वात्सल्य रस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vatsaly ras ka sthayi bhav hai. mata-pita ka apane putradi par jo naisargik sneh hota hai, use ‘vatsaly’ kahate hain. maikadugal adi manastattvavidon ne vatsaly ko pradhan, maulik bhavon men pariganit kiya hai, vyavaharik anubhav bhi yah batata hai ki apaty-sneh dampaty ras se thodi hi kam prabhavishnutavala manobhav hai.

  • snskrit ke prachin acharyon ne devadivishayak rati ko keval ‘bhav’ thaharaya hai tatha vatsaly ko isi prakar ki ‘rati’ mana hai, jo sthayi bhav ke tuly, unaki drishti men chavarniy nahin hai[1].
  • someshvar bhakti evn vatsaly ko ‘rati’ ke hi vishesh roop manate hain - ‘sneho bhaktirvatsalyamiti raterev vishesh:’, lekin apaty-sneh ki utkatata, asvadaniyata, purusharthopayogita ityadi gunon par vichar karane se pratit hota hai ki vatsaly ek svatntr pradhan bhav hai, jo sthayi hi samajha jana chahie.
  • bhoj ityadi katipay acharyon ne isaki satta ka pradhany svikar kiya hai.
  • vishvanath ne prasphut chamatkar ke karan vatsal ras ka svatntr astitv niroopit kar ‘vatsalata-sneh’ [2] ko isaka sthayi bhav spasht roop se mana hai - ‘sthayi vatsalata-sneh: putrathalambann matamh’.[3]
  • harsh, garv, aveg, anisht ki ashnka ityadi vatsaly ke vyabhichari bhav hain. udaharan -

‘chalat dekhi jasumati sukh pavai.
thumuki thumuki pag dharani rengat, janani dekhi dikhavai’ [4] isamen keval vatsaly bhav vynjit hai, sthayi ka parisphutan nahin hua hai.

vatsaly ras ke udgam

vatsaly shabd vats se vyutpann aur putradivishayak rati ka paryay hai. isaka prayog ras ki apeksha bhav ke lie adhik upayukt hai, kadachit isilie prachin acharyon ne ‘vatsaly ras’ n likhakar ‘vatsal ras’ likha aur vatsalata ya vatsaly ko usaka sthayi bhav mana,

‘shrringaravir-karunadbhutaraudrahasyavibhatravatsalabhayanakashantanamn:’ [6].

  • vishvanath[7] ne isaka lakshan diya hai -

‘sphutn chamatkaritaya vatsaln ch ras vidu:.

sthayi vatsalatasneh: putradyalambann matamh’ [8] vatsaly sneh isaka sthayi bhav hota hai tatha putradi alamban. age usaka vistar dete hue kahate hain - ‘bal sulabh cheshtaon ke sath-sath usaki vidya, shaury, daya adi visheshataen uddipan hain. alingan, angasnsparsh, shir ka choomana, dekhana, romanch, anandashru adi anubhav hai. anisht ki ashnka, harsh, garv adi snchari mane jate hain. is ras ka varn pady-garbh ki chhavi jaisa aur devata, lokamata ya jagadamba hai’[9].

  • bhojaraj[10] ne ‘shrringar’ ko rasaraj siddh karane ke prasng men any rason ki ganana karate hue unaki snkhya ‘vatsal ras’ ko milakar das batayi hai, jisase spashtataya gyat hota hai ki unake samay tak vatsaly ras ke udgam ko bhi manyata prapt ho chuki thi.
  • vishvanath ke ‘sahityadarpan’ men jis sangopang roop men isaka niroopan hua hai, usase gyat hota hai ki kal-kram men isako adhikadhik manyata evn vikas prapt hota gaya. aisa pratit hota hai ki vatsaly ras ka udagam srot drishy kavy men n hokar shravy kavy men nihit hai.
  • bharatamuni [11] ke ‘natyashastr’ men aisa koee sootr nahin hai, jisase isaki siddhi ho sake. ath natyashastron ke sath shant ke milane par adhik se adhik nau rason ko hi svikriti usamen milati hai.
vatsaly ras ka udgam

bhamah, dandi, udbhat aur rudrat jaise alnkarikon dvara many ‘greyas’ namak alnkar se vatsaly ras ke udgam ka kuchh sambandh sambhav dikhaee deta hai. ‘prey:priyatarakhyanamh’ kahakar dandi [12] ne ‘preyash’ alnkar ko priti bhav se sambaddh bataya. udbhat [13] ne isaka jo udaharan diya hai, usamen ‘sutavallabhyannivishesha sprihavati’, ‘mrigi ki god men baithe mrig-shavak ka’ bhavapoorn chitr samavisht hai, jisase ‘preyash’ ke vatsaly bhav hone ka abhas milane lagata hai.

  • rudrat[14] ke ‘kavyalnkar’ se isaki pushti hoti hai.
  • abhinavagupt[15] ne ‘abhinavabharati’ men nau rason ki charcha karane ke uparant any rason ki sambhavana ka snkshipt ullekh tatha apani or se unaka khandan karate hue likha hai ki, ‘balasy matapitradau sneho bhaye vishrant:’ arthat mata-pita ke prati balak ke sneh ka antarbhav bhay men ho jata hai. ‘vriddhasy putradavapi drashtavyamh’, arthat isi prakar vriddh ka putradi ke prati sneh dekha jana chahie.
  • abhinavagupt se sahamati rakhakar hi kadachith mammat [16] ne ‘kavyaprakash’ men likha hai - ‘ratirdevadivishaya vyabhichari tathaanjit:. bhav: prokt:’.[17]
  • mammat ke ras niroopan se poorv ‘tadvisheshanah’ ki vyakhya karate hue ‘balabodhani’ tikakar ne jo tippani di hai, usase poorvokt ‘preyash’ vishayak anubhanashrit dharana pratyaksh ho jati hai-‘kisi ki sammati hai ki ek shrringar ras hi ras hai, kisi ne preyans, dant, uddhat ke sath varnit nav ras ko dvadash ras mana hai. jis ras ka sthayi bhav sneh ho, usako preyans kahate hain aur isi ka nam vatsaly hai’. spashtat: hi tikakar ne yahan bhojarat ki manyata ka sandarbh dete hue preyans ko hi vatsaly bataya hai, jisaka snkat ‘vatsalaprakrite:’ ke roop men ‘sarasvatikanthamaran’ men hi mil jata hai. snskrit kavyashastr men vatsaly ki sthiti kis prakar ek alnkar se badhate-badhate ras tak pahunch gee, isaka kuchh abhas uparyukt vivechan se ho jata hai.
sthayi bhav

vatsaly ke sthayi sambandh men bhi kahin-kahin bhinn mat vyakt kiya gaya hai. kavi karnapoor ne ‘mamakar’ ko, ‘mandaramarandachampoo’ ke rachayita ne karpany ko isaka sthayi bhav mana hai. prarambh men vatsaly ka antarbhav shrringar ke antargat hi kiya jata raha, kyonki vatsalata ratika hi ek vishisht roop hai. someshvar ne rati ke tin bhed batate hue likha hai - ‘sneh, bhakti, vatsaly rati ke hi vishesh roop hain. tulyon ki anyony rati ka nam sneh, uttam men anuttam ki rati ka nam bhakti aur anuttam men uttam rati ka nam vatsaly hai’ (kavyaprakash ki kavyadarsh tika). yahan sneh, bhakti aur vatsaly men bhed kiya gaya hai. isase vatsaly bhakti ki bhavana ka vilom siddh hota hai. uttam aur anuttam shabdon se kadachit shreshthata ka arth n lekar chhot-bade ka arth hi liya gaya pratit hota hai.[18]. 'ritikal men vatsaly

  • keshavadas [19], chintamani[20], bhikharidas[21] adi pray: sabhi pramukh ritikalin kavyacharyon ne vatsaly ras ki upeksha ki hai. unhonne is vishay men ‘sahityadarpan’ ka udaharan samane n rakhakar nau rason ki roodh parampara ka palan kiya hai. bharatendu[22] ne avashy apane ‘natak’ namak granth men any rason ke sath vatsaly ko sthan diya hai, par usaka karan bhinn hai. bharatendu ne vatsaly ke sath dasy, sakhy aur madhury ki bhi ganana ki hai, jisase prakat ho jata hai ki unhonne isaki avatarana gaudiy sampraday ke bhaktishastr ke adhar par ki, jo unake samay tak vaishnav bhakti ke kshetr men pray: sarvamany ho chuka tha. bhaktishastr ke anusar bhi vatsaly bhav hi siddh hota hai, kyonki ras to bhakti svayn hi hai, jo ukt charon bhavon ke dvara bhavit hota hai.
sooradas ka vatsaly

sooradas dvara is vatsaly bhav ka itana vistar kiya gaya ki ‘soorasagar’ ko drishti men rakhate hue vatsaly ko ras n manana ek vidambana-sa pratit hota hai. ‘hariaudh’ ne moolat: isi adhar par vatsaly ko ras siddh kiya hai. yahi nahin, unhonne vatsaly ko vibhats, hasy adi anek rason se tark sahit shreshth siddh kiya hai.

krishn lila ke antargat soor ka vatsaly varnan rasatv prapti ke lie apekshit sabhi angon-pangon ko apane men samavisht kiye hai. doosare, bhakti ki drishti se vatsaly soor ka apana bhav nahin hai. atev ‘soorasagar’ men nand yashoda tatha any vayask gopiyon ka balakrishn ke prati prem, akarshan, khijh, vyngy, upalambh adi sab kuchh vatsaly ras ki hi samagri hai. krishn ka saundary-varnan tatha bal-kridaon ka sookshm manovaigyanik chitran bhi isi ke antargat ata hai.

tulasidas ka vatsaly

tulasi ka ‘gitavali’, ‘krishn gitavali’ tatha ‘kavitavali’ men ‘ramacharitamanas’ se shreshthatar vatsaly ras ki kavita milati hai.

adhunik kal men vatsaly

‘hariaudh’ ke ‘priyapravas’ aur maithilisharan gupt ke ‘saket’ tatha ‘yashodhara’ men nayi bhoomikaon men vatsaly ka udrek prapt hota hai.

  • kadachit kisi prachin snskrit ya hindi ke achary ne vatsaly ras ke bhedopabhed karane ki cheshta nahin ki hai. karan spasht hai ki adhikatar use ras hi nahin mana gaya hai. par anandaprakash dikshit ne apane shodhagranth ‘kavy men ras’ men vatsaly ke nimnalikhit bhed mane hain-
  1. gachchhatpravas,
  2. pravasasthit,
  3. pravasagat,
  4. karun.

yah charon upabhed viyog - vatsaly ke hain, jo svayn ek bhed hai. shrringar ki tarah vatsaly ke bhi snyog aur viyog ke adhar par do bhed kiye ge hain; karun vatsaly namak vibhed karun shrringar ke samanantar hai. pravas par adharit vibhed vatsaly ras ke viyogapaksh men utane upayukt nahin lagate, jitane vipralambh shrringar men, kyonki ek vishesh avastha tak shishu men pravasasamarthy hi nahin hoti.[23]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. ka.pr., 4
  2. vatsaly
  3. sahity darpan, 3:251
  4. soor sagar sa. : go.li, 21
  5. 11 shati eesa poorva.
  6. shrrin.pr., 1 : 6
  7. 14 shati eesa poorva.
  8. sahity darpan, 3 : 251, arthat prakat chamatkar hone ke karan vatsal ko bhi ras mana jata hai.
  9. sahity darpan, 3 : 253-54
  10. 11 shati eesa poorva.
  11. 3 shatabdi eesvi
  12. 6 shati eesa poorva
  13. 8-9 shati eesa poorva
  14. 9 shati eesa poorva
  15. 10-11 shati eesa poorva
  16. 11 shati eesa poorva
  17. kavyaprakash 4 : 35 arthat devata adi ke vishay men utpann hone vali rati aur pakati krit ya vyakt vyabhichari ko bhav kaha jata hai
  18. ayodhyasinh upadhyay ‘hariodh’ ka ‘vatsaly ras’ namak lekh koshotsav smarak sngrah
  19. 16-17 sh. ee.
  20. 17 sh. ee. madhy
  21. 18 sh. ee. poorva.
  22. 19 sh. ee. utt.
  23. ‘kavy men ras’, apr. pr. prishth 493-96

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