भर्तृहरि (राजा)  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg bhartrihari ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- bhartrihari
raja bhartrihari

bhartrihari raja vikramadity upadhi dharan karane vale chandragupt dvitiy ke bade bhaee the tatha ujjain ke shasak the jinhonne maya moh tyagakar jngal men tapasya ki. raja bhartrihari anumanatah 550 ee0 se poorv ham logon ke bich ae the. inake pita ka nam chandrasen tha. patni ka nam pingala tha jise ve atyant prem karate the.

jivan charit

janashruti aur parampara ke anusar bhartrihari vikramasnvath ke pravartak samrat chandragupt vikramadity ke agraj mane jate hain. vikramasnvath eesavi sanh se 56 varsh poorv prarambh hota hai, jo vikramadity ke praudhavastha ka samay raha hoga. bhartrihari vikramadity ke agraj the, atah inaka samay kuchh aur poorv raha hoga. vikramasnvath ke prarambh ke vishay men bhi vidvanon men matabhed hain. kuchh log eesavi sanh 78 aur kuchh log eesavi sanh 544 men isaka prarambh manate hain. ye donon mat bhi agrahy pratit hote hain. pharasi grnth kalitau dimanah men pnchatntr ka ek pady shashidivakar yorgrahapidanamsh ka bhav uddhrit hai. pnchatntr men anek grnthon ke padyon ka snkalan hai. snbhavatah pnchatntr men ise nitishatak se grahan kiya gaya hoga. pharasi grnth 571 eesavi se 581 ee0 ke ek pharasi shasak ke nimitt nirmit hua tha. isalie raja bhartrihari anumanatah 550 ee0 se poorv ham logon ke bich ae the. bhartrihari ujjayini ke raja the. ye vikramadity upadhi dharan karane vale chandragupt dvitiy ke bade bhaee the. inake pita ka nam chandrasen tha. patni ka nam pingala tha jise ve atyant prem karate the. inhonne sundar aur rasapoorn bhasha men niti, vairagy tatha shrringar jaise goodh vishayon par shatak-kavy likhe hain. is shatakatray ke atirikt, vakyapadiy namak ek uchch shreni ka vyakaran granth bhi inake nam par prasiddh hai. kuchh log bhattikavy ke rachayita bhatti se bhi unaka eky manate hain. aisa kaha jata hai ki nathapnth ke vairagy namak upapnth ke yah hi pravartak the. chini yatri itsing aur hvenasang ke anusar inhonne bauddh dharm grahan kiya tha. parntu any sootron ke anusar ye advait vedantachary the. chini yatri itsing ke yatra vivaran se yah gyat hota hai ki 651 eesvi men bhartrihari namak ek vaiyakaran ki mrityu huee thi. is prakar inaka kal satavin shatabdi ka pratit hota hai, parantu bharatiy puranon men inake sambandh men ullekh hone se snket milata hai ki itsing dvara varnit bhartrihari koee any rahe honge. maharaj bhartrihari niahsandeh vikramasnvat ki pahali sadi se poorv men upasthit the. ve ujjain ke adhipati the. unake pita maharaj gandharvasen bahut yogy shasak the. unake do vivah hue. pahale se vivah se maharaj bhartrihari aur doosare se maharaj vikramadity hue the. pita ki mrityu ke bad bhartrihari ne rajakary snbhala. vikram ke sabal kandhon par shasanabhar dekar vah nishchint ho ge. unaka jivan kuchh vilasi ho gaya tha. vah asadharan kavi aur rajanitigy the. isake sath hi snskrit ke prakand pandit the. unhonne apane pandity aur nitigyta aur kavy gyan ka sadupayog shrringar aur nitipoorn rachana se sahity snvardhan men kiya. vikramadity ne unaki vilasi manovritti ke prati vidroh kiya. desh us samay videshi akraman se bhayakrant tha. pahale to raja bhartrihari ne apane bhaee vikramadity ko rajy se nirvasit kar diya, lekin samay sabase jyada shaktishali hota hai. vidhata ne bhartrihari ke bhal men yog-lipi likhi thi. ek din jab unhen poorn roop se pata chala ki jis rani pingala ko vah apane pranon se bhi priy samajhate the, vah kotaval ke prem men doobi hai, unhen vairagy ho gaya. vah apar vaibhav ka tyag karake usi kshan rajamahal se bahar nikal pade.

vairagy darshan

bhartrihari samadhi

is snsar ki mayamoh ko tyag kar bhartrihari vairagi ho ge aur raj-pat chhod kar guru gorakhanath ki sharan men chale ge. usake bad hi unhonne vahin vairagy par 100 shlok likhe, jo ki vairagy shatak ke nam se prasiddh hain. usase pahale apane shasanakal men ve shrringar shatak aur niti shatak namak do snskrit kavy likh chuke the. pathak jan len ki ye tinon shatak aj bhi upalabdh hain aur pathaniy hain.

unhen vishvas ho gaya ki vishay-bhog men rog ka bhay hai, dhan men rajy ka, shastr men vivad ka, gun men durjan ka, sharir men mrityu ka. yon snsar ki sabhi vastuen bhayavah hain, keval vairagy hi shreshth aur amar abhay hai. tab unake shrrigar aur nitiparak jivan men vairagy ka samavesh ho gaya. unake adharon par shiv nam ka vas ho gaya, trishna aur vasana ne tyag aur tapasya ki charam visheshata siddh ki. unhonne apane atma men paramatma ki vyapti paee, brahmanubhooti ki, vedant ke saty ka varan kiya. unhonne apane apako dhikkara, ki aj tak prem vasana aur vishayon ne hamen hi bhog dala hai. hamane tap nahin kiya, tapon ne hi hamako tapa dala hai. kal ka ant nahin hua, usi ne hamara ant kar dala hai. ham jirn ho chale, par trishna ka abhav nahin hua. unaka jivan sadhanamay aur gyanapoorn ho utha. unhonne shivatattv ki prapti ki. gyanoday ne shiv ke roop men unhe shanti ka adhikari banaya. snsar ke aghat-pratighat se door rahakar unhonne brahm ke shiv roop ki sadhana ki. unhonne dason dishaon aur tinon kalon men paripoorn, anant chaitany svaroop anubhavagamy, shant aur tejomay brahm ki upasana ki. virakti hi unaki ekamatr sngini ho chali. mahadev hi unake ekamatr dev the. vah bhakti ki bhagirathi men gote lagane lage.

vastav men yahi is snsar ki vastavikata hai. ek vyakti kisi any vyakti se prem karata hai aur chahata hai ki vah vyakti bhi use utana hi prem kare. parntu vidnbana yah hai ki vah doosara vyakti kisi any vyakti se prem karata hai. isaka karan yah hai ki snsar v isake sabhi prani apoorn hain, sabamen kuchh n kuchh kami hai. sirph ek eeshvar hi poorn hai. ek vahi hai jo har jiv se utana hi prem karata hai, jitana jiv usase karata hai. isalie hamen prem eeshvar se hi karani chahie. sahi vakt par yahi soch raja bhartrihari ko guru gorakhanath ke ashray men le gee.

yogiraj bhartrihari ka pavitr nam amaraphal khae bina amar ho gaya. unaka hriday parivartan is bat ka jvalant pratik hai. vah tyag, vairagy aur tapake pratinidhi the. himalay se kanyakumari tak unaki rachanaen, jivanagatha bhinn-bhinn bhashaon me yogiyon aur vairagiyon dvara anishchit kal se gaee ja rahi hain aur bhavishy men bhi bahut dinon tak yahi kram chalata rahega.

antim samay

bhartrihari gupha

raja bhartrihari ka antim samay rajasthan men bita. unaki samadhi alavar rajy ke ek saghan van men aj bhi vidyaman hai. usake sataven daravaze par ek akhand dipak jalata rahata hai. use bhartrihari ki jyoti svikar kiya jata hai. bhartrihari mahanh shivabhakt aur siddh yogi the aur apane bhaee vikramadity ko punah sthapit kar amar ho ge. vikramadity unaki tarah hi chakravarti nikale aur unake sushasanakal men vikram snvat ki sthapana huee, jisaka shubharnbh aj bhi chaitramas ke navaratr se arnbh hota hai. raja bhartrihari hamesha ke lie apane vairagyabhav se brahm svaroop duniya men apani kavy kritiyon ki rachanaon se amar ho ge. is sndarbh men krishn bhagavan ne apane priy patr ki vyakhya karate hue gita men kaha hai- ‘jo purush akanksha se rahit, andar-bahar se shuddh, daksh, pakshapat se rahit aur duahkhon se chhoota hua hai, sabi asaktiyon ka tyagi vahi vyakti mera bhakt hai aur mujhe priy hai.

kavy rachana

  1. apane jivan kal men unhonne shrringar, niti shastron ki to rachana ki hi thi, ab unhonne vairagy shatak ki rachana bhi kar dali aur vishay vasanaon ki katu alochana ki. in tin kavy shatakon ke alava vyakaran shastr ka param prasiddh granth vakyapadiy bhi unake mahanh pandity ka parichayak hai. vah shabd vidya ke maulik achary the. shabd shastr brahma ka sakshath rup hai. atev ve shivabhakt hone ke sath-sath brahm roopi shabdabhakt bhi the. shabd brahm ka hi arth rup nanatmak jagat-vivart hai. yogijan shabd brahm se tadatmy ho jane ko hi moksh manate hain. bhartrihari shabd brahm ke yogi the. unaka vairagy darshan paramatma ke sakshatkar ka paryay hai. sah karan hai ki aj bhi shabdo ki duniya ke rachanakar sada ke amar ho jate hai.
  2. bhartrihari ek mahanh snskrit kavi the. snskrit sahity ke itihas men bhartrihari ek nitikar ke roop men prasiddh hain. inake shatakatray (nitishatak, shrringarashatak, vairagyashatak ) ki upadeshatmak kahaniyan bharatiy janamanas ko vishesh roop se prabhavit karati hain. pratyek shatak men sau-sau shlok hain. bad men inhonne guru gorakhanath ka shishy banakar vairagy dharan kar liya tha, isalie inaka ek lok prachalit nam baba gopichand bharathari bhi hai.
  3. bhartrihari snskrit muktak kavy parampara ke agrani kavi hain. inhin tin shatakon ke karan unhen ek saphal aur uttam kavi mana jata hai. inaki bhasha saral, manoram, madhur aur pravahamayi hai. bhavabhivyakti itani sashakt hai ki vah pathak ke hriday aur man donon ko prabhavit karati hai. unake shatakon men chhandon ki vividhata hai. bhav aur vishay ke anukool chhand ka prayog, vishay ke anurup udaharan adi se unaki sooktiyan jan-jan men prachalit rahi hain aur samay-samay par jivan men margadarshan aur prerana deti rahi hain.

bhartrihari ka mandir/smarak

rajasthan ke alavar me bhartrihari ka mandir

rajasthan ke alavar me bhartrihari ka mandir hai jise bharatiy puratatv vibhag ne snrakshit smarak ghoshit kiya hai yah alavar shahar se 32 kimi door jayapur alavar marg par sthit hai yahan bhadrapad ke shukl paksh ki saptami aur ashtami ko mela lagata hai . nathapnth ki alakh jagane vale kanaphade nath sadhuon ke lie is tirth ki vishesh manyata hai. aj abhi bhi alavar rajasthan men bhartrihari ki gupha aur gopichnd bharathari ki gupha prasiddh hai.

kinvadantiyan

inake jivan se sambandhit kuchh kinvadantiyan is prakar hai-
katha-1

ek bar raja bhartrihari apani patni pingala ke sath jngal men shikar khelane ke lie ge hue the. vahan kafi samay tak bhatakate rahane ke bad bhi unhen koee shikar nahin mila. nirash pati-patni jab ghar laut rahe the, tabhi raste men unhen hiranon ka ek jhund dikhaee diya. jisake age ek mrig chal raha tha. bhartrihari ne us par prahar karana chaha tabhi pingala ne unhen rokate hue anurodh kiya ki maharaj, yah mrigaraj 700 hiraniyon ka pati aur palanakarta hai. isalie ap usaka shikar n karen. bhartrihari ne patni ki bat nahin mani aur hiran par ban chala diya. isase vah maranasann hokar bhoomi par gir pada. pran chhodate-chhodate hiran ne raja bhartrihari se kaha, ‘tumane yah thik nahin kiya. ab jo main kahata hoon usaka palan karo. meri mrityu ke bad mere sing shrringi baba ko, mere netr chnchal nari ko, meri tvacha sadhu-snton ko, mere pair bhagane vale choron ko aur mere sharir ki mitti papi raja ko de dena. maranasann hiran ki karunamayi baten sunakar bhartrihari ka hriday dravit ho utha. hiran ka kalevar ghode par lad kar vah marg men chalane lage. raste men unaki mulakat baba gorakhanath se huee. bhartrihari ne is ghatana se avagat karate hue unase hiran ko jivit karane ki prarthana ki. is par baba gorakhanath ne kaha- main ek shart par ise jivanadan de sakata hoon ki isake jivit ho jane par tumhen mera shishy banana padega. raja ne gorakhanath ki bat man li.

katha-2

bharatiy vangamay ke anupam granth bhavishy puran se gyat hota hai ki raja vikramadity ka samay atyant sukh aur samriddhi ka tha. us samay unake rajy men jaynt nam ka ek brahman rahata tha. ghor tapasya ke parinam svaroop use indr ke yahan se ek phal ki prapti huee thi, jisaki visheshata yah thi ki koee bhi vyakti use kha lene ke uparant amar ho sakata tha. phal ko pakar brahman apane ghar chala aya tatha use raja bhartrihari ko dene ka nishchay kiya aur unhen de diya.

katha-3

ek any anushruti ke anusar bhartrihari vikramadity ke bade bhaee tatha bharat ke prasiddh samrat the. ve malava ki rajadhani ujjayini men nyay poorvak shasan karate the. unaki ek rani thi jisaka nam pingala bataya jata hai. raja usase atyant prem karate the, jabaki vah maharaja se atyant kapatapoorn vyavahar karati thi. yadyapi inake chhote bhaee vikramadity ne raja bhartrihari ko anek bar sachesht kiya tha tathapi raja ne usake prem jal men phnse hone ke karan usake kriya-kalapon par dhyan nahin diya tha. us anushruti ke adhar par yah snket milata hai ki bhartrihari malava ke nivasi tatha vikramadity ke bade bhaee the.

bhartrihari ki pariksha

ujjayini (ujjain) ke raja bhartrihari se pas 365 pakashastri yani rasoie the, jo raja aur usake parivar aur atithiyon ke lie bhojan banane ke lie. varsh men keval ek-ek ki bari ati thi. 364 din ve takate rahate the ki kab hamari bare ae aur ham rajasahab ke lie bhojan banaen, inam paen. lekin is dauran bhartrihari jab guru gorakhanath ji ke charanon men chale gaye to bhiksha mangakar khane lage the.
ek bar guru gorakhanathaji ne apane shishyon se kaha,
‘dekho, raja hokar bhi isane kam, krodh, lobh tatha ahnkar ko jit liya hai aur dridhanishchayi hai.‘
shishyon ne kaha,
‘guruji ! ye to rajadhiraj hain, inake yahan 365 to bavarchi rahate the. aise bhog vilas ke vatavaran men se ae hue raja aur kaise kam, krodh, lobh rahit ho ge?’
guru gorakhanath ji ne raja bhartrihari se kaha, ‘bhartrihari! jao, bhndare ke lie jngal se lakadiyan le ao.'
raja bhartrihari nnge pair ge, jngal se lakadiyan ekatrit karake sir par bojh uthakar la rahe the. gorakhanath ji ne doosare shishyon se kaha,
‘jao, usako aisa dhakka maro ki bojh gir jae.‘
chele ge aur aisa dhakka mara ki bojh gir gaya aur bhartrihari bhi gir ge. bhartrihari ne bojh uthaya, lekin n chehare par shikan, n ankhon men ag ke gole, n honth phadake. guru ji ne chelon se kaha,
‘dekha! bhartrihari ne krodh ko jit liya hai.'
shishy bole, ‘guruji! abhi to aur bhi pariksha leni chahie.'
thoda sa age jate hi guruji ne yogashakti se ek mahal rach diya. gorakhanath ji bhartrihari ko mahal dikha rahe the. yuvatiyan nana prakar ke vynjan adi se sevak unaka adar satkar karane lage. bhartrihari yuvatiyon ko dekhakar kami bhi nahin hue aur unake nakharon par krodhit bhi nahin hue, chalate hi ge.
gorakhanathaji ne shishyon ko kaha,
‘ab to tum logon ko vishvas ho hi gaya hai ki bhartrihari ne kam, krodh, lobh adi ko jit liya hai.'
shishyon ne kaha,
‘gurudev ek pariksha aur lijie.'
gorakhanathaji ne kaha, ‘achchha bhartrihari! hamara shishy banane ke lie pariksha se gujarana padata hai. jao, tumako ek mahina marubhoomi men nnge pair paidal yatra karani hogi.'
bhartrihari apane nirdisht marg par chal pade. pahadi ilaka langhate-langhate rajasthan ki marubhoomi men pahunche. dhadhakati baloo, kadake ki dhoop marubhoomi men pair rakho to bas jal jae. ek din, do din yatra karate-karate chhah din bit ge. sataven din guru gorakhanathaji adrishy shakti se apane priy chelon ko bhi sath lekar vahan pahunche. gorakhanath ji bole,
‘dekho, yah bhartrihari ja raha hai. main abhi yogabal se vriksh khada kar deta hoon. vriksh ki chhaya men bhi nahin baithega.' achanak vriksh khada kar diya. chalate-chalate bhartrihari ka pair vriksh ki chhaya par a gaya to aise uchhal pade, mano angaron par pair pad gaya ho.
‘marubhoomi men vriksh kaise a gaya? chhayavale vriksh ke niche pair kaise a gaya? guru ji ki agya thi marubhoomi men yatra karane ki.’ koodakar door hat ge. guru ji prasann ho ge ki dekho! kaise guru ki agya manata hai. jisane kabhi pair galiche se niche nahin rakha, vah marubhoomi men chalate-chalate ped ki chhaya ka sparsh hone se angare jaisa ehasas karata hai.’ gorakhanath ji dil men chele ki dridhata par bade khush hue, lekin aur shishyon ke man men eershya thi.
shishy bole, ‘guruji! yah to thik hai lekin abhi to pariksha poori nahin huee.'
gorakhanath ji (roop badal kar) bhartrihari se mile aur bole, ‘jara chhaya ka upayog kar lo.' bhartrihari bole,
‘nahin, mere guruji ki agya hai ki nnge pair marubhoomi men chaloon.'
gorakhanath ji ne socha, ‘achchha! kitana chalate ho dekhate hain.’
thoda age ge to gorakhanath ji ne yogabal se kante paida kar die. aisi kntili jhadi ki kntha (phate-purane kapadon ko jodakar banaya hua vastr) phat gaya. pairon men shool chubhane lage, phir bhi bhartrihari ne ‘ah’ tak nahin ki. bhartrihari to aur antarmukh ho ge,
’yah sab sapana hai, guru ji ne jo adesh diya hai, vahi tapasya hai. yah bhi guruji ki kripa hai’.
antim pariksha ke lie guru gorakhanath ji ne apane yogabal se prabal tap paida kiya. pyas ke mare bhartrihari ke pran knth tak a gaye. tabhi gorakhanath ji ne unake atyant samip ek hara-bhara vriksh khada kar diya, jisake niche pani se bhari surahi aur sone ki pyali rakhi thi. ek bar to bhartrihari ne usaki or dekha par turnt khyal aya ki kahin guru agya bhng to nahin ho rahi hai. unaka itana sochana hi hua ki samane se gorakhanath ate dikhaee die. bhartrihari ne dndavat pranam kiya.
guruji bole, ”shabash bhartrihari! var mang lo. ashtasiddhi de doon, navanidhi de doon. tumane sundar-sundar vynjan thukara die, yuvatiyan tumhare charan pakharane ke lie taiyar thin, lekin tum unake chakkar men nahin ae. tumhen jo mangana hai, vo mang lo.
bhartrihari bole, ‘guruji! bas ap prasann hain, mujhe sab kuchh mil gaya. shishy ke lie guru ki prasannata sab kuchh hai. ap mujhase sntusht hue, mere karodon punyakarm aur ygy, tap sab saphal ho ge.'
gorakhanath bole, ‘nahin bhartrihari! anadar mat karo. tumhen kuchh-n-kuchh to lena hi padega, kuchh-n-kuchh mangana hi padega.' itane men reti men ek chamachamati huee sooee dikhaee di. use uthakar bhartrihari bole, ‘guruji! kntha phat gaya hai, sooee men yah dhaga piro dijie taki main apana kntha si loon.'
gorakhanath ji aur khush hue ki ’had ho gee! kitana nirapeksh hai, ashtasiddhi-navanidhiyan kuchh nahin chahie. mainne kaha kuchh mango, to bolata hai ki sooee men jara dhaga dal do. guru ka vachan rakh liya. koee apeksha nahin? bhartrihari tum dhany ho ge! kahan ujjayini ka samrat nnge pair marubhoomi men. ek mahina bhi nahin hone diya, sat-ath din men hi pariksha se uttirn ho ge.'

inhen bhi dekhen: vetal pachchisi


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bahari kadiyan

bhartrihari ka mandir

snbndhit lekh


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