करुण रस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharatamuni ke ‘natyashastr’ men pratipadit ath natyarason men shrringar aur hasy ke anantar tatha raudr se poorv karun ras ki ganana ki gee hai. ‘raudrattu karuno ras:’ kahakar 'karun ras' ki utpatti 'raudr ras' se mani gee hai aur usaka varn kapot ke sadrish hai [1] tatha devata yamaraj bataye gaye hain [2] bharat ne hi karun ras ka vishesh vivaran dete hue usake sthayi bhav ka nam ‘shok’ diya hai[3] aur usaki utpatti shapajany klesh vinipat, ishtajan-viprayog, vibhav nash, vadh, bandhan, vidrav arthath palayan, apaghat, vyasan arthath apatti adi vibhavon ke snyog se svikar ki hai. sath hi karun ras ke abhinay men ashrupatan, paridevan arthath vilap, mukhashoshan, vaivarny, trastagatrata, ni:shvas, smritivilop adi anubhavon ke prayog ka nirdesh bhi kaha gaya hai. phir nirved, glani, chinta, autsuky, aveg, moh, shram, bhay, vishad, dainy, vyadhi, jadata, unmad, apasmar, tras, alasy, maran, stambh, vepathu, vevarny, ashru, svarabhed adi ki vyabhichari ya snchari bhav ke roop men pariganit kiya hai [4].

  • dhannjay [5], vishvanath [6] adi snskrit acharyon ne karun ras ke utpadak vividh karanon ko snkshipt karake ‘drisht-nash’ aur ‘anisht-apti’ in do sngyaon men nibaddh kar diya hai, jinaka adhar ukt ‘natyashastr’ men hi mil jata hai.
  • dhannjay - ‘ishtanashadanishtaptau shokatma karunoanutamh’ [7].
  • vishvanath - ‘ishtanashadanishtapte: karunakhyo raso bhavet’ [8].
  • hindi ke adhikansh kavyacharyon ne inhin ko svikar karate hue karun ras ka lakshan roodhigat roop men prastut kiya hai.
  • chintamani[9] ke anusar

‘ishtanash ki anisht ki, agam te jo hoi.
du:kh sok thaee jahan, bhav karun soi’ [10].

‘vinathe eeth anith suni, man men upajat sog.
asa chhoote char vidhi, karun bakhanat log’ [12].

  • kulapati mishr ne ‘rasarahasy’ [13] men bharatamuni ke naty ke anuroop vibhavon ka ullekh kiya hai aur keshavadas ne ‘rasikapriya’ men ‘priy ke bipriy karan’ ko hi karun ki utpatti ka karan mana hai.
  • jahan tak karun ras ke devata ka prashn hai, hindi ke kaviyon ne adhikatar ‘yam’ ke sthan par ‘varun’ ko manyata pradan ki hai aur is prakar bharat se lekar vishvanath tak ki parampara se bhinn path ka anusaran kiya hai. karun ras ke uddipan-vibhav ka niroopan pray: ‘sahityadarpan’ ke ‘dahadikavastha bhaveduddipanamh’ [14] ke prabhavon se kiya gaya hai.
sthayi bhav
karun ras ki parivyapti aur parisiman ka nirdharan ek jatil prashn hai. yadyapi karun ka sthayi bhav shok mana gaya hai, par shok tabhi sambhav hai, jab usake mool men ‘rag’ ya ‘rati’ kisi n kisi roop men nihit ho. adikavy ‘valmiki ramayan’ se sambaddh kronchavadh ki katha men hi isaka sootr milata hai. jis kronch - mithun men se ek ke vadh ka parinam ‘shok’ ke ‘shlokatv’ men ghatit hua, vah ‘kamamohit’ tha. is adhar par kuchh kavy - chintakon ne karun ka kshetr any rason ki apeksha atyant vyapak bataya hai aur shrringaradi rason ko usi ki paridhi men samavisht karane ki cheshta ki hai. isaka sabase adhik shrey ‘uttararamacharit’ ke rachayita bhavabhooti ko hai. inhin ne kavy men karun ras ki

mahatta aur vyapti ka mukt udaghosh kiya hai -
‘eko ras: karun evn nimittabhedadbhinn: prithakprithagiv shrayate vivartanh.
avartabudabud-tarngamayanvakaranambho yatha salilamev hi tatsamagramh’ [15].

manav hriday ko sukh ki apeksha du:kh adhik talasparshi evn dravanashil anubhooti pradan karata hai tatha vah adhik gambhir evn sthayi atmik ekata utpann karane ki kshamata rakhata hai, kadachith isi adhar par ukt sthapana ki manovaigyanik vyakhya prastut ki ja sakati hai. ek or jahan karun ko itani vyapak mahatta pradan ki jati hai, vahin doosari or acharyon ne usaki simaon ka bhi nirdesh shrringaradi any rason ki tulana men sookshm riti se kiya hai.

anubhav aur snchari bhav

anubhavon aur snchariyon ki drishti se vipralambh shrringar karun ke sabase nikat padata hai, isilie bharatamuni se lekar vartaman kal tak kavy ke tattvgyon ko donon ka maulik antar spasht karane ki or vishesh dhyan dena pada hai. ‘natyashastr’ men karun ko nirapeksh aur vipralambh ko sapeksh kahakar donon ka parthaky pradarshit kiya gaya hai -

‘karunastu....nirapekshabhav autsukyachintasamuty:.
sapekshabhavon vipralambhakrit:. evamany: karun: anyashch vipralambh:’ [16].

ukt uddhrit ansh ke sath bharatamuni ne ‘evamesh sarvabhavasnyukt: shrringaro bhavati’ arthath ‘is prakar yah shrringar sab bhavon se snyukt hota hai’; yah tippani jodakar spasht nirdesh kar diya ki ve karun ki tulana men shrringar ko adhik vyapak bhav bhoomi par adharit manate the. jo karun ishtanash se utpann hota hai, vah to vipralambh se saralata se prithakh kiya ja sakata hai, kyonki nayak - nayika, donon ki satta ‘rati’ ki sthiti ke lie anivary hai. yadi donon men se kisi ka avasan ho jata hai to ‘rati’ ki sthiti hi nahin hoti, at: aisi dasha men keval karun hi sambhav hai. parantu anishtaprapti se utpann hone vala karun vipralambh se tab tak alag nahin ja sakata, jab tak ‘rati’ aur ‘shok’ ki sammilit sthiti men kisi ek ki pradhanata vyakt nahin ho jati.

  • ‘ratyanalingit shok’ ki vishesh sthiti ko manate hue mishr ras ke roop men ‘karun shrringar’ aur ‘karun vatsaly’ ki bhi kalpana ki gee hai[17].
  • krishn kavy men 'bhramaragit' ke prasng men gopi - virah, yashoda - vilap aur ‘abhigyanashakuntalam’ ke chaturth ank men kanv ke ashram se shakuntala ki vidaee tatha aise hi any sthal shastriy paribhasha ke anusar karun ras ke antargat n ate hue bhi nyoonadhik karun prabhav utpann karate hain. urmila - virah tatha ram van gaman ki sthiti bhi samanantar hi hai, kadachit isilie inake varnan men kaviyon ne ‘karuna’ ya ‘karun ras’ ka spasht prayog kiya hai.
maithilisharan gupt -

‘karune, kyon roti hai? uttar men aur adhik too roee. meri vibhooti hai jo, usako bhavabhooti kyon kahe koee?’ [18].

tulasidas -

‘mukh mukhahi lochan sravahi sok n hriday samai.
manahoon karun ras katakee uttari avadh bajai’ [19].

  • ramachandr shukl ne aise hi sthalon ko dhyan men rakhakar karun aur vipralambh ka antar batate hue likha hai ki viyog men priy ke apane se bichhudane ki vihvalata pradhan hoti hai, kintu shok men apane kasht ki bhavana utana kam nahin karati, jitana priy ke kasht ki chetana ji ko jalati hai. isamen bhi bhav ki pradhanata aur apradhanata ke adhar par hi karun aur shrringar ke bich antar karane ki pushti hoti hai.
  • keshavadas ne viyog shrringar ke char bhedon men ek karun bhi rakha hai, jo is bat ka praman hai ki donon ki sima ek bindu par mil jati hai. karun ras ke sath jo isase bhi mahattvapoorn samasya sambaddh rahi hai, vah hai du:kh ke dvara anand ki upalabdhi ki.
kavyashastr men ras
  • karun ke dvara pratyaksh to du:kh ki anubhooti hoti hai, parantu bharatiy kavyashastr men rason ko anandotpadak mana gaya hai. at: saiddhantik drishti se karun ras ki nishpatti se bhi bhav ko anand ki hi upalabdhi honi chahie. karun kavy se du:kh ki anubhooti hoti hi nahin, yah kahana pratyaksh anubhav ka virodhi samajhakar acharyon ne vividh prakar ke tarkon se isaka samadhan karane ka yatn kiya hai. kuchh vidvanh karun prasngon se anand ki upalabdhi sambhav manate hain, aur kuchh isake virodhi hain.
  • snskrit kavyashastr men is vivad ka mool paryapt prachin hai, idhar pashchaty natakon men prapt trejidi ki samasya tatha tatsambandhi prachin grik manishiyon ke maton par bhi isi ke sath vichar kiya jane laga hai. ‘dhvanyalok’ [20] men anandavardhan [21] ne n keval karun men ‘madhury’ evn ‘ardata’ ki sthiti mani hai, varanh use shrringar aur vipralambh se uttarottar adhik prakarshamay bhi bataya hai, jisase vynjit hota hai ki ve karun ras ko shrringar se bhi adhik triptikar athava anandadayak manate the.
  • muktivad ke pratipadak bhattanayak ne kaha hai ki rasadasha men sattvodrek hone se bhavak ke lie bhav ke kshetr men ‘sv’ aur ‘par’ ka bhed samapt ho jata hai, jisake phalasvaroop bhav ke sattvik asvadan se use anand ki upalabdhi hoti hai. karun ras men bhi yahi bat charitarth hoti hai. *madhusoodan sarasvati ne ‘bhaktirasayan’ men sankhyadarshan ke adhar par karun adi du:khatmak rason men shuddh sattv ki sthiti n manakar gunon men taratamy sthapit kiya hai. unaki drishti se satogun udrekashoony hota hai, jabaki ‘krodh’ aur ‘shok’ men rajogun aur tamogun ki pradhanata rahati hai, jisase inamen nyoonadhik udrek avashy milata hai. isi karan raudr ras aur usase utpann karun ras vishuddh anand ki srishti nahin kar sakate. par isi ke sath anubhooti laukik aur alaukik roop ko bhi svikar karate hain, jo ras siddhant aur usake anandavad ka mool adhar hai. *abhinav gupt ne ras dasha ki alaukik anubhooti aur usaki vilakshanata ka sookshm vivechan karate hue hriday ki mukt-dasha se anand ki prapti mani hai, jo unake vichar se sabhi rason men anivary roop se rahati hai, anyatha ras-nishpatti hi asambhav hai. vishvanath ne keval sachetash vyaktiyon ko karun ras ke prati akarshit hone men saksham bataya hai aur karun ki rasatmakata ko simit kiya hai.
  • bhoj ne dhannjay aur vishvanath ke hi tark ke adhar par ‘du:khadatapi sukhn janayati’ ka pratipadan kiya. jis prakar rati men nakhakshatadi kashtadayak hote hue bhi sukhasnvriddhi ke sadhan hote hain, unake vichar se usi prakar karun ras men bhi du:khad vastuen sukhanubhooti utpann karati hain. *ramachandr gunachandr ne apane ‘natyadarpan’ men isi bat ko ‘panak ras’ ka udaharan dekar pratipadit kiya hai, jisamen sukhasvad ki tarah tikshn asvad bhi ruchikar lagata hai - ‘panakarasamadhuryamiv ch tikshnasvaden, sukhasvaden sutaran sukhani svadante.’ [22].
rason ka varg vibhajan
  • kadachit isi samasya se prerit hokar anek acharyon ne rason ko do bhagon men vibhajit kar diya.
  1. shrringar, vir, hasy, adbhut aur shant, ye panch ras anukool vedaniy hone ke nate sukhatmak varg men rakhe ge tatha
  2. karun, raudr, vibhats aur bhayanak, ye char ras pratikool vedaniy hone se du:khatmak varg men mane ge.
  • rason ke is varg vibhajan ka mool srot kafi purana hai, yadyapi sarvadhik prasiddhi isake lie ramachandr gunachandr ko hi mili. unake ‘natyadarpan’ ki 109vin karika hai - ‘sukhadu:khatmak ko ras:.’
  • ‘natyashastr’ ki ‘abhinav bharati’ tika men bhi kaha gaya hai - ‘sukh-du:khasvabhavo ras:’, arthath ras sukh-du:kh svabhav vale hote hain. yah ‘natyadarpan’ se pahale ki rachana hai.
  • haripal ke ‘sngitasudhakar’, rudrabhatt ke ‘rasakalika’, dhannjay ke ‘dasharoopak’ adi anek granthon men bhi karun ras ko du:khatmak manakar usaki anandatmakata par vichar kiya gaya hai. rasikon ko usamen uttarottar pravritti hoti hai, isake karun ras men sthir anand ka praman mana gaya hai, yatha -

‘atrottarottararasikanan pravrittay:. yadi va laukikakaranavaddu:khatmakatvameveh syattada n kashchittatr pravartet’ [23]. is samasya par anek adhunik marathi vidvanon ne bhi vichar kiya hai.

  • d. ke. kelakar ne apane ‘kavyalochan’ namak granth men karun ki du:khatmakata ke paksh men tark prastut kiya ki yadi ashrupat adi du:khabodhak anubhav anand ke vynjak mane jaen to, inaki upasthiti rati adi sukhadashaon men bhi honi chahie, jo nahin hoti. at: ye du:kh ke hi lakshan hain, aur karun du:khatmak ras hi hai. unhonne ek maulik prashn yah bhi uthaya hai ki anand ko hi kyon itani pramukhata di jaye, du:kh bhi pramukh hai. karun ke niyatikrit, vyaktigat aur adarshatmak, ye tin roop manate hue, unhonne anand ki upalabdhi keval adarshatmak karun se hi sambhav mani.
  • agarakar aur jog adi vicharakon ne bhi lagabhag aisi hi dharanaen vyakt ki hain. da. n. apate ne man ke anu aur vibhu, do bhed mane aur kaha ki anuroop man nirantar anandalin rahata hai. keval vibhuroop man du:khadi laukik dashaon se samprikt hota hai. adhunik manovigyan in bhedon ko svikar nahin karata. at: in par adharit karun ras ki vyakhya bhi many nahin ho sakati.
  • di. ke. bedekar ne rason ke poorvollikhit sukh-du:khatmak vibhajan ko ‘devasur katha’ ki pauranik parikalpana par adharit bataya, jisake anusar karun ras asuri rason ki koti men ata hai. par unhonne yah bhi svikar kiya hai ki ‘adhunik sahity men karun ras raudr ka aisa anuchar nahin hai. vah svatntr hai. vyaktitv ka gaurav aur shreshth vyaktiyon men chhipe kisi dosh ke karan udatt vyakti ko jo darun vyatha sahani padi, vah aj ki karun kathaon ka vishay hai’.
  • marathi sahity ke ek any vivechak vaman malhar joshi ne karun ras ki adhunik vyakhya karate hue usase anand ki srishti sambhav mani hai. batave vyakti-bhed ke adhar par hi karun men anand ki sthiti manate hain. usi prakar jis tarah vishvanath ne sachetas vyaktiyon ko hi karun se anand pane men saksham bataya hai. snkshep men kaha ja sakata hai ki adhunik ras-vivechakon ne karun ras ke anandaprad hone ki prachin sthapana ka sarvatha tiraskar nahin kiya hai.
  • trejidi ko lekar yooropiy samikshakon dvara jo samadhan karun drishyon ke prabhav ke sambandh men vyakt kiye ge, unake mool men pray: arastoo[24] ka ‘kaithasis’ siddhant kisi n kisi roop men avashy milata hai. ‘kaithasis’ ka arth hai, 'manorechan'. bhayad evn karunik drishyon ke dekhane se antarman ke vikaron ka rechan ho jata hai, aur vah antat: chittavritti ke lie svasth hota hai.
  • sheksapiyar[25] ke prasiddh du:khant natakon ki vyakhya bahudha isi drishtikon se ki jati rahi hai. nishchay hi manorechan ka siddhant karun bhavon ke vivechan men ek mahattvapoorn vichar-kon prastut karata hai.
  • higel[26] ne manushy aur eeshvar ke sambandh ki rahasyatmakata tatha manav acharan ki naitik bhavana ko trejidi ka mool mana. karunik aur du:khad ghatanaen manav jivan ko parichalit karane vali kisi mahanh rahasyamayi shakti ka bodh karati hain. atev sahity men karun drishyon ka chitran higel ke mat se ek uddeshy vishesh ko bhi vyakt karata hai aur yah uddeshy nairashy ka prasar n hokar jivan ke prati shraddha aur vishvas ka prasar hai.
  • shapenahavar [27], nitshe [28] adi darshanikon tatha draidan [29], edisan [30], di. kvisi [31] adi samikshakon ne trejidi ki samasya par paryapt vichar prastut kie hain, jinaka svatntr mahattv hai.

karun ras ke bhed

sadhan, alamban dharm-apachay, man-vachan, kriya tatha prabhav ki matra ko adhar manakar karun ras ke anek bhed kavyashastr men milate hain. sadhan ke adhar par ‘drashtajany’, ‘smrit anishtajany’ tatha ‘shrut anishtajany’ adi bhed milate hain, jo moolat: karun ras ke utpadak karanon ke hi, ‘ishtanash’ aur ‘anishtaprapti’ samanantar hain. smrit aur shrut keval anishtabodh ke prakar ko vyakt karate hain, jinake aur bhi prakar ho sakate hain. ‘rasatarngini’ men bhanudatt ne karun ke alamban ko drishti men rakhakar ‘svanishth’ aur ‘paranishth’ namak do bhed kiye hain. jab, shap, bandhan, klesh, anisht adi apane arthath ashray se hi sambaddh hon, doosare shabdon men jab ashray hi svayn karun ras ka alamban ho to, use svanishth karun kaha jayega, par jab ukt vastuon ka sambandh apane se prithakh alamban se ho to vah paranishth karun hoga.

  • anandaprakash dikshit ne inake sthan par ‘karunajanak’ aur ‘karunajanit’ shabdon ka prayog vanchhit mana hai[32].
  • bharatamuni ke ‘natyashastr’ men karun ke tin bhed milate hain -
  1. dharmopaghataj[33],
  2. apachayodbhav,
  3. shokakrit.

inamen antim shokakrit sabase adhik prabhavashali hota hai. bhavaprakashakar ne man, vachan aur kriya se abhivyakti lakshit karake karun ko manas, vachika aur karm tin prakar ka mana hai. inhen anubhav-bhed kaha ja sakata hai.

  • matra ke anusar kiye ge karun ke panch bhed ukt bhedon ki apeksha hindi men adhik prasiddh hain -
  1. karun,
  2. atikarun,
  3. mahakarun,
  4. laghukarun,
  5. sukhakarun.
  • ritikalin achary kavi dev ne apane ‘shabdarasayan’ ke antargat in bhedon ka ullekh kiya hai -

‘karuna atikaruna aru mahakarun laghu het.
ek kahat hain panch men, du:kh men sukhahin samet’[34].

  • gulabaray ne apane ‘navaras’ namak granth men in par vichar karate hue likha hai ki ‘pratham tin bhedon men to karuna ki matra uttarottar uchch hoti jati hai, par laghukarun men kuchh kam ho jati hai. yahan vah keval chinta ke roop men rahati hai. anisht ka nam rahata hai, par asha nahin tootati. chitt dubidha men rahata hai. anisht nivaran ka poori tarah prayatn hota rahata hai. sukhakarun vah karun hai, jo harsh men badalane vala ho, kintu vahan pichhale viyogajany karun ka prabal aveg harsh ko prabhavit kar manushy ko rula deta hai. harsh ke ansoo isi prakar ke hote hain’ [35].
  • snskrit kavyashastr ke pramukh granthon men inaka ullekh nahin milata, kadachith isilie anandaprakash dikshit ne is bhedon ko nissar bataya hai. ve kisi n kisi doosare ras men inake antarbhav ke paksh men hain. rasasvad men starabhed inhen abhisht nahin, yadyapi anandavardhan adi acharyon tak ne rason men prakarsh-bhed mana hai. ye bhed nishchay hi karun ras ki anubhooti ke vibhinn staron ko vyakt karate hain aur unhen sarvatha niradhar ya asiddh nahin kaha ja sakata. – j.gu.
virakavy men karun ras

hindi sahity ke virakavy men karun ras ki abhivyakti bahut kam huee hai, yadyapi mrityu aur anisht ki paristhitiyon aee hain. kahin-kahin rasabhav ke roop men karun ras aya hai. man kavi men kahin karuna ka darshan hota hai (rajavilas, 1.37). yatr-tatr abhas bhar milata hai. bhakti sahity ke asha - ullas men karun ko adhik avasar nahin tha, yadyapi krishn ke mathura jane ka prasng apane ap men karun hai aur sooradas jaise kavi ne atyadhik bhavatmak shaili men ankit bhi kiya hai. vastut: is avasar par yashoda tatha gopiyon ke man men krishn ke vishay men ashnka ka bhav karuna ki srishti karata hai. age gopiyon ki viyog shrringar ki saghan manodasha yatr-tatr karun jan padati hai. radha ka chitn apani viyog vyatha men maun tatha karun hai.

  • tulasidas ke katha-kavy men karun ras ko avasar mila hai. kaikeyi ke varadanon ko sunakar dasharath ke man ki karuna ka chitran tulasi ne kiya hai. isake antargat kavi ne raja ke man ke ashnka, moh, vishay, dainy, jadata, unmad, tras, stambh, moorchchha adi anek snchariyon ka sahaj aur sookshm ankan kiya hai. is karuna ke plavan men sari ayodhya nagari bah jati hai. ram van gaman aur bad men dasharath maran ki paristhitiyan karun ras ke anukool hain aur kavi ne isaka vishad varnan kiya hai. sumntr ka ayodhya vapas ana, dasharath ka samachar pana, unaka maran, bharat ka ayodhya ana adi aise prasng hain.
  • in karun prasngon ko tulasi ne ‘kavitavali’ tatha ‘gitavali’ men bhi chitrit kiya hai.
  • soofi premi kaviyon ne vishayon ke varnan ke antargat karun paristhitiyon ka avashy ankan kiya hai, udaharan ke lie jayasi ka ‘nagamati viyog’ liya ja sakata hai. ritikal ke kavi isaka samuchit nirvah nahin kar sake, unake udaharan kamazor hain. muktakon men yah sambhav bhi nahin tha.
  • bharatendu harishchandr ne ‘harishchandr’ natak men isaki saphal avatarana ki hai. bharatendu ne tatha is yug ke kee kavi aur lekhakon ne desh-durdasha par bhi karun ras ki kavita ki hai.
  • adhunik mahakavyon tatha prabandhakavyon men yatr-tatr isaka varnan milata hai. chhayavadi kaviyon men mahadevi varma ke kavy men karuna ka vishesh ullekh kiya jata hai, par yah bhavabhivyakti viyog shrringar ke antargat ati hai.[36]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. kapot: karunashchaiv
  2. karuno yamadaivat:
  3. ath karuno nam shokasthayibhavaprabhav:
  4. natyashastr 6.61, bharatamuni
  5. 10 shati eesvi
  6. 14 shati eesvi
  7. dasharoopak, 4.81,dhannjay
  8. sahity darpan: 3.222,vishvanath
  9. 17 shati eesa poorv.
  10. kavikulakalpataru, 8
  11. 17 shati eesa poorv.
  12. shabd rasayan, 3 dev
  13. 1670 ee.
  14. sahityadarpan, 3.223
  15. uttararamacharit, 3.47
  16. natyashastr, 6.45
  17. anandaprakash dikshit : kavy men ras, apr. thisis, pri. 437, 38
  18. ‘saket’, 9
  19. ramacharitamanas: 2.56
  20. dhvanyalok 2.8
  21. 9 shati eesa utt.
  22. natyadarpan prishth 159
  23. dhanik krit vyakhya : dasharoopak, 4.44,45
  24. 4 shati. ee. poorv
  25. 1564-1616
  26. 1770-1831 ee.
  27. 1778-1830 ee.
  28. 1844-1900 ee.
  29. 1631-1700 ee.
  30. 1672-1719 ee.
  31. 1785-1859 ee.
  32. kavy men ras : apr. thisis, prishth 433, 34
  33. adhyay 6.78
  34. shabdarasayan prishth 38
  35. navaras prishth 441
  36. varma, dhirendr hindi sahityakosh, bhag-1, mee 2007 (hindi), varanasi: gyanamandal prakashan, 15.

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