भिखारी दास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

pratapagadh ke teunga gram men sthit achary bhikharidas ji ka kirtistnbh

bhikhari das riti kal ke kavi the jo pratapagadh, avadh ke pas tayonga ganv ke rahane vale shrivastav kayasth the. inhonne apana vnsh parichay diya hai. inake pita kripaladas, pitamah virabhanu, prapitamah ray ramadas aur vriddh prapitamah ray narottam das the. bhikhari das ji ke putr avadhesh lal aur pautr gaurishnkar the jinake aputr mar jane se vnsh parnpara khndit ho gee. bhikhari das ji ke nimn grnthon ka pata laga hai -

  1. rasasaransh snvat [1],
  2. chhndarnav pingal [2]
  3. kavyanirnay [3],
  4. shrringar nirnay [4],
  5. namaprakash kosh [5],
  6. vishnupuran bhasha [6];
  7. chhnd prakash,
  8. shatarnjashatika,
  9. amaraprakash [7].

kavita kal

'kavyanirnay' men bhikhari das ji ne pratapagadh ke somavnshi raja prithvisinh ke bhaee baboo hindoopatisinh ko apana ashrayadata likha hai. raja prithvipati snvat 1791 men gaddi par baithe the aur 1807 men dilli ke vazir saphadarajng dvara chhal se mare ge the. aisa jan padata hai ki snvat 1807 ke bad inhonne koee grnth nahin likha at: inaka kavita kal snvat 1785 se lekar snvat 1807 tak mana ja sakata hai.

kavyangon ka niroopan

kavyangon ke niroopan men bhikhari das ko sarvapradhan sthan diya jata hai kyonki inhonne chhnd, ras, alnkar, riti, gun, dosh shabdashakti adi sab vishayon ka auron se vistrit pratipadan kiya hai. inaki vishay pratipadan shaili uttam hai aur alochanashakti bhi inamen kuchh paee jati hai; jaise hindi kavyakshetr men inhen parakiya ke prem ki prachurata dikhaee padi, jo ras ki drishti se rasabhas ke antargat ata hai. bahut se sthalon par to radhakrishn ka nam ane se devakavy ka arop ho jata hai aur dosh ka kuchh parihar ho jata hai, par sarvatr aisa nahin hota. isase bhikhari das ne svakiya ka lakshan hi kuchh adhik vyapak karana chaha aur kaha,

shrimanani ke bhaun men bhogy bhamini aur.
tinahoon ko sukiyah men ganain sukavi siramaur

sahityadarpan men nayikaon ke svabhavaj alnkar 18 kahe ge hain - lila, vilas, vichchhitti, vivvok, kilakinchit, mottayitta, kuttamitta, vibhram, lalit, vihrit, mad, tapan, maugdhay, vikshep, kutoohal, hasit, chakit aur keli. inamen se antim ath ko lekar bhikhari das ne bhasha men prachalit das havon men jod diya. inhen janane ke lie hindi men snskrit ke mukhy sidhdant grnthon ke sab vishayon ka yathavat samavesh kar sahityashastr ka samyakh adhyayan karana hoga.

bhikhari das ka acharyatv

dev ki bhanti bhikhari das ka sthan hai. yadyapi is kshetr men auron ko dekhate bhikhari das ne adhik kam kiya hai, par sachche achary ka poora roop inhen bhi prapt nahin ho paya hai. paristhiti se ye bhi lachar the. inake lakshan bhi vyakhya ke bina aparyapt aur kahin kahin bhramak hain aur udaharan bhi kuchh sthalon par ashuddh hain. jaise - upadan lakshana, isaka lakshan bhi ashuddh hai aur usi ke anuroop udaharan bhi ashuddh hai. at: bhikhari das bhi auron ke saman vastut: kavi ke roop men hi hamare samane ate hain.

parimarjit bhasha

bhikhari das ne sahityik aur parimarjit bhasha ka vyavahar kiya hai. shrringar hi us samay ka mukhy vishay tha. dev ne bhinn bhinn deshon aur jatiyon ki striyon ke varnan ke lie 'jativilas' likha, jisamen nain, dhobin, sab hain, par bhikhari das ne rasabhav ya maryada ka dhyan rakh inako alnban ke roop men n rakhakar dooti ke roop men rakha hai. inake 'rasasaransh' men nain, natini, dhobin, kumharin, barin, sab prakar ki dootiyan hain.

shaili

bhikhari das men dev ki apeksha adhik rasavivek tha. inaka 'shrringaranirnay' apane dhng ka anootha kavy hai. udaharan manohar aur saras hai. bhasha men shabdadnbar nahin hai. n ye shabd chamatkar par toote hain, n door ki soojh ke lie vyakul hue hain. inaki rachana kalapaksh men snyat aur bhavapaksh men rnjanakarini hai. vishuddh kavy ke atirikt inhonne niti ki sooktiyan bhi bahut si kahi hain jinamen ukti vaichitray apekshit hota hai. dev ki si oonchi akanksha ya kalpana jis prakar inamen kam paee jati hai usi prakar unaki si asaphalata bhi kahin nahin milati. jis bat ko ye jis dhng se,chahe vah dhng bahut vilakshan n ho, kahana chahate the us bat ko us dhng se kahane ki poori samarthy inamen thi.

vahi ghari ten n san rahai, n guman rahai, n rahai sugharaee.
das n laj ko saj rahai n rahai tanakau gharakaj ki ghaee
hyan dikhasadha nivare rahau tab hi lau bhatoo sab bhanti bhalaee.
dekhat kanhain n chet rahai, nahin chitt rahai, n rahai chaturaee

nainan ko tarasaie kahan laun, kahan lau hiyo birahagi mai taie.
ek ghari n kahoon kal paie, kahan lagi pranan ko kalapaie?
avai yahi ab ji men bichar sakhi chali sauti hun, kai ghar jaie.
man ghatai te kaha ghati hai ju pai pranapiyare ko dekhan paie

oodho! tahanee chalau lai hamen jahn koobari kanh basain ek thauri.
dekhie das aghay aghay tihare prasad manohar jori
koobari son kachhu paie mntr, lagaie kanh son priti ki dori.
koobaribhakti badhaie bndi, chadhaie chndan bndan rori

kadhi kai nisnk paithi jati jhund jhundan men,
logan ko dekhi das annd pagati hai.
dauri dauri jahin tahin lal kari darati hai,
ank lagi knth lagibe ko umagati hai
chamak jhamak vari, thamak jamak vari,
ramak tamak vari zahir jagati hai.
ram! asi ravare ki ran men naran men,
nilaj banita si hori khelan lagati hai

ab to bihari ke ve banak ge ri, teri
tan dooti kesar ko nain kasamir bho.
shraun tuv bani svati boondan ke chatak bhe,
sansan ko bharibo duhrapadaja ko chir bho
hiy ko harash maru dharani ko nir bho, ri!
jiyaro manobhav saran ko tunir bho.
eri! begi kari kain milapu thir thapu, n tau
apu ab chahat atanu ko sarir bho

ankhiyan hamari deemari sudhi budhi harin,
mohoon ten ju nyari das rahai sab kal men.
kaun gahai gyanai, kahi saunpat sayane, kaun
lok ok janai, ye nahin hain nij hal men
prem pagi rahi, mahamoh men umagi rahin,
thik thagi rahin, lagi rahin banamal men.
laj ko anchai kai, kuladharam pachai kai, vritha
bndhan snchai kai bhee magan gopal men


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. rasasaransh 1799
  2. chhndarnav pingal snvat 1799
  3. kavyanirnay snvat 1803
  4. shrringaranirnay snvat 1807
  5. namaprakash kosh snvat 1795
  6. vishnupuran bhasha dohe chaupaee men
  7. snskrit amarakosh bhasha pady men

sambndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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