आपस्तम्ब धर्मसूत्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

apastambiy kalp ke 30 prashnon men se 28ven tatha 29ven prashnon ko apastamb dharmasootr nam se abhihit kiya jata hai. ye donon prashn 11–11 patalon men vibhakt hai, jinamen kramashah 32 aur 29 kandikayen prapt hain.

rachayita

yahi ek kalpasootr hai jisaki shraut, grihy, dharm aur shulbasootr yukt poorn kalp–parampara upalabdh hai; par un sabhi ka kartta ek hi hai ya nahin, yah kahana kathin hai. mahamahopadhyay pandurng vaman kane ke matanusar grihyasootr aur dharmasootr in donon ke praneta ek hi hain. smritichandrika in donon ko hi ek granthakar ki kriti manati hai. byoohlar tatha phooyhararh ko bhi is vishay men koee shnka nahin hai.[1] kintu oldenabarg ke anusar apastamb shrautasootr tatha apastamb dharmasootr ke rachayita bhinn–bhinn vyakti hain.[2] baudhayan dharmasootr ke kee anshon ka apastamb dharmasootr se sadrishy hain kintu yah kahana kathin hai ki kisane kisaki samagri li hai. mahamahopadhyay kane apastamb dharmasootr ko baudhayan se paravarti manate hain. is vishay men banarji ne sudirgh alochana ki hai. isase gyat hota hai ki unhonne donon grnthon ki mantr–sampatti ki tulanatmak samiksha ki hai.

apastamb dharmasootr ka sambandh dakshin bharat se pratit hota hai, kyonki charan–vyoohagat 'maharnav' namak rachana se uddhrit padyon ke anusar apastamb shakha narmada ke dakshin men prachalit thi.[3] svayn apastamb ne dharmasootragat shraddh ke prakaran men brahmanon ke hath men jal girane ki pratha 'uttar ke logon men' prachalit hai, aisa kahakar dakshin bharatiy hone ka parichay diya hai. is vishay men ullekhaniy tathy to yah hai ki apastamb dharmasootr men taittiriy aranyak ke jin mantron ka nirdesh hai, ve andhrapath se hi grihit hain. isi adhar par byoohlar apastamb ko andhr–pradeshiy manate hain.[4]

tikaen

haradatt ne apastamb dharmasootr se sambandhit donon prashnon ko 11–11 patalon men vibhakt karake ujjvalavritti namni tika ka pranayan kiya hai. haradatt ke atirikt ek aur bhashyakar ka ullekh kane ne kiya hai, vah hai dhoortasvami. shnkar ne bhi apastamb dharmasootr ke adhyatmavishayak do patalon par bhashy likha hai.[5] bambee snskrit siriz men byoohlar dvara haradatt ki ujjvala tika ke anshon sahit tatha kumbhakonam snskaran men sampoorn haradattiy tika tatha byoohlarakrit bhoomika sahit angl anuvad 'saikred buk aauph di eest' (bhag–2) men prakashit hua hai.

bhasha evn shaili

apastamb dharmasootr bhasha evn shaili ki drishti se sabhi dharmasootron se vilakshan hai. bhasha ki drishti se byoohlar ne is sootr ki bhasha se sambandhit asngatiyon ko char vargon men rakha hai.

  • prachin vaidik shabdaroop jo any vaidik rachanaon men samupalabdh hai tatha jinaki vyutpatti sadrishy ke adhar par huee.
  • prachin vyakaran roop jo panini ke vyakaran ki apeksha shuddh hai kintu anyatr upalabdh nahin hote.
  • aise shabd roop jo panini aur vaidik vyakaran ke niyamon ke viruddh hain.
  • vaky–snrachanagat asngatiyan.

apastamb dharmasootr men kuchh aprachalit shabd prapt hote hain jaise kiah–

  • ananiyogavyupatid,
  • vyupajav,
  • brahmahnsastut,
  • paryant,
  • prashast,
  • anatyut,
  • brahmojjham,
  • shvavid,
  • shthevan,
  • acharyadare.

in aprachalit aur apaniniy prayogon ke karan is sootr ke vishay men do dharanayen vidvanon ke madhy men drishtigochar hoti hain–

  1. apastamb panini se aparichit the, unake samakalin the athava unake poorvavarti the.
  2. apastamb dharmasootr ke maulik path men aur asngatiyan rahi hongi. mahamahopadhyay kane ne bhi isase sahamati vyakt ki hai.[6]

shaili ki drishti se yahi kaha ja sakata hai ki is sootr men adhikansh sootr gady men hain kintu isamen prayah padyon ka prayog bhi samupalabdh hai. isamen prapy sootr shithil tatha aspasht hain tatha inaki shaili brahmanon ki shaili ke samipatar pratit hoti hai.

samay

apastamb dharmasootr ke samay vishay men byoohlar ka kathan hai ki isaka samay eesa se 150–200 varsh ya isase bhi poorv manana uchit hai, kintu mahamahopadhyay kane ne 700–300 ee. poo. ke bich ka samay mana hai.[7]

vishayavastu

apastamb dharmasootr ke varny vishayon ka snkshepatah varnan is prakar hai–

prashn–1

dharm ke stotr, chaturvany, upanayan ka varnanusar samay–vivechan, upayukt samay par upanayan vrat n karane par prayashchitt, brahmachari ke snskar, 48, 36, 25 tatha 12 varshon ka brahmachary, dand, ajin aur mekhala adi tatha bhiksha ke niyam, samidhanayan, brahmachari ke vrat, snatak ke dharm, anadhyay, svadhyay ki vidhi, panchamahaygy, varnanusar kushalakshem poochhane ke niyam, ygyopavit–dharan ke avasar, achaman ka kal tatha vidhi, bhakshyabhakshy–vichar, apatkal ke atirikt kal men brahman ke lie vanik–vyapar ka nishedh, patanakarak tatha ashuchikar karm, brahmavishayak adhyatm–charcha, param pad ki prapti men sahayak saty, sham, dam adi ka varnan; kshatriy, vaishy, shoodr aur stri ki hatya ka nirakaran, brahman, atreyi, brahman stri, guru tatha kshatriy ki hatya se sambandhit prayashchitt krity, gurutalpagaman, surapan tatha svarnastey ke lie prayashchitt krity, pashu–pakshiyon ki hatya tatha abhartsaniy ki bhartsana, shoodra gaman, abhakshy–bhakshan ke prayashchitt, dvadasharatri paryant sampann kie jane vale krichchhr ke niyam, pati, guru tatha mata ke prati vyavahar, parastri–gaman ke lie prayashchitt, atmaraksharth brahman ke lie shastragrahan varjana, abhishast ka prayashchitt, vividh snatakon ke vrat.

prashn–2

panigrahan ke sath grihasth dharm ka prarambh, grihasth ke lie bhojan aur upavas, stri gaman adi ke niyam, vibhinn varnon se sambandhit karttavy–akarttavy, siddh ann ki bali, atithi satkar, brahman guru ke abhav men brahman ka kshatriy ya vaishy guru se shiksha–grahan, madhupark ke niyam, vaishvadev bali, bhrityon ke prati udar vyavahar, brahman adi ke vishisht karm, yuddh ke niyam, rajapurohit ke gun, aparadh ke anuroop dand vidhan, brahman ki hatya evn dasatv ka nishedh, marg men chalane ke niyam, dharm aur adharm ke parinam svaroop utthan aur patan. dharmik krityon men suksham tatha santanavati pratham patni ke rahate dvitiy vivah ka nishedh, shadvidh vivah, savarn patni ke putron ka paitrik sampatti men adhikar, pita ka nirnay, santan ke vyapar ka nishedh, pita ke jivit rahate paitrik sampatti ka sam-vibhajan, pagalon-napunsakon tatha papiyon ko sampatti ke adhikar ka nishedh, putrabhav men sampatti ka adhikari, jyeshth putr ko adhik sampatti pradan karane ki avaidikata. pati–patni ke bich sampatti–vibhajan ka nishedh. sambandhiyon tatha sagotriyon ki mrityu par ashauch–vichar. shraddh men bhakshyabhakshy ka vichar. shraddhabhoji brahmanon ke lakshan ashram–vyavastha, snnyasi aur vanaprasth ke niyam, nrip ke karttavy. rajadhani, rajaprasad tatha sabha ki sthiti, choron ka pravasan, brahman ko dravin tatha bhoodan; shrotriy striyon, sannyasiyon tatha vidyarthiyon ki kar–mukti. parastrigaman ke lie vihit prayashchitt krity, narahatya tatha abhikutsan ke lie dand ka vidhan, achar–niyamon ka ullnghan karane par dand, vivadon ka nirnay, sndigdh vivadon men anuman ya divy pariksha ka praman. mithya sakshy ka dand, striyon tatha shoodron ke grahan karane yogy dharm. apastamb dharmasootr men ek aisa sootr hai jo mimansa ke vibhinn siddhanton tatha paribhashik shabdon se otaprot hai– 'yatha–shrutirhi baliyasyanumanikadacharath[8] virodhe tvanapekshyn syadasati hyanumanamh.'[9] anganan tu pradhanairavyapadesh iti nyayavitsamayah.[10] athapi nityanuvadamavidhimahurnyayavidah,[11] arthavado va vidhisheshatvath tasmannityanuvadah.[12] isase yah spasht hi hai ki apastamb ke samay men mimansa shastr poorn vikasit tha.

samajik avastha

apastamb dharmasootr ki samajik avastha atyant saral tatha pashchath kalin klishtataon se rahit thi.[13] apastamb dharmasootr men sood lene par prayashchitt krity ka vidhan kiya gaya hai.[14] kusidak ke yahan bhojan karane ka pratishedh kiya gaya hai.[15] is sootr men paishach evn prajapaty vivahon ko uchit nahin mana gaya hai.[16] jhoothi saugandh khane vale ke nimitt kathor dand ka vidhan kiya gaya hai.[17] isamen aparadhon ke lie arthadand ki charcha nahin ki gee hai, apitu narak tatha narakiy pratadanaon par adhik bal diya gaya hai.

varn avastha

apastamb dharmasootr men dharm ki vyakhya ke antargat pratham vivechy vishay varn hi hai. tuchchh se tuchchh krityon men varn ke adhar par bhinnata sarvatr spasht roop se drishtigochar hoti hai. ygyopavit ka samay, avastha, mekhala, vastr, dand tatha bhikshacharan ki vidhi sabhi ke nimitt varn ka vichar anivary hai. upanayan ka vidhan keval tin uchch varnon ke lie kiya gaya hai. shoodr tatha dushtakarm men nihit vyakti ke lie upanayan (vedadhyayan) ka koee vidhan nahin hai.[18] shoodr ke lie keval sevakarm hi vihit hai. uchch varn ki seva karake hi vah punyaphal ka bhagidar hota hai.

ashram avastha

jis prakar achchhi prakar jote hue khet men paudhon aur vanaspatiyon ke bij anek prakar ke phal utpann karate hain, usi prakar garbhadan adi snskaron se yukt vyakti bhi uttam phal ka bhagidar hota hai.

brahmachary

apastamb dharmasootr ke anusar brahmachari ke mukhyatah tin prakar ke krity hain – guru ko prasann karane vale krity, kalyanakari krity tatha ved ka svadhyay.[19] samidadhan tatha bhikshacharan bhi brahchari ke lie atyavashyak hain.

grihasthashram

apastamb dharmasootr ke anusar grihasth ke lie atithi satkar nity kiya jane vala ek prajapaty ygy hai.[20] balikarm ke pashchath grihasth ko sarvapratham atithiyon ko, usake pashchath balakon, vriddhon, rogiyon, sambandhiyon tatha garbhavati striyon ko bhojan karana chahie. isake atirikt vaishvadev–karm, pitrikarm tatha shraddhakarm bhi grihasth ke lie anivary hai.

vivah

apastamb dharmasootr men vivah ke shadbhedon (brahm, arsh, daiv, gandharv, asur aur rakshas) men se brahm, arsh tatha daiv vivah ko shreshth mana gaya hai tatha rakshas, asur tatha gandharv vivah ko nindit kaha gaya hai. isake atirikt gotr ke vishay men ullikhit hai ki apane hi gotr ke purush ke sath putri ka vivah nahin karana chahie.[21] is sootr men ekapatnitv ko pradhanata di gee hai.[22]

sannyas

apastamb dharmasootr men is sootr ke anusar snnyasi ko agni, grih tatha sabhi prakar ke sukhon ka parityag karake alpabhashan karana chahie. isake atirikt use utana hi bhikshacharan karana chahie jisase usaka jivan nirvah sambhav ho. snnyasi ko doosaron ke dvara parityakt vastron ka hi prayog karana chahie.

vanaprasth

apastamb dharmasootr men snnyasi ke lie vihit niyamon ka hi vanaprasth men pravesh karane vale vyakti ko nirvah karana chahie. snnyasi bhikshacharan ke dvara jivan nirvah karata hai lekin vanaprasth ko svayn gire hue phal–patton ka bhakshan karate hue jivan nirvah karana chahie.

dand vidhan

apastamb dharmasootr men vyabhichari purush ki prajananendriy ko katava dene ka vidhan kiya gaya hai.[23] narahatya karane vale vyakti ko andha kar dena chahie.[24] svarn chori karane vale vyakti ko svayn apana aparadh svikar kar raja se mrityudand ki prarthana karani chahie.

uttaradhikar

apastamb dharmasootr men is sootr ke anusar pita ko jivit rahate hi apane putron men apani sampatti ka vibhajan kar dena chahie. napunsak, pagal aur pataki putron ko kisi bhi prakar ka ansh nahin dena chahie. putr n hone par day ka bhag sapind ko diya jana chahie. putrahin vyakti ki stri sampatti ki adhikarani nahin hoti hai.

naitik drishtikon

guru ki hatya, gurupatni–gaman, suvarn ki chori aur surapan adi ke lie is sootr men atyant bhayavah prayashchitt krityon ka vidhan kiya gaya hai. prachalit akar ki apeksha shruti ko hi isamen pramanik mana gaya hai.[25] apastamb dharmasootr gat pratham prashn ke athaven patal ko 'adhyatm patal' ke nam se abhihit kiya gaya hai. isamen abhivyakt vichar upanishadon se prabhavit hain. isake antargat yog par vishesh bal diya gaya hai. shnkar ne apastamb dharmasootr ke adhyatm–vishayak do patalon par bhashy likha hai.[26]


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. es. bi. ee. bhag 2, bhoomika pri. 13 15
  2. es. bi. ee. bhag 30, bhoomika pri. 32
  3. 'narmada dakshine bhage apastambyashvalayani. ranayani pippala ch ygykanyavibhaginah.. madhyandini shnkhayani kauthumi shaunaki tatha.' charanavyooh–maharnav
  4. es. bi. ee. bhag 2, bhoomika
  5. histri aauph dharmashastr, prishth 43 par
  6. histri aauph dharmashastr, prishth 37
  7. histri aauph dharmashastr, bhag 1. prishth 45
  8. apastamb dharmasootr 1–1–4–8
  9. poorvamimansa 1–3–3
  10. apastamb dharmasootr 2–4 8–13 tatha poo. mi. 1–3–11, 14.
  11. apastamb dharmasootr 2–6–14–23
  12. poo. mi. 6–7–3
  13. apastamb dharmasootr 1–17–30
  14. apastamb dharmasootr 1–9–27–10
  15. 1–6–18–22
  16. apastamb dharmasootr 2–5–11–17, 20, 2–5–12–1, 2
  17. apastamb dharmasootr 2–29
  18. apastamb dharmasootr 1–1–6
  19. apastamb dharmasootr 1–5–9
  20. apastamb dharmasootr 2–7–1
  21. apastamb dharmasootr – sagotray duhitarn n prayachchheth 2–11–15.
  22. apastamb dharmasootr – dharm prajasampanne dare naanyan kurvit 2–11–12.
  23. apastamb dharmasootr 2–16–19
  24. apastamb dharmasootr 2–27–17
  25. shrutirhi baliyasyanumanikadacharath – apastamb dharmasootr 1–4–8.
  26. hintri aauph dharmashastr – kanekrit prishth 43

snbndhit lekh

shrutiyan

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah