ऐतरेय ब्राह्मण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

aitarey brahman rigved ke shakal shakha ke sambadv hai. isamen 8 khand, 40 adhyay tatha 285 kandikaen hain. isaki rachana 'mahidas aitarey' dvara ki gee thi, jis par sayanachary ne apana bhashy likha hai. is granth se yah pata chalata hai ki us samay poorv men videh jati ka rajy tha jabaki pashchim men nichy aur apachy rajy the. uttar men kuroo aur uttar madr ka tatha dakshin men bhojy rajy than. aitarey brahman men rajyabhishek ke niyam diye gaye hain. isake antim bhag men purohit ka vishesh mahattv niroopit kiya gaya hai.

rikh sahity men do brahman granth hain. pahale ka nam aitarey brahman tatha doosare ka shakhnayan athava kaushitaki brahman hai. donon granthon ka atyant ghanishth sambandh hai, yatr-tatr ek hi vishay ki vyakhya ki gayi hai, kintu ek brahman men doosare brahman men viparit arth prakat kiya gaya hai. kaushitaki brahman men jis achchhe dhng se vishayon ki vyakhya ki gayi hai us dhng se aitarey brahman men nahin hai. aitarey brahman ke pichhale das adhyayon men jin vishayon ki vyakhya ki gayi hai ve kaushitaki men nahin hain, kintu is abhav ko shakhnayan sootron men poora kiya gaya hai. ajakal jo aitarey brahman upalabdh hai usamen kul chalis adhyay hain. inaka ath pnjikaon men vibhag hua hai. shakhnayan brahman men tis adhyay hain.

aitarey brahman ka pravachanakarta

paramparik drishti se aitarey brahman ke pravachanakarta rishi mahidas aitarey hain. shadgurushishy ne mahidas ko kisi yagyvalky namak brahman ki itara (dvitiya) namni bharya ka putr batalaya hai.[1]
aitareyaranyak ke bhashy men shadgurushishy ne is nam ki vyutpatti bhi di hai.[2] sayan ne bhi apane bhashy ke upodghat men isi prakar ki akhyayika di hai, jisake anusar kisi maharshi ki anek patniyon men se ek ka ka nam 'itara' tha. mahidas usi ke putr the. pita ki upeksha se khinn hokar mahidas ne apani kuladevata bhoomi ki upasana ki, jisaki anukampa se unhonne aitarey brahman ke sath hi aitareyaranyak ka bhi sakshatkar kiya.[3] bhattabhaskar ke anusar aitarey ke pita ka nam hi rishi itar tha.[4]

  • skand puran men prapt akhyan ke anusar aitarey ke pita harit rishi ke vnsh men utpann rishi mandooki the.[5]
  • chhandogy upanishad[6] ke anusar mahidas ko 116 varsh ki ayu prapt huee. shankhayan grihyasootr[7] men bhi inake nam ka 'aitarey' aur 'mahaitarey' roopon ke ullekh hain.

katipath pashchatty manishiyon ne avesta men 'ritvikh' ke arth men prayukt 'athrey' shabd se 'aitarey' ka samy sthapit karane ki cheshta ki hai. is samy ke siddh ho jane par 'aitarey' ki sthiti bharopiyakalik ho jati hai. haaug aur khonda sadrish pashchatty vidvanon ki dharana hai ki sampoorn aitarey brahman kisi ek vyakti athava kal ki rachana nahin hai. adhik se adhik mahidas ko aitarey brahman ke vartaman path ka sampadak mana ja sakata hai.[8]

aitarey-brahman ka vibhag, chayanakram aur pratipady

sampoorn aitarey brahman men 40 adhyay hain. pratyek panch adhyayon ko milakar ek pnchika nishpann ho jati hai jinaki kul snkhya ath hai. adhyay ka avantar vibhajan khandon men hai, jinaki snkhya pratyek adhyay men prithakh-prithakh hai. samast chalis adhyayon men kul 285 khand hain. rigved ki prasiddhi hotrived ke roop men hai, isalie usase sambaddh is brahman granth men somayagon ke hautrapaksh ki vishad mimansa ki gee hai. hotrimandal men, jinaki ‘hotrak’ ke nam se prasiddhi hai, sat ritvik hote hain-

  • hota,
  • maitravarun,
  • brahmanachchhnsi,
  • neshta,
  • pota,
  • achchhavak aur
  • agnighr.

ye sabhi somayagon ke tinon savanon men rinmantron se 'yajya'[9] ka sampadan karate hain. inake atirikt puronuvakyaen hoti hain, jinaka path hom se pahale hota hai. hota, maitravarun, brahmanachchhnsi aur achchhavak- ye ajy, prug prabhriti shastron[10] ka shnsan karate hain. inhin ka mukhyata pratipadan is brahman granth men hai. prasng vash katipay any krityon ka niroopan bhi hua hai. hota ke dvara pathaniy pramukh shastr ye hain-

  • ajy shastr,
  • prug shastr,
  • marutvatiy shastr,
  • nishkaivaly shastr,
  • vaishvadev shastr,
  • agnimarut shastr,
  • shodashi shastr,
  • paryay shastr aur
  • ashvin shastr adi.

yajya aur puroanuvakya ko chhodakar any shastr pray: trich hote hain jinamen pahali aur antim (uttama) richa ka path tin-tin bar hota hai. 'uttama' richa ko hi 'paridhaniya' bhi kahate hain. pahali richa ka hi paribhashik nam 'pratipad' bhi hai. inhin ke auchity ka vivechan vastut: aitarey brahmanakar ka pramukh uddeshy hai.

agnishtom samast somayagon ka prakritibhoot hai, etev isaka sarvapratham vidhan kiya gaya hai, jo pahali pnchika se lekar tisari pnchika ke panchaven khand tak hai. yah ek din ka prayog hai sutyadin ki drishti se samanyat: isake anushthan men kul panch din lagate hain. isake anantar agnishtom ki vikritiyon ukthy, kratu, shodashi aur atiratr ka varnan chaturth pnchika ke dvitiy adhyay ke pncham khand tak hai. isake pashchath satrayagon ka vivaran hai, jo aitarey brahman men tandyadi any brahmanon ki apeksha kuchh kam vistar se hai. satrayagon men ‘gavamayan’ ka chaturth pnchikagat doosare adhyay ke shashth khand se tisare adhyayantargat ashtam khand tak niroopan hai. 'anigarasamayan' aur 'adityanamayan' namak satrayag bhi isi madhy a gaye hain. panchavin pnchika men vibhinn dvadashah sngyk somayagon ka niroopan hai. isi pnchika men agnihotr bhi varnit hai. chhathi pnchika men somayagon se sambaddh prakirn vishayon ka vivechan hai. isi pnchika ke chaturth aur pncham adhyayon men balakhilyadi sookton ki vishad prarochana ki gee hai, jinaki ganana khilon ke antargat ki jati hai. saptam pnchika ka prarambh yadyapi pashu-angon ki vibhakti-prakriya ke vivaran ke sath hota hai, kintu isake doosare adhyay men agnihotri ke lie vibhinn prayashchitton, tisare men shun:-shep ka suprasiddh upakhyan aur chaturth adhyay men rajasooyayag ke prarambhik krityon ka vivaran hai. athavin pnchika ke pratham do adhyayon men rajasooyayag ka hi niroopan hai, kintu antim tin adhyay sanskritik aur aitihasik drishti se atyant mahattvapoorn vivaran-aindr mahabhishek, purohit ki mahatta tatha brahmaparimar[11] ka prastavak hai. 'brahm' ka arth yahan vayu hai. is vayu ke charon or vidyut, vrishti, chandrama, adity aur agni prabhriti ka antarbhav maran-prakar hi ‘parimar’ hai. ygy ki samany prakriya se hatakar sochane par yah koee vilakshan vaigyanik krity pratit hota hai.

inamen se 30 adhyayon tak prachy aur pratichy ubhayavudh vidvanon ke madhy koee matabhed nahin hai. yah bhag nirvivad roop se aitarey brahman ka prachinatam bhag hai. isamen bhi pratham panch adhyay taittiriy brahman se bhi poorvavartti mane ja sakate hain.[12] kith ki is dharana ke viparit vichar harsh (V.G.L.Horch) ka hai, jo taittiriy ki apeksha inhen paravarti manate hain.[13] kaushitaki brahman ke sath aitarey ki tulanatmak vivechana karane ke anantar pashchaty vidvanon ka vichar hai ki satavin aur athavin pnchikaen[14] paravarti hain. is sandarbh men pradatt tark ye hain:-

  • kaushitaki brahman men matr 30 adhyay hain- jabaki donon hi rigvediy brahmanon ka varnyavishay ek hi somayag hai.
  • rajasooyayag men raja ka yagagat pey som nahin hai, jabaki aitarey brahman ke mukhy vishay somayag ke antargat peyadravy som hai.
  • aitarey brahman ki saptam pnchika ka arambh 'athat:'[15] se hua hai, jo paravarti sootr-shaili pratit hoti hai.

uparyukt tarkon ke uttar men yahan keval panini ka sakshy hi paryapt hai, jinhonne aitarey brahman ke 40 adhyayatmak svaroop ka snket se ullekh kiya hai. ve rigved ke doosare brahman kaushitaki ke 30 adhyayatmak svaroop se bhi parichit the.[16] vastut: uparyukt shnkaon[17] ka karan aitarey brahman ki vivechan-shaili hai, jo vishay ko snshlisht aur snhitaroop men n prastut kar kuchh phaile-phaile roop men niroopit karati hai. vastav men shrautasootron ke sadrish samavet aur snhitaroop men vishay-niroopan ki apeksha brahman granthon se nahin ki ja sakati. yah sunishchit hai ki aitarey brahman panini ke kal tak apane vartaman svaroop ko prapt kar chuka tha. moolaved[18] ke astitv ki bat bhi uthaee hai, kintu pra. khonda jaise manishiyon ne usase asahamaty hi prakat kiya hai.[19]

aitarey brahman ki vyakhya-sampatti

is par char prachin bhashyon ka astitv batalaya jata hai-

  • govindasvami,
  • bhattabhaskar,
  • shadgurushishy aur
  • sayanachary ke bhashy.

inamen se abhi tak keval antim do ka prakashan hua hai. unamen bhi adhyayan-adhyapan ka adhar samanyataya sayanabhashy hi hai, jinamen hotrapaksh ki sabhi gyatavy visheshataon ka samavesh hai.

aitarey brahman ki roop-samriddhi

kisi krityavishesh men viniyojan mantr ke devata, chhandas ityadi ke auchity-niroopan ke sandarbh men aitareyakar antim bindu tak dhyan rakhata hai. ise vah apani paribhashik shabdavali men ‘roop-samriddhi’ ki akhya deta hai- etadvai ygysy samridvn yadroop-samridvn yatkarm kriyamann rigabhivadati.[20]

aitihasik aur sanskritik vivaran

aitarey brahman men madhy pradesh ka vishesh adar poorvak ullekh kiya gaya hai- 'dhruvayan madhyamayan pratishthayan dishi'.[21] pn. satyavrat samashrami ke anusar is madhy pradesh men kuru, pnchal, shivi aur sauvir sngyk pradesh sammilit the.[22] mahidas ka apana nivas-sthan bhi iravati nadi ke samipasth kisi janapad men tha.[23] aitarey brahman[24] ke anusar us samay bharat ke poorv men videh adi jatiyon ka rajy tha. dakshin men bhojarajy, pashchim men nichy aur apachy ka rajy, uttar men uttarakuruon aur uttar madr ka rajy tatha madhy bhag men kuru-pnchal rajy the.

aindr-mahabhishek ke prasng men, antim tin adhyayon men jin aitihasik vyaktiyon ke nam aye hain, ve hain- parikshit-putr janamejay, manu-putr sharyat, ugrasen-putr yudhan shraushti, avikshit-putr maroottam, sudas paijavan, shatanik aur dushyant-putr bharat. bharat ki vishesh prashnsa karate hue kaha gaya hai ki usake parakram ki samanata koee bhi nahin kar paya.
mahakarm bharatasy n poorve napare jana:.
divn marty iv hastabhyan nodapu: panch manava:॥[25]
is bharat ke purohit the mamataputr dirghatama.

purohit ka gaurav

aitarey brahman ke antim adhyay men purohit ka vishesh mahattv niroopit hai. raja ko purohit ki niyukti avashy karani chahie, kyonki vah ahavaniyagnituly hota hai. purohit vastut: praja ka pratinidhi hai, jo raja se pratigya karata hai ki vah apani praja se kabhi droh nahin karega.

achar-darshan

aitarey brahman men naitik moolyon aur udatt achar-vyavahar ke siddhanton par vishesh bal diya gaya hai. pratham adhyay ke shashth khand men kaha gaya hai ki dikshit yajaman ko saty hi bolana chahie[26] isi prakar ke any vachan hain- jo ahnkar se yukt hokar boli jati hai, vah rakshasi vani hai.[27]

shun:shep se sambaddh akhyan ke prasng men karmanishth jivan aur purusharth-sadhana ka mahattv bade hi kavyatmak dhng se batalaya gaya hai. kaha gaya hai ki bina thake hue shri nahin milati; jo vicharata hai, usake pair pushpayukt hote hain, usaki atma phal ko ugati aur katati hai. bhraman ke shram se usaki samast paparashi nasht ho jati hai. baithe-thale vyakti ka bhag bhi baith jata hai, sote hue ka so jata hai aur chalate hue ka chalata rahata hai. kali yug ka arth hai manushy ki suptavastha, jab vah jnbhaee leta hai tab dvapar ki sthiti men hota hai, khade hone par treta aur karmarat hone par sat yug ki avastha men a jata hai. chalate hue hi manushy phal prapt karata hai. soory ke shram ko dekho, jo chalate hue kabhi alasy nahin karata-
kali: sayano bhavati snjihanastu dvapar:.
uttishthnstreta bhavati kritn sampadyate charnshcharaiveti॥
charanvai madhu vindati charansvadumudumbaramh.
sooryasy pashy shremann yo n tandrayate charnshcharaiveti॥[28]

devatavishayak vivaran

aitarey brahman men kul devata 33 mane ge hain- 'trayastrinshadh vai deva:'. inamen agni pratham devata hai aur vishnu param devata. inhin ke madhy shesh sabaka samavesh ho jata hai-[29] yahin se mahatta-prapt vishnu age puranon men sarvadhik veshishtyasampann devata ban ge. devon ke madhy indr atyadhik ojasvi, balashali aur door tak par karane vale devata hain-[30] devataon ke samanyaroop se char gun hain-

  • devata saty se yukt hote hain,
  • ve parokshapriy hote hain,
  • ve ek doosare ke ghar men rahate aur
  • ve martyon ko amarata pradan karate hain.[31]

shun:-shep-akhyan

aitarey brahman men akhyanon ki vishal thati snkalit hai. inaka prayojan yag se sambaddh devata aur unake shastron (stutiyon) ke chhandon evn any upadanon ka kathatmak dhng se auchity-niroopan hai. in akhyanon men shun:shep ka akhyan, jise harishchandropakhyan bhi kaha jata hai, samajashastr, netritvashastr evn dharmashastr ki drishti se vishesh mahattvapoorn hai. yah 33ven adhyay men samavisht hai. rajyabhishek ke samay yah raja ko sunaya jata tha. snkshipt roop men akhyan is prakar hai: ikshvakuvnshaj raja harishchandr putrarahit the. varun ki upasana aur unaki prasannata tatha is shart par raja ko rohit namak putr ki prapti huee ki ve use varun ko samarpit kar denge; bad men ve use samarpit karanr se talate rahe, jisake phalasvaroop varun ke kop se ve rogagrast ho gaye. ant men raja ne ajigart rishi ke putr shun:-shep ko kharid kar usaki bali dene ki vyavastha ki. is ygy men vishvamitr, vasishth aur jamadagni ritvikh the. shun:-shep ki bali ke lie inamen se kisi ke bhi taiyar n hone par ant men pun: ajigartt hi lobhavash us kam ke liye bhi taiyar ho gaye. bad men vibhinn devi-devataon ki stuti se shun:-shep bandhan-mukt ho gaye. lobhi pita ka unhonne parityag kar diya aur vishvamitr ne unhen putraroop men svikar kar liya. shun:-shep ka naya namakaran hua devarat vishvamitr. is akhyayika ke char prayojan apatat: pratit hote hain-

  • vaidik mantron ki shakti aur samarthy ka arthavad ke roop men pratipadan, jinaki sahayata se vyakti vadh aur bandhan se bhi mukt ho sakata hai.
  • ygy ya kisi bhi dharmik krity men nar-bali jaise ghrinit krity ki bhartsana sambhav hai, bahut adim-prakrit-kal men, jab ygy-snstha vidhivat gathit n ho paee ho, nar-bali ki chhitaput ghatanaon ki yada-kada avritti ho jati ho. aitarey brahman ne prakrit prasng ke madhyam se ise amanaviy ghoshit kar diya hai.
  • manav-hriday ki, gyani hone par bhi lobhamayi pravritti ka nidarshan, jisake udaharan rishi ajigart hain.
  • raj-satta dvara niji svarth ke lie praja ka pralobhanatmak utpidan.

is akhyayika ke hridayavarjak ansh do hi hain-

  • raja harishchandr ke dvara prarambh men putr-lalasa ki gathaon ke madhyam se marmik abhivyakti.
  • ‘charaiveti’ ki preranamayi gathaen.

shailigat evn bhashagat saushthav

aitarey brahman men roopakatmak aur pratikatmak shaili ka ashray liya gaya hai, jo isaki abhivyaktigat sapranata men abhivriddhi kar deti hai. stri-purush ke mithunabhav ke pratik sarvadhik hain. udaharan ke lie vani aur man devamithun hai[32] ghritapakv charu men ghrit stri-ansh hai aur tandul purushansh.[33] dikshaniya ishti men dikshit yajaman ke samast snskar garbhagat shishu ki tarah karane ka vidhan bhi vastut: pratikatmak hi hai. krity-vidhan ke sandarbh men kahin-kahin bade sundar laukik udaharan diye gaye hain, yatha ekah aur ahin yagon ke krityon se yag ka samapan isalie karana chahie, kyonki door ki yatra karane vale lakshy par pahunchakar bailon ko badal dete hain.

38ven adhyay men, aindramahabhishek ke prasng men mantron se nirmit asandi ka sundar roopak prapt hota hai, jo is prakar hai- is asandi ke agale do paye brihath aur rathantarasamon se tatha pichhale donon paye vairoop aur vairaj samon se nirmit hain. oopar ke patte ka kary karate hai shakvar aur raivat sam. naudhas aur kaley sam parshv phalak sthaniy hai. is asandi ka tana richaon se, bana samon se tatha madhyabhag yajurshon se nirmit hai. isaka astaran hai yash ka tatha upadhan shri ka. savitri, brihaspati aur poosha prabhriti vibhinn devon ne isake phalakon ko sahara de rakha hai. samast chhandon aur tadabhimani devon se yah asandi pariveshtit hai. abhipray yah hai ki bahuvidh upamaon aur roopakon ke alamban se vishay-niroopan atyant sugrahy ho utha hai. aitarey brahman ki rachana brahmavadiyon ke dvara maukhikaroop men vyavahrit ygy vivechanatmak saral shabdavali men huee hai jaisa ki prophesar khonda ne abhimat vyakt kiya hai.[34] prophesar kith ne apani bhoomika men isaki roop-rachana, sandhi aur samasagat sthiti ka vishad vishleshan kiya hai.

vaigyanik tathyon ka samavesh

aitarey-brahman men anek mahattvapoorn vaigyanik soochanaen snkalit hain, udaharan ke lie 30ven adhyay men, prithvi ke prarambh men garmaroop ka vivaran prapt hota hai- adityon ne angirason ko dakshina men prithvi di. unhonne use tapa dala, tab prithvi sinhini hokar munh kholakar adamiyon ko khane ke lie daudi. prithvi ki is jalati huee sthiti men usamen uchchavach gart ban ge.

aitarey brahman ke upalabdh snskaran

adyavadhi aetarey-brahman ke (bhashy, anuvad ya vrittisahit athava moolamatr) jo snskaran prakashit hue hain, unaka vivaran nimnavath hai-

  • 1863 ee. men angrezi anuvad sahit martin haaug ke dvara sampadit aur bambee se mudrit snskaran, do bhagon men.
  • thiyodar auphrekht ke dvara 1879 men sayan-bhashyanshon ke sath bon se prakashit snskaranh.
  • 1895 se 1906 ee. ke madhy satyavrt samashrami ke dvara kalakatta se sayan-bhashyasahit char bhagon men prakashit snskaranh.
  • e.bi.kith ke dvara angrezi men anoodit, 1920 ee. men kaimbrij se (tatha 1969 ee. men dilli se punarmudrit) prakashit snskaranh.
  • 1925 ee. men nirnayasagar se moolamatr prakashit jisaka bharat sarakar ne abhi-abhi punarmudran karaya hai.
  • 1950 ee. men gnga prasad upadhyay ka hindi anuvad matr hindi-sahity sammelan prayag se prakashit.
  • 1980 /i. men sayan-bhashy aur hindi anuvad-sahit sudhakar malaviy ke dvara sampadit snskaran, varanasi se prakashita.
  • anantakrishn shastri ke dvara shadgurushishy-krit sukhaprada-vrittisahit, tin bhagon men trivendram se 1942 se 52 ee. ke madhy prakashit snskaranh.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 'mahidasaitaraiyarshisandrishtn brahmann tu yath. asidh vipro ygyvalko dvibharyastasy dvitiyamitareti chahu:.' aitarey brahman, sukhapradavritti
  2. itarakhyasy matabhooth stribhyo dhakyaitareyagi:. aitareyaranyak, bhashyabhoomika
  3. aitarey brahman sayan-bhashy, prishth 8,(anandashram
  4. itarasy risherapatyamaitaraiy:. shubhradibhyashy dhakh.
  5. asminnaiv mam sthane haritasyanvayeabhavath. mandookiriti vipragryo vedavedanagaparag:॥ tasyasiditaranam bharya sadhvi gunairyuta. tasyamutpadyatasutastvaitarey iti smrit:॥ skand puran, 1.2.42.26-30
  6. chhandogy upanishad 3.16.7
  7. shankhayan grihyasootr 4.10.3
  8. je. khonda, histri indiyan litarechar ve.li., bhag 21, pri. 344
  9. thik ahuti-sampradan ke samay pathit mantr
  10. agitamantr-sadhy stuti
  11. shatrukshayarthak prayog
  12. kith, rigved brahman, bhoomika
  13. vi.ji.el.harsh, di vedishe gatha und shlok litaratur
  14. antim 10 adhyay
  15. athat: pashorvibhaktistasy vibhagn vakshyam:
  16. ashtadhyayi 5.1.62
  17. jinamen shashth pnchika ko parishisht manane ki dharana bhi hai, kyonki isamen sthan-sthan par punarukti hai
  18. bharopiy kal ke vaidik snhita-svaroop, jisako jarman bhasha men ‘UR-Brahmana
  19. khonda, histri aph indiyan litarechar, ve.li., bhag 1, pri. 360
  20. aitarey brahman 3.2
  21. aitarey brahman 8.4
  22. aitareyalochan, kalakatta, 1906 prishth 42
  23. aitareyalochan, kalakatta, 1906, prishth 71
  24. aitarey brahman (8.3.2
  25. aitarey brahman 8.4.9
  26. 'ritn vav diksha satyn diksha tasmadh dikshiten satyamev vaditavyamh'.
  27. 'vidusha satyamev vaditavyamh'(5.2.9). 'yan vai dripto vadati, yamunmatt: sa vai rakshasi vakh'(2.1).
  28. aitarey brahman, 33.1
  29. 'agnirvai devanamavamo vishnu: paramastadantaren anya: sarva: devata:'.
  30. 's vai devanamojishtho balishth: sahishth: sattam: parayishnutam:'(7.16).
  31. aitarey brahman (1.1.6; 3.3.9; 5.2.4; 6.3.4
  32. ‘vakch vai manashch devanan mithunamh’(24.4) .
  33. aitarey brahman 1.1
  34. khonda, histri indiyan litarechar:ve.li., bhag 1, pri.410

snbndhit lekh

shrutiyan

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah