देव (कवि)  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

dev (kavi)
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poora nam devadatta
janm san 1673 (snvat- 1730)
janm bhoomi kusamara, itava
mrityu san 1768 (snvat- 1825)
mukhy rachanaen bhav-vilas, bhavani-vilas, kushal-vilas, ras-vilas, prem-chndrika, sujan-mani, sujan-vinod, sukh-sagar
bhasha pravahamay aur sahityik
adyatan‎
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
dev ki rachanaen

dev (janm- sanh 1673, itava - mrityu- sanh 1768) ritikalin kavi the. dev itava ke rahane vale sanadhay brahman evn mugal kalin kavi the. kuchh logon ne inhen kanyakubj siddh karane ka bhi prayatn kiya hai. inaka poora nam devadatta tha.

jivan parichay

'bhavavilas' ka rachana kal inhonne 1746 men diya hai aur us grnth nirman ke samay inhonne apani avastha 16 hi varsh ki batalaee hai. is prakar se inaka janm snvat 1730 ke asapas ka nishchit hota hai. isake atirikt inaka aur vrittant kahin prapt nahin hota. inhen koee achchha udar ashrayadata nahin mila jisake yahan rahakar inhonne sukh se kal yapan kiya ho. ye barabar anek reeson ke yahan ek sthan se doosare sthan par ghoomate rahe, par kahin jame nahin. isaka karan ya to inaki prakriti ki vichitrata rahi ya inaki kavita ke sath us kal ki ruchi ka asamnjasy. dev ne apane 'ashtayam' aur 'bhavavilas' ko aurngazeb ke bade putr 'ajamashah' ko sunaya tha jo hindi kavita ke premi the. isake bad inhonne 'bhavanidatta vaishy' ke nam par 'bhavani vilas' aur 'kushalasinh' ke nam par 'kushal vilas' ki rachana ki. isake bad 'mardanasinh' ke putr 'raja udyot sinh vaishy' ke lie 'prem chndrika' banaee. isake uparant yah lagatar anek pradeshon men ghoomate rahe. is yatra ke anubhavon ka inhonne apane 'jativilas' namak grnth men upayog kiya. is grnth men dev ne bhinn bhinn jatiyon aur bhinn bhinn pradeshon ki striyon ka varnan kiya hai. is prakar ke varnan men unaki visheshataen achchhi tarah vyakt huee hon, aisa nahin hai. itana ghoomane ke bad inhen ek achchhe ashrayadata 'raja motilal' mile, jinake nam par snvat 1783 men inhonne 'rasavilas' namak grnth banaya. jisamen inhonne 'raja motilal' ki bahut prashnsa ki hai- motilal bhoop lakh pokhar levaiya jinh lakhan kharachi rachi akhar kharide hain.

rachanaen

dev apane purane grnthon ke kavitton ko idhar doosare kram men rakhakar ek naya grnth pray: taiyar kar diya karate the. isase ek hi kavitt bar bar inake anek grnthon men milenge. 'sukhasagar tarng' pray: anek grnthon se lie hue kavitton ka sngrah hai. 'ragaratnakar' men rag raganiyon ke svaroop ka varnan hai. 'ashtayam' to rat din ke bhogavilas ki dinacharya hai jo us samay ke akarmany aur vilasi rajaon ke samane kalayapan vidhi ka byora pesh karane ke lie bani thi. 'brahmadarshan pachisi' aur 'tatvadarshan pachisi' men jo virakti ka bhav hai vah bahut snbhav hai ki apani kavita ke prati lok ki udasinata dekhate dekhate utpann huee ho.

bhasha shaili

dev achary aur kavi donon roopon men hamare samane ate hain. acharyatv ke pad ke anuroop kary karane men riti kal ke kaviyon men poorn roop se koee samarth nahin hua. kulapati aur sukhadev aise sahity shastr ke abhyasi pndit bhi vishad roop men siddhant niroopan ka marg nahin pa sake. ek to brajabhasha ka vikas kavyopayogi roop men hi hua, vichar paddhati ke utkarsh sadhan ke lie yah bhasha tab tak vikasit nahin thi, doosare us samay pady men hi likhane ki parampara thi. at: achary ke roop men dev ko bhi koee vishesh sthan nahin mil paya.

kuchh logon ne bhaktivash inhen kuchh shastriy udbhavana ka shrey dena chaha. naiyayikon ki 'tatpary vritti' bahut samay se prasiddh chali a rahi thi aur yah snskrit ke sahity mimansakon ke samane thi. 'tatpary vritti' vaky ke bhinn bhinn padon (shabdon) ke 'vachyarth' ko ek men samanvit karane vali vritti mani gee hai at: yah 'abhidha' se bhinn nahin, vakyagat abhidha hi hai. 'chhalasnchari' snskrit ki 'rasatarngini' se liya gaya hai. doosari bat yah hai ki sahity ke siddhant grnthon se parichit matr janate hain ki ginae hue 33 snchar upalakshan matr hain, snchari aur bhi kitane hi ho sakate hain.

abhidha, lakshana adi shabdashaktiyon ka niroopan hindi ke riti grnthon men pray: kuchh bhi nahin hua. is drishti se dev ka kathan hai ki-

abhidha uttam kavy hai; madhy lakshana lin.
adham vynjana ras viras, ulati kahat navin

  • dev ka 'vynjana' se tatpary 'paheli bujhane vali' 'vastuvynjana' ka hi jan padata hai. kavitvashakti aur maulikata dev men bahut thi par unake samyak sphuran men unaki ruchi badhak rahi hai. anupras ki ruchi unake sare pady ko bojhil bana deti thi. bhasha men snigdh pravah n ane ka ek bada karan yah bhi tha. inaki bhasha men 'rasadrata' aur saralata bahut kam payi jati hai. kahin kahin shabdavyay bahut adhik hai aur arth bahut alp.
  • aksharamaitri ke dhyan se dev kahin kahin ashakt shabd bhi rakhate the jo kabhi kabhi arth ko avaruddh karate the. 'tukant' aur 'anupras' ke lie dev kahin kahin na keval shabdon ko hi todate, marodate aur bigadate balki vaky ko bhi avinyast kar dete the. jahan kahin bhi abhipret bhav ka nirvah poori tarah ho paya hai, vahan ki rachana bahut hi saras ban padi hai. dev ke jaisa arth, saushthav aur navonmesh kam hi kaviyon men milata hai.
  • riti kal ke pratinidhi kaviyon men sambhavat: sabase adhik grnth rachana dev ne ki hai. koee inaki rachi pustakon ki snkhya 52 aur koee 72 tak batalate hain. inake nimnalikhit grnthon ka pata hai-
dev ki pramukh rachanaen
kram grnthon ka nam
(1) bhavavilas
(2) ashtayam
(3) bhavanivilas
(4) sujanavinod
(5) prematarng
(6) ragaratnakar
kram grnthon ka nam
(7) kushalavilas
(8) devacharit
(9) premachndrika
(10) jativilas
(11) rasavilas
(12) kavyarasayan ya shabdarasayan
kram grnthon ka nam
(13) sukhasagar tarng
(14) vrikshavilas
(15) pavasavilas
(16) brahmadarshan pachisi
(17) tatvadarshan pachisi
(18) atmadarshan pachisi
kram grnthon ka nam
(19) jagadarshan pachisi
(20) rasannd lahari
(21) premadipika
(22) nakhashikh
(23) premadarshan
  • riti kal ke kaviyon men dev bade hi 'pragalbh' aur 'pratibhasampann' kavi the. is kal ke bade kaviyon men inaka vishesh gaurav ka sthan hai. kahin kahin inaki kalpana bahut sookshm aur duruh hai -

suno kai param pad, oono kai annt mad
noono kai nadis nad, indira jhurai pari.
mahima munisan ki, snpati digisan ki,
eesan ki siddhi brajavithi bithurai pari
bhadon ki andheri adhiarati mathura ke path,
pay ke snyog 'dev' devaki durai pari.
paravar pooran apar parabrahm rasi,
jasuda ke korai ek bar hi kurai pari

dar drum palana, bichhauna navapallav ke,
suman jhragoola sohai tan chhabi bhari dai.
pavan jhulavai keki kir baharavai dev,
kokil halavai hulasavai kar tari dai
poorit parag son utaro karai raee lon,
knjakali nayika latani sir sari dai.
madan mahip joo ko balak basnt, tahi,
pratahi jagavat gulab chatakari dai

sakhi ke sakoch, guru soch mrigalochani,
risani piy son jo un neku hnsi chhuyogat.
dev vai subhay musakay uthi ge, yahan
sisaki sisaki nisi khoee, roy payo prat
ko janai, ri bir! binu birahi birah bitha,
hay hay kari pachhitay n kachhoo suhat.
bade bade nainan son aaunsoo bhari bhari dhari,
goro goro mukh pari ore so bilane jat

jhahari jhahari jhini boond hain parati mano,
ghahari ghahari ghata gheri hai gagan men.
ani kahyo syam mo saun, 'chalau jhoolibe ko aj'
phooli n samani bhee aisi haun magan main
chahat uthayoee uthi gee so nigodi nind,
soi ge bhag mere jani va jagan men.
aaunkh kholi dekhon tau n ghan hain n ghanashyam,
veee chhaeen boonden mere aaunsu hvai drigan men

sansan hi men samir gayo aru aaunsun hi sab nir gayo dhari.
tej gayo gun lai apano aru bhoomi gee tanu ki tanuta kari
'dev' jiyai milibeee ki as kai, asahoo pas akas rahyo bhari.
ja din ten mukh pheri harai hnsi heri hiyo ju liyo hari joo hari

jab ten kuvnr kanh ravari kalanidhan!
kan pari vake kahoon sujas kahani si.
tab hi ten dev dekhi devata si hnsati si,
rijhati si, khijhati si, roothati risani si
chhohi si chhali si chhin lini si chhaki si, chhin
jaki si, taki si, lagi thaki thaharani si.
bindhi si, bndhi si, vish boodati bimohit si.
baithi bal bakati, bilokati bikani si

'dev' main sis basayo saneh son bhal mrigammad bindu kai bhakhyau.
knchuki men chuparayo kari chova lagay liyo ur son abhilakhyo
lai makhatool guhe gahane, ras moorativnt singar kai chakhyo.
sanvare lal ko sanvaro roop main nainan ko kajara kari rakhyo

dhar men dhay dhansi niradhar hvai, ay phnsi, ukasi n udhori.
ri! angaray girin gahigi, gahi phere phiri n, ghiri nahin gheri
'dev' kachhoo apanon bas na, ras lalach lal chitai bhin cheri.
begi hi boodi gee pnkhiyan ankhiyan madhu ki makhiyan bhee meri


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh


tika tippani aur sndarbh

sambndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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