नागार्जुन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg nagarjun ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- nagarjun (bahuvikalpi)
nagarjun
nagarjun
poora nam vaidyanath mishr
any nam nagarjun, yatri
janm 30 joon, 1911
janm bhoomi madhubani zila, bihar
mrityu 5 navnbar, 1998
mrityu sthan darabhnga zila, bihar
abhibhavak pita- gokul mishr
pati/patni aparajita devi
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr kavi, lekhak, upanyasakar
mukhy rachanaen 'ratinath ki chachi' (1948 ee.), 'balachanama' (1952 ee.), 'nayi paudh' (1953 ee.), 'baba batesaranath' (1954 ee.), 'dukhamochan' (1957 ee.), 'varun ke bete' (1957 ee.)
bhasha hindi, maithili, snskrit
puraskar-upadhi 1969 men 'sahity akadami puraskar', 1994 men 'sahity akadami phailoship'.
nagarikata bharatiy
snbndhit lekh Om shabd hi brahm hai
any janakari nagarjun ne maithili bhasha men 'yatri' nam se lekhan kiya hai.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

nagarjun (angrezi: Nagarjuna, janm: 30 joon, 1911; mrityu: 5 navnbar, 1998) pragativadi vicharadhara ke lekhak aur kavi the. nagarjun ne 1945 ee. ke asapas sahity seva ke kshetr men qadam rakha. shoonyavad ke roop men nagarjun ka nam vishesh ullekhaniy hai. nagarjun ka asali nam 'vaidyanath mishr' tha. hindi sahity men unhonne 'nagarjun' tatha maithili men 'yatri' upanam se rachanaon ka srijan kiya.

jivan parichay

30 joon sanh 1911 ke din jyeshth mas ki poornima ka chandrama hindi kavy jagath ke us divakar ke uday ka sakshi tha, jisane apani faqiri aur bebaqi se apani anokhi pahachan banaee. kabir ki pidhi ka yah mahanh kavi nagarjun ke nam se jana gaya. madhubani zile ke 'satalakha ganv' ki dharati baba nagarjun ki janmabhoomi ban kar dhany ho gee. ‘yatri’ apaka upanam tha aur yahi apaki pravritti ki sngya bhi thi. parnparagat prachin paddhati se snskrit ki shiksha prapt karane vale baba nagarjun hindi, maithili, snskrit tatha bangla men kavitaen likhate the. maithili bhasha men likhe ge apake kavy sngrah ‘patrahin nagn gachh’ ke lie apako sahity akadami puraskar se sammanit kiya gaya. hindi kavy-mnch par apani satyavadita aur lag-lapet se rahit kavitaen lambe yug tak gane ke bad 5 navambar sanh 1998 ko khvaja saray, darabhnga, bihar men yah rachanakar hamare bich se vida ho gaya.[1]

sahityik parichay

unake svayn kahe anusar unaki 40 rajanitik kavitaon ka chirapratikshit sngrah ‘vishakha’ aj bhi upalabdh nahin hai. snbhavana bhar ki ja sakati hai ki kabhi chhutaphut roop men prakashit ho gayi ho, kintu vah is roop men chihnit nahin hai. so kul milakar tisara sngrah ab bhi pratikshit hi manana chahie. hindi men unaki bahut-si kavy pustaken hain. yah sarvavidit hai. unaki pramukh rachana-bhashaen maithili aur hindi hi rahi hain. maithili unaki matribhasha hai aur hindi rashtrabhasha ke mahatv se utani nahin jitani unake sahaj svabhavik aur kahen to prakrit rachana-bhasha ke taur par unake bade kavyakarm ka madhyam bani. ab tak prakash men a sake unake samast lekhan ka anupat vismayakari roop se maithili men bahut kam aur hindi men bahut adhik hai. apani prabhavanviti men ‘akal aur usake bad’ kavita men abhivyakt nagarjun ki karuna sadharan durbhiksh ke dard se bahut age tak ki lagati hai. 'phatehali' mahaj koee bauddhik pradarshan hai. is path ko prashast karane ka bhi maithili-shrey yatri ji ko hi hai.

maithili-bhasha andolan

inake poorv tak, maithili lekhak-kavi ke lie bhale maithili-bhasha-andolan ki aitihasik vivashata rahi ho, lekin kavi-lekhak bahudha is bat aur vyavahar par atmamugdh dhng se sakriy the ki ‘saikil ki haindil men apana chooda-sattoo bandhakar mithila ke ganv-ganv jakar prachar-prasar karane men apana jivan dan kar diya. isake badale men kisi prapti ki asha nahin rakhi. matribhasha ki seva ke badale koee dam kya? maithili aur hindi ka bhashik vichar unaka hoo-bahoo vaisa nahin paya gaya jaisa am taur se in donon hi bhashaon ke itihas-dosh ya rashtrabhasha banam matribhasha ki dvandvatmakata men dekhane-manane ka chalan hai.[2]

ma‌rksavad ka prabhav

ma‌rksavad se vah gahare prabhavit rahe, lekin ma‌rksavad ke tamam roop aur rng dekhakar vah khinn the. vah poochhate the kaun se ma‌rksavad ki bat kar rahe ho, ma‌rks ya charu majoomadar ya che gvera ki? isi tarah unhonne jayaprakash narayan ka samarthan zaroor kiya, lekin jab janata parti viphal rahi to baba ne jayaprakash ko bhi nahin chhoda-

khichadi viplav dekha hamane
bhoga hamane kranti vilas
ab bhi khatm nahin hoga kya
poornakranti ka bhranti vilas.

krantikarita men unaka jabaradast vishvas tha isilie vah jayaprakash ki ahinsak kranti se lekar naksaliyon ki sashakt kranti tak ka samarthan karate the-

kam nahin hai, dam nahin hai
tarunon ko uthane do bndook
phir karava lena atmasamarpan

lekin isake lie unaki alochana bhi hoti thi ki baba ki koee vicharadhara hi nahin hai, baba kahin tikate hi nahin hain. nagarjun ka manana tha ki vah janavadi hain. jo janata ke hit men hai vahi mera bayan hai. main kisi vicharadhara ka samarthan karane ke lie paida nahin hua hoon. main garib, mazadoor, kisan ki bat karane ke lie hi hoon. unhonne garib ko garib hi mana, use kisi jati ya varg men vibhajit nahin kiya. tamam arthik abhavon ke bavajood unhonne vishad lekhan kary kiya.[3]

kritiyan

nagarjun ke giton men kavy ki pida jis layatmakata ke sath vyakt huee hai, vah anyatr kahin nahin dikhaee deti. apane kavy ke sath-sath gady men bhi lekhani chalaee. apake anek hindi upanyas, ek maithili upanyas tatha snskrit bhasha se hindi men anoodit grnth bhi prakashit hue. kavy-jagath ko ap ek darjan kavy-sngrah, do khand kavy, do maithili kavita sngrah tatha ek snskrit kavy ‘dharmalok shatakamh’ thati ke roop men dekar ge. prakashit kritiyon men pahala varg upanyason ka hai.

upanyas
  • 'ratinath ki chachi' (1948 ee.)
  • 'balachanama' (1952 ee.)
  • 'nayi paudh' (1953 ee.)
  • 'baba batesaranath' (1954 ee.)
  • 'dukhamochan' (1957 ee.)
  • 'varun ke bete' (1957 ee.)
  • ugratara
  • kunbhipak
  • paro
  • asaman men chand tare
maithili rachanaen
  • hirak jaynti (upanyas)
  • patrahin nagn gachh (kavita-sngrah)
kavita-sngrah
  • apane khet men
  • yugadhara
  • satarnge pnkhon vali
  • talab ki machhaliyan
  • khichadi vipalv dekha hamane
  • hajar-hajar bahon vali
  • purani jootiyon ka koras
  • tumane kaha tha
  • akhir aisa kya kah diya mainne
  • is gubar ki chhaya men
  • om mntr
  • bhool jao purane sapane
  • ratnagarbh
bal sahity
  • katha mnjari bhag-1
  • katha mnjari bhag-2
  • maryada purushottam
  • vidyapati ki kahaniyan
vyngy
  • abhinndan
nibndh sngrah
  • ann hinam kriyanam
bangla rachanaen
  • main militri ka purana ghoda (hindi anuvad)

in aupanyasik kritiyon men nagarjun samajik samasyaon ke sadhe hue lekhak ke roop men samane ate hain. janapadiy snskriti aur lok jivan unaki katha-srishti ka chauda phalak hai. unhonne kahin to anchalik parivesh men kisi gramin parivesh ke sukh-du:kh ki kahani kahi hai, kahin marksavadi siddhanton ki jhalak dete hue samajik andolanon ka samarthan kiya hai aur kahin-kahin samaj men vyapt shoshan vritti evn dharmik samajik kritiyon par kutharaghat kiya hai. in sandarbhon men nagarjun ki 'baba batesaranath' rachana ullekhaniy evn paripusht kriti hai. isamen zamindari unmoolan ke bad ki samajik samasyaon evn gramin paristhitiyon ka ankan hua hai aur nidan roop men samajavadi sngathan dvara vyapak sngharsh ki parikalpana ki gee hai. katha ke prastutikaran ke lie vyavahrit kiye jane vale ek abhinav rochak shilp ki drishti se bhi nagarjun ka yah upanyas mahattvapoorn hai.

kavita

nagarjun ki prakashit rachanaon ka doosara varg kavitaon ka hai. unaki anek kavitaen patr-patrikaon men prakashit hoti rahi hain. 'yugadhara' (1952) unaka prarambhik kavy snkalan hai. idhar ki kavitaon ka ek sngrah 'satarnge pnkhonvali' prakashit hua hai. kavi ki haisiyat se nagarjun pragatishil aur ek had tak prayogashil bhi hain. unaki anek kavitaen pragati aur prayog ke manikanchan snyog ke karan is prakar ke sahaj bhav saundary se dipt ho uthi hain. adhunik hindi kavita men shisht gambhir tatha sookshm chutile vyngy ki drishti se bhi nagarjun ki kuchh rachanaen apani ek alag pahachan rakhati hain. inhonne kahin-kahin saras marmik prakriti chitran bhi kiya hai.

bhasha-shaili

Blockquote-open.gif nagarjun jaisa prayogadharma kavi kam hi dekhane ko milata hai, chahe ve prayog lay ke hon, chhnd ke hon, vishayavastu ke hon. Blockquote-close.gif

nagarjun ki bhasha lok bhasha ke nikat hai. kuchh kavitaon men snskrit ke klisht-tatsam shabdon ka prayog adhik matra men kiya gaya hai. kintu adhikatar kavitaon aur upanyason ki bhasha saral hai. tadbhav tatha gramin shabdon ke prayog ke karan isamen ek vichitr prakar ki mithas a gee hai. nagarjun ki shailigat visheshata bhi yahi hai. ve lokamukh ki vani bolana chahate hain.

janakavi ka khitab

azadi ke pahale se lekar apani zindagi ki akhiri sans tak janata ke sath kndha bhidakar ladane-bhidane, usase sikhane aur use sikhane ki yah jid nagarjun ke kavita ke krod men hai. satta ke khilaf khada hona, samakalin alochakon ki kutil bhroo-bhngima se morcha lena aur sahity ki pavitr bhoomi se barkhastagi, yahi to milata hai janakavi ko. par rukie, use janata ka pyar milata hai. dilli ki bason ke chidhe-khijhalaye draivaron se lekar bihar ke dhadhakate khet-khalihanon ke khet-majoor tak use sar-ankhon par rakhate hain. ab saval bacha lokapriyatavad ka. lokapriy hona kisi kavi ki kamazori nahin, usaki majabooti hai, agar vah lokapriyata ke lie apane eeman ka sauda nahin karata. agar vah saty, janata aur apane ap se dagabazi nahin karata. nagarjun ne lokapriy hone ke lie koee samajhauta nahin kiya. jab-jab unhen laga ki janata badalav ke apane raste par hai, ve usake sath rahe- sikhate-sikhate. 'jan-andolanon ka itihas' nam ki kitab agar ap likhane ki sochen to ekabar nagarjun ke kavy-snsar ki or palat kar dekh len. tebhaga-telngana se lekar je.pi. ki sampoorn kranti tak aur bhagatasinh se lekar bhojapur tak ap yahan darj payenge, aur payenge kitane hi sthaniy pratirodh, jinako itihas ki mukhyadhara hamesha hi bhula deti hai. par yah koee andh andolan bhakti ka sabab nahin. andolanon ka tootana-bikharana, unaki kami-kamazori, sab apani sampoornata men yahan maujood hai. je.pi. andolan par kramashah likhi kavitaen isaki gavahi hain- 'kranti sugabugaee hai' se 'khichadi viplav dekha hamane' tak. sirph kavi hi andolanon par prabhav nahin dalate, andolan bhi un par asar chhodate hain. kedar, trilochan aur nagarjun, jo ki kheti-kisani ki zindagi ke kavi hain, kavitayen ve pahale se hi likh rahe the par sudhijanon ki nazar un par tab padi jab naksal andolan ne zamin ke saval ko rajaniti ke kendr men sthapit kar diya. so kavita aur janandolan ka yah gahara dvndvatmak snbndh gauratalab hai. jan-itihas ki baten bahut itihasakaron ne kin, likha bhi par nagarjun ke shanadar kalam ke marfat bharat ke snkshiptatam jan-itihas se roo b roo hon-

panch poot bharatamata ke, dushman tha khoonkhar
goli khakar ek mar gaya, baki bach ge char
char poot bharatamata ke, charon chatur-pravin
desh nikala mila ek ko, baki bach ge tin
tin poot bharatamata ke, ladane lag ge vo
alag ho gaya udhar ek, ab baki bach ge do
do bete bharatamata ke, chhod purani tek
chipak gaya ek gaddi se, baki bach gaya ek
ek poot bharatamata ka, kndhe par tha jhnda
pulis pakad kar jel le gee, baki bach gaya anda !

bachapane ki snkhyaon aur ginatiyon ke sammohak snsar se bavasta karati yah kavita kautoohal aur jigyasa ke hamare adim manobhav se khelati hai, usi ko apani zamin ke bataur istemal karati hai. yah khasa mushkil kam hai kisi kavi ke lie ki vah lagabhag pratik men badal ge roop ka istemal ne kathy ke lie kare. yahan roop ka parnparik arth ne arth par bhari pad sakata hai aur kavita atnrik asngati se gadabada sakati hai. par yahi to kaviyon ko lubhata bhi hai. bachapane ki lay aur tuk men jan-itihas bharane ki dilachasp lalak men nagarjun yahan hazir hain. is lay men maujood kutoohal aur jigyasa ka istemal karate aur use adhunik itihas ki samiksha ke lie baratate hue. kavita bharatamata ke panch balidani, ladakoo sapooton ke sngharsh se shuroo hoti hai. pahale donon ko kramashah hatya aur desh nikala milata hai. azadi ke lie ladi purani pidhi ko nagarjun apani is kavita men gaurav se yad karate hain. bhagatasinh jaise dheron bharatamata ke beton ko khoonkhar dushman ke khilaph ladane ke lie phansi aur goli hi mili. lekin jo baki bache, unako to us shahadat ka adhar bana hua mila. unhonne kya kiya? nagarjun ne sidhe desh ke vibhajan par kuchh nahin likha. kyon nahin likha, is vishay par vidvanon ke dheron kayas hain. par is kavita ki antarik sngati ko samajhate hue us bete ke bare men, jo udhar alag ho gaya, par bar-bar khyal atakata hai. kya yah vibhajan ke alava aur kuchh hai? kya alag hona aur desh nikala jaisi ghatanaon ko vibhajan ke dard se joda ja sakata hai?[4]

nagarjun rachanavali

sat brihath khndon men prakashit nagarjun rachanavali hai jisaka ek khnd 'yatri samagr', jo maithili samet bangla, snskrit adi bhashaon men likhit rachanaon ka hai. maithili kavitaon ki ab tak prakashit yatri ji ki donon pustaken kramashah ‘chitra’ aur ‘patrahin nagn gachh’[5] samet unaki samast chhutaphut maithili kavitaon ke sngrah hain.[2]

samman aur puraskar

nagarjun ko sahity akadami puraskar se, unaki aitihasik maithili rachana 'patrahin nagn gachh' ke lie 1969 men sammanit gaya tha. unhen sahity akadami ne 1994 men sahity akadami phelo ke roop men bhi namankit kar sammanit kiya tha.

sahity men sthan

'yugadhara', khichadi़', 'viph‍lav dekha hamane', 'patrahin nagh‍n gachh', 'ph‍yasi patharaee ankhen', is gubh‍bare ki chhaya men', 'satarnge pnkhonvali', 'main militri ka boodha़ ghoda' jaisi rachanaon se am janata men chetana phailane vale nagarjun ke sahith‍y par vimarsh ka saransh tha ki baba nagarjun janakavi the aur ve apani kavitaon men am logon ke dard ko bayan karate the. vicharak haaubh‍sabam ne is sadi ko ativadon ki sadi kaha hai. unh‍honne kaha ki nagarjun ka vh‍yaktith‍v bisavin shatabh‍di ki tamam mahath‍vapoorn ghatanaon se nirmit hua tha. ve apani rachanaon ke madhh‍yam se shoshanamukh‍t samaj ya yon kahen ki samatamoolak samaj nirman ke lie prayasarat the. unaki vicharadhara yatharth jivan ke anh‍tarvirodhon ko samajhane men madad karati hai. varsh 1911 isalie mahath‍vapoorn mana jata hai kh‍yonki usi varsh shamasher bahadur sinh, kedaranath agraval, phaij evn nagarjun paida hue. unake sngharsh, kriyakalapon aur upalabdhiyon ke karan bisavin sadi mahath‍vapoorn bani. inh‍honne garibon ke bare men, janh‍m dene vali man ke bare men, mazadooron ke bare men likha. lokabhasha ke virat uth‍sav men ve ge aur kavh‍y bhasha arjit ki. lokabhasha ke snpark men rahane ke karan inaki kavitaen auron se alag hai. suprasiddh kavi alok dhanh‍va ne nagarjun ki rachanaon ko sndarbhit karate hue kaha ki unaki kavitaon men azadi ki ladaee ki antarvash‍tu shamil hai. nagarjun ne kavitaon ke jarie kee ladaiyan ladin. ve ek kavi ke roop men hi mahath‍vapoorn nahin hai apitu ne bharat ke nirmata ke roop men dikhaee dete hain.[6]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. nagarjun (hindi) kavyanchal. abhigaman tithi: 31 janavari, 2013.
  2. 2.0 2.1 nagarjun/parichay (hindi) gadyakosh. abhigaman tithi: 31 janavari, 2013.
  3. nagarjun ki kavitaen (hindi) jagaran jnkshan. abhigaman tithi: 1 julaee, 2013.
  4. mrityunjay. shatabdi smaran : nagarjun (hindi) shabad (blaaug). abhigaman tithi: 25 janavari, 2015.
  5. sahity akadami puraskrit
  6. nagarjun ki janh‍mashati par samaroh snpann (hindi) vebaduniya hindi. abhigaman tithi: 31 janavari, 2013.

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