राजतरंगिणी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

rajatarngini kalhan dvara rachit ek snskrit granth hai. jisaki rachana 1148 se 1150 ke bich huee. kashmir ke itihas par adharit is grnth ki rachana men kalhan ne gyarah any grnthon ka sahayog liya hai jisamen ab keval nilamat puran hi upalabdh hai.

  • yah grnth snskrit men aitihasik ghatanaon ke kramabaddh itihas likhane ka pratham prayas hai. isamen adikal se lekar 1151 ee. ke arambh tak ke kashmir ke pratyek shasak ke kal ki ghatanaon kramanusar vivaran diya gaya hain| yah kashmir ka rajanitik uthalaputhal ka kal tha. arnbhik bhag men yadyapi puranon ke dhng ka vivaran adhik milata hai., parntu bad ki avadhi ka vivaran poori aitihasik eemanadari se diya gaya hai.
  • apane grnth men kalhan ne is adarsh ko sada dhyan men rakha hai isalie kashmir ke hi nahin, tatkal bharatiy itihas ke snbndh men bhi rajatarngini men badi mahattvapoorn aur pramanik samagri prapt hoti hai. rajatnragini ke uddharan adhikatar itihasakaron ne istemal kiye hai. is grnth se kashmir ke itihas ke bare men janakari milati hai.
  • kalhan ki rajatarngini men kul ath tarng evn lagabhag 8000 shlok hain. pahale ke tin tarngon men kashmir ke prachin itihas ki janakari milati hai. chauthe se lekar chhathaven tarng men karkot evn utpal vnsh ke itihas ka varnan hai. antim sataven evn athaven tarng men lohar vnsh ka itihas ullikhit hai. is pustak men aitihasik ghatanaon ka kramabaddh ullekh hai.
  • kalhan ne pakshapatarahit hokar rajaon ke gun evn doshon ka ullekh kiya hai. pustak ke vishay ke antargat rajaniti ke atirikt sadachar evn naitik shiksha par bhi prakash dala gaya hai.
  • kalhan ne apane grnth rajatarngini men snskrit bhasha ka prayog kiya hai.

rachana kal

yah mana jata hai ki ‘rajatarngini’ 1147 se 1149 eesvi ke bich likhi gee. barahavin shatabdi ka yah kal kashmir ke itihas ka ek aisa kal hai jise yoon bhi kaha ja sakata hai ki aj vahi itihas apane apako phir se dohara raha hai. kalhan ke samay kashmir rajanitik asthirata aur uthapatak ke daur se gujar raha tha. kalhan ne kashmir ke itihas ki sabase shaktishali mahila shasak didda ka ullekh kiya hai, jo 950-958 eesvi men raja kshemagupt (kshemendr gupt) ki patni thi aur sharirik roop se kamazor pati ke karan usi ne satta ka poori tarah upayog kiya. vah pati ki mrityu ke bad sinhasan par baithi aur usane ek saf suthara shasan dene ki koshish karate hue bhrasht mntriyon aur yahan tak ki apane pradhanamntri ko bhi barkhast kar diya lekin didda ko satta aur vasana ki aisi bhookh thi, jisake chalate usane apane hi putron ko marava diya. vah punchh ke ek gvale tunga se prem karati thi, jise usane pradhanamntri bana diya. itihas ka aisa varnan siva kalhan ke kisi aur snskrit kavi ne nahin kiya. 120 chhndon men likhit ‘rajatarngini’ men yoon to kashmir ka arambh se yani ‘mahabharat’ kal se lekar kalhan ke kal tak ka itihas hai, lekin mukhy roop se isamen raja annt dev ke putr raja kailash ke kushasan ka varnan hai. kalhan batate hain ki kashmir ghati pahale ek vishal jhil thi jise kashyap rishi ne baramula ki pahadiya katakar khali kiya. shrinagar shahar samrat ashok mahan ne basaya tha aur yahin se bauddh dharm pahale kashmir ghati men aur phir madhy eshiya, tibbat aur chin pahuncha.[1]

rajatarngini ka mahattv

'rajatarngini' ek aisi rachana hai, jise snskrit ke aitihasik mahakavyon ka 'mukutamani' kaha ja sakata hai. isake rachayita kashmiri kavi 'kalhan' hain. snskrit sahity men itihas ko itihas manakar likhane vale tathyon ko tithi adi ke pramanik-sakshy aur kram ke sath prastut karane vale ye ab tak gyat pahale kavi hain yahi karan hai ki inaki kriti 'rajatarngini' ka desh-videsh men sarvatr adar hua hai. yah kashmir ke rajaon ka vistrit itihas hai, jisaka rachana-shilp bahut kuchh mahabharat jaisa aur anek kavy-gunon se samriddh hai. isamen mahabharat-kal se arambh kar 1150 eesavi tak ke kashmiri nareshon ka itivritt tatha charitrankan atyant hriday tatha prasadik shaili men kiya gaya hai. rajatarngini ath tarngon men vibhakt hai, jinamen kul lagabhag 7826 shlok hain. prarambh men chhah tarng chhote tatha antim do tarng bahut bade hain, jinamen athavan tarng, samast granth ke adhe pariman se bhi adhik hai. apane lekhan ke samay se hi 'rajatarngini' atyant lokapriy rahi hai.[2]

itihas ka sootrapat

kalhan paramparik anushrutiyon ke adhar par, pauranik shaili men jalodbhav namak asur ke vadh aur prajapati kashyap dvara kashmir mandal ki sthapana se is itihas ka sootrapat karate hain. vikram poorv barahavin shatabdi ke kisi gonand namak raja ki katha se rajacharit ka kram arambh hota hai. unake is varnan ka bahut kuchh adhar 'nilamatapuran' hai, isake atirikt is vishay men unhonne apane se poorv likhe ge gyarah granthon aur pahale ke rajaon ke abhilekh, prashastipatr evn vnshavaliyon ke dekhe jane ka bhi ullekh kiya hai.[3] kavi, is varnan men jyon-jyon apane samay ki or abhimukh hote jate hain, yah pauranikata evn kalpana-pravanata dhire-dhire kam hoti jati hai aur yatharth ka thos dharatal ubharata dikhalaee padata hai. 812 eesavi tak ke rajaon ka varnan bina tithi ke hi chalata hai, kintu 813-814 eesvi se is varnan men tithikram ka spasht ullekh prapt hota hai. ashtam tarng to kavi ki svayn ankhon dekhi aur anubhoot ghatanaon ka pramanik lekha-jokha hai. snkshep men isake pratyek tarng men rajaon ka vivaran is prakar hai-

pratham tarng

gonand pratham se lekar andh yudhishthir tak 75 rajaon ka vivaran hai.

dvitiy tarng

6 rajaon ke 192 varshon ke shasanakal ka ankan kiya gaya hai.

tritiy tarng

gonand vnsh ke antim raja baladity tak dash rajaon ke 536 varshon ke rajyakal ka vivaran hai.

chaturth tarng

260 varshon tak rajy karane vale 17 nripon ka itihas niroopit hai.

pncham tarng

avantivarma ke rajyarohan ke sath utpal vnsh ke sootrapat ka varnan tatha kalyapal vnshaj snkatavarma, sugandhadevi aur shnkar varman ke rajyakal ka niroopan hai.

shashth tarng

10 rajaon ke, 936 se 1003 eesvi tak ke shasanakal ka vivaran diya gaya hai.

saptam tarng

6 rajaon ke sanh 1003 se 1101 eesvi tak ke samay ka chitran hai.

ashtam tarng

satavahan vnsh ke, uchchal, sussal, bhikshachar aur jayasinh adi rajaon ki jivanagatha tatha krityon ka pratyakshikaran karaya gaya hai. pratham char tarngon men aitihasik tathyaparakata ki drishti se kee sthal kalhan men sndigdh hain. ve puranon aur akhyanon se prapt atiprakrit aur avishvasaniy ghatana-prasngon ka bhi vivaran vishvasapoorvak de dete hain. par panchaven tarng se jaise-jaise ve apane samay ke nikat ate hain, ve ek khare itihasakar ki bhanti tathyon ko janch parakh kar prastut karate hai, ve tathyon ki janch ke liye upalabdh samagri ka havala bhi dete hain.

sindh par pahala muslim akraman

sanh 712 eesvi men sindh par pahala muslim akraman hua aur 1000 eesvi ke as-pas mahamood gajani ne bharat ko raundana shuroo kiya. kalhan ne shashth aur ashtam tarngon men desh ki rajanitik aur aitihasik paristhitiyon par dooragami prabhav chhodane vale in akramanon ka ullekh kiya hai. kashmir men muslim snskriti ke pravesh ka bhi ve snket dete hain.

raja harsh ka utthan aur patan

kalhan ne raja harsh ke utthan aur patan ka jo vishad vivaran diya hai, vah bharatiy itihas ka ek mahattvapoorn adhyay hai. kishoravastha men harsh bada gunanuragi aur kavyatmak pravritti vala tha. usaka lobhi pita kalash vidvanon se droh rakhata tha, par harsh svayn bhookha rahakar apana kharch pnditon aur kaviyon ko de dalata tha[4] usane rajyaroodh hone par apane vidvatprem ko charitarth kiya. praja ki prarthana sunane ke lie to usane apane prasad ke charon or bade-bade ghnte lagava diye the, jinake bajate hi vah prarthiyon se svayn milane pahunch jata. yahan tak ki karnatak ke raja se vidyapati ki upadhi pane vale vilhan bhi harsh ke kavy aur kala ke prati anurag ki katha sunakar usake liye spriha karata tha.[5] par isi harsh ko dhire-dhire chatukaron ne gher liya. usaka ant:pur sundariyon se bhar gaya. vah vilasi ban gaya aur aviveki amatyon ke paramarsh par janata ko lootane laga. usane yogy mntri kndarp ko bndi banane ka prayas kiya, apane hi bhatijon ki hatya karavayi, yahan tak ki devalayon se svarn aur ratn bhi usane loote. karnatak ke raja parmadi (vikramadity shashth) ki patni chanda (chandravati) ka chitr dekhakar vah itana kamatur ho utha ki karnatak ke raja se yuddh kar usaki rani ko prapt karane ki usane than li.[6] vah karnatak tak akraman karane n pahunch saka, par dhoort log rani chandra ke nam par usase rupaya lootate rahe. ant men badi karunik aur vidnbanamay sthitiyon men harsh ki jivanalila samapt huee. kalhan ne raja harsh ke utthan aur marmantak patan ka romanchak itihas 1400 padyon men likha hai, aur yah poora ansh apane ap men unake samay ka n keval kachcha chittha hai, vah ek virat mahakavy bhi hai. isi prakar avantivarma, kalash, rani didda adi ke shasanakal ke prasng bhi apane ap men alag-alag mahakavyon ka asvad dete hain tatha kashmir ke kuchh shatabdiyon ke itihas ko bhi pramanik roop men prastut karate hain.

samagr ashtam tarng

kavi ka bhoga hua apana vartaman hi hai. yah samay kashmir ke itihas men, vnshanugat sngharshon, shadyantron, vidrohon tatha raktarnjit krantiyon ka kal tha, us samay kashmir ka janajivan tatha prashasan donon hi asthir tatha bhayagrast the. kalhan ne harsh (sanh 1089-1101 eesvi) ke jivan, naitik patan, vishvasaghat tatha du:khad ant ka aisa prabhavi chitran kiya hai, jise padhakar romanch ho jata hai. kashmir ke kulin amiron ke raktarnjit atyachar, unake apasi sngharsh, tatkalin akal, jal-plavan, agnidah adi prakritik vipattiyon ka jo varnan kavi ne kiya hai usamen unaki apani bhogi huee pida ke dnsh bhi vidyaman hain. apane desh aur kal ki yah du:khad sthiti kavi ko marmantak vedana de rahi thi, kintu vah vivash tha. paristhitiyon ne use ekaki bana diya tha. kadachith inhin paristhitiyon se prerit hokar apane dhng se unaka pratikar karane ki bhavana se hi kavi ne lekhani ka yah shastr uthaya tha. 'rajatarngini' ki rachana usi ka parinat phal hai.

aitihasik kriti

'rajatarngini' ek nishpaksh aur nirbhay aitihasik kriti hai. granthakar ke matanusar ek sachche itihas lekhak ki vani ko nyayadhish ke saman rag-dvaish-vinirmukt hona chahie, tabhi usaki prashnsa ho sakati hai-

shladhy: s ev gunavanh ragadveshabahishkrita.
bhootarthakathane yasy stheyasyev sarasvati॥[7]

apani kriti men unhonne is kasauti ka poornaroop se palan kiya hai. rajatarngini men rajaon ke charitrik patan evn kashmiri logon ke pravnchanamay charitr ka ve khulakar udghatan karate hain. mantriyon ke paraspirik virodh, senadhyakshon men matabhed, sainikon men anushasanahinata, purahiton men dambh tatha shadyantrakarita, janasamany ke grih-kalah aur chhal-prapnch ka spasht ankan karane men unhen tanik bhi snkoch nahin hota. yah sab hote hue bhi tarnginikar ki kashmirabhoomi ke prati atmiy-astha aur priti akshunn aur adig hai. apani janmabhoomi ko svarg se bhi adhik niroopit karate hue ve kahate hain ki oonche-oonche vidyabhavan, kesar, shital jal aur draksha- ye sab svarg men bhi durlabh vastuen jis kashmir men samanyat: prapy hain usaki tulana bhala aur kisase ki ja sakati hai-

vidyaveshmani tungani kunkumn sahimn pay:.
draksheti yatr samanyamasti tridivadurlabhamh॥[8]

phir bhi rajatarngini kora itihas granth hi nahin hai. kavyatmak charuta ka sannivesh bhi usamen dekha ja sakata hai. lakshan granthon ki prachalit paribhasha ke anusar isaka mahakavyatv bhale hi utpann n hota ho, kintu hai vah chittavarjak kavy hi, aur apane akaragat tatha vishayagat mahattv ke karan ise ek prithakh shaili ka aitihasik mahakavy kahane men kisi ko bhi koee anupapatti nahin ho sakati. mahakavi kalhan amritasyandi sukavi ke gunon ki vandana karate hue unhen kavi aur varnaniy vishay donon ko amar kar dene vala rasayan svikar karate hain[9] siddh karate hai.[10]unake anusar, jinaki bhujaon ki chhatrachhaya men samudr sahit yah dharati surakshit rahati hai, ve bade-bade balashali rajagan jisaki kripa ke bina smaran bhi nahin kiye jate vah prakriti ka sarvotkrisht kavikarm hi namaskar yogy hai-

bhujavanataruchchhayan yeshan nishevy mahaujasan
jaladhirashanamedinyasidasavakutobhaya ॥
smritimapati n te yanti kshmapa vina yadanugrahn
prakritimahate kurmastasmai nam: kavikarmane॥[11]

bhasha aur shaili

sahasron varshon ki kalavadhi men utpann, bhinn-bhinn shil, svabhav tatha itivritt vale vividh nareshon ka varnan hone ke karan isaki shaili men satat gatvarata aur ek prakar ki samasikata hai, at: any mahakavyon ki bhanti shrringar, vir, has adi rason ka tatha alamban-uddipan ke roop men soddeshy kiye gaye prakritik varnanon ka vaisa chamatkar to nahin milata. phir bhi prasnganusar, sabhi rason ka uchit sannivesh tatha itivritt ki pithika ke roop men prakriti ke chitramay varnanon ki upalabdhi yahan dekhi ja sakati hai.

shant ras

hamare ady itihas mahabharat ki bhanti rajatarnngini ka angi ras bhi 'shant' hai. kalhan, ek darshanik ki bhanti snsar ki kshanabhngurata par vichar karate hue kavyashastriy dridhata se 'shant' ras ki sarvotkrishtata siddh karate hain-

kshanabhangini jantoonan sphurite parichintite.
moordhabhishek: shastasy rasasyatr vicharyatamh॥[12]

chhnd

tarngini ki shaili samanyat: saral-taral hai. kavi ne apani rachana men vaidarbhi-riti tatha anushtuph chhand ka hi ashray liya hai, kintu kahin-kahin panchali aur gaudiriti tatha bich-bich men vasantatilaka, shardoolavikridit, harini adi bade chhandon ka bhi prayog dikhalaee padata hai.

alnkar

alnkaron ka prayog bhi sahaj aur akritrim roop se hua hain. upama, utpreksha, roopak, dipak, atishayokti, drishtant adi arthalnkar tatha anupras adi shabdalnkar svabhavik roop se upasthit hue hain. kashmir varnan men yah utpreksha kitani ramaniy hai-

asantaparhatan jananh yatr pitra vinirmite.
gauravadiv tigmanshurdhatte grishmeapyativratamh॥[13]

  • pita kashyap ji ke dvara sthapit kie ge kashmir-mandal ko tap dena uchit nahin hai mano yah sochakar vahan grishm men bhi soory apani kiranon men tikhapan nahin late. brahmanon ke apakar roop dusht-karm se tarapid namak raja nasht ho gaya. is varnan men kavi ne agni aur megh ka yah sundar drishtant prastut kiya hai-

yoayn janopakaranay shrayatyupayn

tenaiv tasy niyamen bhavedh vinash:.
dhoomn prasauti nayanandhyakarn yamagni-
rbhootvambud: s shamayeth salilaistamev॥[14]

  • rajatarngini men sthan-sthan par sooktimuktaprasavini pady-sooktiyan bikhari padi hain. jinamen kavi ke sngharshamay, praudh jivan ka anubhav, abha banakar jhankata pratit hota hai. yadi shilaroopi chintamani ka vigalan ho gaya to phir jivan men sare durgun kramash: kis prakar ate-jate hain isaka varnan dekhie-

pragunmilati duryash: suvishamn garhyoabhilashastato
dharm: poorvamupaiti snkshayamatho shlaghyoabhimanakram:.
sandehn prathamn prayatyabhijann pashchatpunarjivitn
kin nabhyeti viparyayn vigalane shilasy chintamane:॥[15]

  • kavi ne tatkalin rajaon ki vilasita, nrishnsata aur moorkhata ka khulakar chitran kiya hai. is samay ke naresh, durlabh mriganayaniyon ko prapt karane men, ghodon ki kharid-pharokt men, vit aur vaitalikon ke dvara apani prashnsa karavane men hi apane dhan ka apavyav kar dalate hain[16] prajarakshan men viniyukt unaka sampoorn samay roothi kaminiyon ko manane men, ghoda-hathi adi ki kharidadari men aur naukaron ke sath shikar karane men hi bit jata hai.[17] apani yuktiyon men tatkalin samajik paristhitiyon se uddhrit anek marmik chitr kavi ne upasthit kie hain, jinamen anubhooti aur snvedana ki nishchhal abhivyakti huee hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. kalhan ki rajatarngini (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) prem ka dariya (blaaug). abhigaman tithi: 18 navambar, 2012.
  2. snskrit vanamay ka brihad itihas, chaturth-khand kavy, rajataranagini— prishth snkhya- 260)
  3. rajatarnnagini 1.14 tatha 15
  4. (rajatarngini 9.609-13)
  5. (rajatarngini, 7.880.937)
  6. (rajatarngini, 7.1119-21)
  7. (rajatarngini, 1.7)
  8. rajatarngini, 1.42
  9. vandy: koapi sudhasyandaskandi s sukavergun:. yen yati yash:kay: sthairy svasy parasy ch॥ rajatarngini,0 1.3
  10. koany: kalamatikrantn netun pratyakshatan ksham:. kaviprajapatinstyaktva ramyanirmanashalin:॥ rajatarngini, 1.4
  11. rajatarngini, 1.46)
  12. rajatarngini, 1.23
  13. rajatarngini, 1.41
  14. rajatarngini, 4.125)
  15. rajatarngini, 7 . 316
  16. rajatarngini, 7 .110 .9
  17. rajatarngini, 7.1110

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