शांत रस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(शान्त रस se punarnirdeshit)

shant ras sahity men prasiddh nau rason men antim ras mana jata hai - "shantoapi navamo ras:."[1] isaka karan yah hai ki bharatamuni ke ‘natyashastr’ [2] men, jo ras vivechan ka adi srot hai, naty rason ke roop men keval ath rason ka hi varnan milata hai. shant ke us roop men bharatamuni ne manyata pradan nahin ki, jis roop men shrringar, vir adi rason ki, aur n usake vibhav, anubhav aur snchari bhavon ka hi vaisa spasht niroopan kiya.

‘navaras'

ashtanatyarason ka svaroop niroopit karane ke pashchath ‘natyashastr’ men shant ras ki sambhavana ka nirdesh nimnalikhit shabdon men kiya gaya hai aur ‘navaras’ shabd ka bhi ullekh sarvapratham yahin hua hai -

"at: shanto nam......
mokshadhyatmasamutth.....shantaraso nam sambhavati.
......evn nav rasa drishta natyashairlakshananvita:"[3],

arthat moksh aur adhyatm ki bhavana se jis ras ki utpatti hoti hai, usako shant ras nam dena sambhavy hai.[4] natygy logon ki drishti men is prakar vividh lakshanon se yukt nau ras hote hain. ukt ansh ke atirikt ‘natyashastr’ men hi ek sthan par yah bhi pratipadit kiya gaya hai ki shant ras men hi rati adi ath sthayi bhavon ki utpatti hoti hai aur shant men hi unaka vilay ho jata hai -

"svn svn nimittamasath shantadbhav: pravartate.
punarnimittapaye ch shant evopaliyate."[5]

shant ras ka mahatv

is pratipatti se shant ras ka mahatv any rason ki tulana men sarvopari siddh hota hai. kuchh vicharakon ne isi adhar par ki shant bhavashoony sthiti ka dyotak hai, usaki anabhineyata siddh ki aur usaka khandan kiya, jisaka virodh ‘abhinavabharati’ aur ‘rasagngadhar’ adi anek granthon men milata hai. inamen kaha gaya hai ki ‘bhav-shoonyata’ shant ko ras manane men badhak nahin ho sakati, kyonki kisi ras ke abhinay men abhineta bhav lipt nahin mana gaya hai.

  • abhinavagupt ne shant ras aur usake sthayi bhav ki samasya par gambhiratapoorvak atyant sookshm drishti se vichar kiya aur apane poorv ke sabhi maton ka khandan karate hue svatntr mat ki sthapana ki. jin maton ka ullekh ‘abhinavabharati’ men hua hai, unamen se ek sham ko sthayi, tapasya tatha yogiyon ke sampark ko vibhav, kam, krodh adi ke abhav ko anubhav aur dhriti, mati adi ko snchari manata hua shant ras ki kalpana sampoorn rasangon ke sath karata hai.
  • parantu doosara mat sham aur shant ko paryayavachi batakar any anek tarkon dvara shant ras ki prithakh satta ka nishedh karata hai. kuchh ke anusar nirved shant ras ka sthayi bhav hai, par kuchh any vicharak panak ras ki tarah rati, utsah adi athon sthayiyon ko sammilit roop se shant ka sthayi manane ke paksh men hain.
  • abhinavagupt ne ukt sabhi maton ka khandan pandityapoorn ritiyon se karate hue ant men ‘tattvgyan’ ko shant ras ka sthayi bhav mana. unake mat se jis prakar ‘kam’ rati adi se abhihit hokar kavi aur nat dvara rasasvaroop men asvady hokar prakat hota hai, usi prakar ‘moksh’ namak purusharth apane yogy bhi vishesh chittavritti ke yog se ras avastha ko prapt kar sakata hai. shant ras yahi hai. nirved ko achary ne shok ke pravah ko phailane vali vishesh chittavritti mana, jisaki utpatti do prakar se hoti hai -
  1. ek to daridray adi se,
  2. doosare tattvgyan se.
  • tattvgyan se utpann nirved any sab sthayiyon ko daba lene vala hai aur unaki apeksha adhik sthayitv vala bhi hai. par yadi is nirved ko shant ras ka sthayi bhav mana jayega, to tattvgyan ko vibhav manana padega, kyonki usi se yah utpann hota hai. parantu ise uchit nahin mana gaya. vastav men tattvgyan se nirved utpann nahin hota, tattvgyan hi nirved ya vairagy se upajata hai. sham aur nirved ko saman svikar karake sham aur shant men hras aur hasy ki tarah siddh aur sadhy, sadharan aur asadharan ka bhed bhi unhonne bataya. is prakar bahut tark-vitark ke bad tattvgyan ko hi antim manyata pradan ki.
  • age ke shastrakaron ne shant ras ke sthayi bhav-vishayak unake mat ko svikar nahin kiya. isake mool men kadachith do karan mukhy the. ek to yah ki ‘tattvgyan’ ko sthayi bhav kahana gyan ko bhav ka sthan dena hai, jo sahaj grahy nahin ho saka aur n vah uchit hi pratit hota hai. doosare, jab sham ko shant men vahi bhed hai, jo has aur hasy men, to phir jis prakar hasy ka sthayi has ho sakata hai, usi prakar shant ka sthayi bhi sham ho sakata hai. is par apatti karana samichani nahin hai, kyonki bharat ne hi use nirdharit kiya hai.
  • shant ras ke sthayi bhav sambandhi vad-vivad ka yahin ant nahin hua, sahity men aur bhi mat vyakt kiye ge hain.
  • agnipuran’ [6] men ‘rati’ ke abhav se shant ras ki utpatti mani gee hai.
  • rudrat[7] ne ‘samyak gyan’ ko anandavardhan[8] ne ‘trishnakshayasukh’ ko tatha age kuchh any vidvanon ne ‘sarvachittavrittiprashamh’, ‘nirvisheshachittavritti’, ‘dhriti’, ‘utsah’ adi ko bhi shant ras ka sthayi nirdharit kiya. shrringaradi ki tarah shant ras ke bhed-prabhed karane ki or acharyon ka dhyan pray: nahin gaya hai. keval ‘ras-kalika’ men rudrabhatt dvara char bhed kiye ge hain -
  1. vairagy,
  2. dosh-vigrah,
  3. santosh,
  4. tattv-sakshatkar, jo ki many nahin hue.
  • shant ke samanantar kuchh naye rason ki kalpana bhi ki gee, jisamen ‘sngitasudhakar’ ke rachayita haripal dvara kalpit brahmaras[9] tatha ‘rasamnjari’ ke praneta bhanudatt [10] dvara kalpit karpany ras[11] vishesh ullekhaniy hain.
  • jain ‘anuyogadvarasootr’ men ‘prashant’ namak ras ki charcha milati hai.
  • bhoj (11shatabdi eesvi poorva.) ke ‘sarasvatikanthabharan’ men dhirodatt adi chaturvidh nayakon ke adhar par kuchh rason ki siddhi mani gee hai, jinamen dhiraprashant ke anuroop ‘prashant’ ya ‘shant’ ras[12] dhriti ki sthiti siddh hoti hai.
  • dhannjay[13], mammat [14] aur vishvanath[15] prabhooti *snskrit ke prasiddh paravarti acharyon ne shant ras ka lakshan nimnalikhit roop men diya hai. dhannjay - "shamaprakarshon nirvachyo muditadestadatmata" [16], arthath shant ras anirvachy aur sham ka prakarsh hai tatha mod usaka svaroop hai. is par vyakhyakar dhanik ka kathan hai - "munirajon ne us ras ko shant kaha hai, jisamen sukh, du:kh, chinta, dvesh, rag, ichchhadi kuchh nahin rahate aur jisamen sab bhavon ka sham pradhan rahata hai."
  • mammat - "nirvedasthayibhavoasti navamo ras:"[17], arthath nirved sthayivala shant ras navan ras hota hai.
  • vishvanath ne ‘sahityadarpan’ men is prakar ki vyakhya ki hai - "shant ras ki prakriti uttam, sthayi bhav sham, kundendu varn tatha devata shri narayan hain. snsar ki anityata, vastujagat ki nitsarata aur paramatma ke svaroop ka gyan isake alamban hain. bhagavan ke pavitr ashray, tirthasthan, ramy ekant van tatha mahapurushon ka satsng uddipan hai. anubhav romanchadi aur snchariyon men nirved, harsh, smaran, gati, unmad tatha praniyon par daya adi ki ganana ki ja sakati hai."[18]
  • snskrit sahity men, visheshakar dhannjay dvara nirved ko sthayi manane ka virodh kiya gaya hai, par kuchh ritikalin hindi kavyacharyon ne mammat ka mat manate hue ‘sham’ ke sthan par ‘nirved’ ko hi shant ras ka sthayi bhav bataya hai.
kulapati mishr -

"tattv shanate kabit men, jahn pragatai nirved.
kahai sant ras jasuko, so hai naumo bhed."[19]

nandaram -

"jako thaee bhav sukavi hamiradev bakhanat."[20]

padmakar -

"suras sant nirved hai jako thaee bhav."[21]

kulapati mishr[22]

kulapati mishr ke uparyukt lakshan par abhinavagupt ke mat ki chhaya hai. any pramukh kavyacharyon men chintamani[23], bhikharidas[24] aur keshavadas[25] ne ‘sham’ ko hi manyata pradan ki. beni pravin[26] ne ‘navasatarng’ men ‘thaee jasu birag’ likhakar virag ko aur ‘sahityasagar’ ke rachayita biharilal bhatt ne ‘shanti sthayi bhav hai’ likhakar shanti ko shant ras ka sthayi mana hai. chintamani ne bhi ‘sam kahiyat vairagyate’ ke dvara sham aur vairagy ko samanarthi mana hai.

  • keshavadas ne to ‘sham’ ke karan shant ras ko hi ‘sham ras’ nam de diya hai -

"sabate hoy udas man basai ek hi thaur.
tahison sam ras kahat kesab kabi siramaur."[27]

  • panditaraj jagannath [28] ne mahabharatadi prabandhon men shant ras ki pradhanata batayi hai aur use ‘akhil lokanubhavasiddh’ bhi ghoshit kiya hai. jain kavi banarasidas ne apane ‘samayasar’ natak men shant ras ko rasaraj manate hue likha hai - ‘navamo sant rasaniko nayak’. snskrit tatha any bharatiy bhashaon ka gyan-bhaktiparak sampoorn sahity moolat: shant ras ke antargat ata hai, yadyapi usamen shesh ath rason ka paryapt parivistar milata hai.
  • vairagy bharatiy vicharadhara ka mahattvapoorn tatha shaktishalini pravritti rahi hai aur usaka prabhav bharatiy sahity par nirantar bana raha hai. hindi sahity ke bhaktikal men shant ras ko mahatv prapt hua hai. vinay sambandhi bhaktibhavana men isi ras ka prasar hai. soor ke vinay ke padon men tatha tulasi ki ‘vinayapatrika’ men isaki poorn abhivyakti huee hai. sant kaviyon men nirved, sham, vairagy ki vyapak bhavana paee jati hai. premamargi soofi kaviyon ke prabandh kavyon men yatr-tatr isaki avatarana hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. mammat : kavy prakash, 4:35
  2. 3 shatabdi eesvi
  3. natyashastr prishth 324-33 ga. sn.
  4. kanhaiyalal poddar : s. sa. i., dvi. bha0
  5. natyashastr, 6:108
  6. 9 10 shatabdi eesvi
  7. 9 shatabdi eesvi
  8. 9 shatabdi eesvi uttarardh
  9. sthayi bhav anand
  10. 13 shatabdi eesvi
  11. sthayi bhav spriha
  12. sthayi bhav
  13. 10 shatabdi eesvi
  14. 12 shatabdi eesvi poorvardh
  15. 15 shatabdi eesvi poorvardh
  16. dasharoopak, 4:45
  17. kavyaprakash, 4:35
  18. sahityadarpan3: 245, 46, 47, 49
  19. rasarahasy, prishth 28
  20. shrringar darpan, prishth 148
  21. jagadvinod, 720
  22. 17shatabdi eesvi utt.
  23. 17 shatabdi eesvi poorva.
  24. 17 shatabdi eesvi poorva.
  25. 17 shatabdi eesvi poorva.
  26. 19 shatabdi eesvi poorva.
  27. rasikapriya, 14:37
  28. 17 shatabdi eesvi poorva.

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