasootr, 1.17
  48. manu, 2.34
  49. kaushik sootr, 58.18
  50. baudhayan grihyasootr, 2.2
  51. manav grihyasootr, 1.19.1
  52. vishnu dharmasootr, 27.10
  53. shnkh, 2.5
  54. vyas smriti, 1.19
  55. baudhayan grihyasootr, 1,12,1
  56. vyas, 1.14
  57. manu, 3.4
  58. apastamb grihyasootr, 5.12-13
  59. hiranyakeshi grihyasootr, 1.9.1
  60. yagyvalky, 1.51
  61. ashvalayan grihyasootr, 3.81
  62. baudhayan grihyasootr, 2.6.1
  63. shankhayan grihyasootr, 3.1
  64. apastamb dharmasootr, 1.2.7.15 evn 31
  65. vaikhanas, 1.1
  66. vedadhyayan ka kisi-kisi ritu men tyag
  67. vaikhanas, 1.1
  68. vedadhyayan ka varshik arambh
  69. manu, 2.16
  70. yagyvalky, 1.10
  71. ashvalayan grihyasootr, 1.15.12, 1.16.6, 1.17.18; manu 2.66 evn yagyvalky, 1.13
  72. manu, 2.67 evn yagyvalky, 1.13
  73. yagyvalky, 1.11-12 par
  74. bhoo:, bhuv:, sv: (ya suv:) namak rahasyatmak shabdon ke uchcharanke sath vimalikrit makkhan ki ahuti dena vyahrati-hom kahalata hai.
  75. ath snskaralope shaunak:- arabhyadhanamachaulath kaleatite tu karmanamh. vyahratyagnin tu snskrity hutva karm yathakramamh॥
    eteshvekaikalope tun padakrichchhr samachareth. choodayamardhakrichchhr syadapadi tvevamiritamh. anapadi tu sarvatr dvigunn dvigunn chareth॥
    nirnayasindhu, 3 poorvardh; smriti mu. (varnashram dharm, prishth 99).
  76. dekhie, madanaparijat (prishth 752 krichchhrapratyamnay); snskarakaustubh (prishth 141-142 any pratyamnayon ke lie). ajakal upanayan ke samay der men snskar-sampadan ke lie nimn snkalp hai--
    amukashamarn putrasy garbhadhanapunsavanasimantonnayan-jatakarmanamakaranannaprashanachaulantanan snskaranan kalatipatijanti (ya lopajanit)
    pratyavayaparihararth pratisnskarn padakrichchhratyakaprayashchittn choodaya arshakrichchhratmakn pratikrichchhrn pomoolarayas nishkapadapadapratyamnayadvarahamacharishye.

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