निर्मल वर्मा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

nirmal varma
nirmal varma
poora nam nirmal varma
janm 3 apral, 1929
janm bhoomi shimala
mrityu 25 aktoobar, 2005
mrityu sthan dilli
abhibhavak pita- nnd kumar varma
karm-kshetr sahity
mukhy rachanaen ‘rat ka riportar’, ‘ek chithada sukh’, ‘lal tin ki chhat’, ‘ve din’ adi
bhasha hindi
vidyalay sent stiphens kaaulej, dilli
shiksha em.e. (itihas)
puraskar-upadhi padm bhooshan, sahity akadami puraskar (1985), gyanapith puraskar (1999)
nagarikata bharatiy
any janakari nirmal varma indiyan institayoot aauf edavans stadiz (shimala) ke phelo (1973), nirala srijanapith bhopal (1981-83) aur yashapal srijanapith (shimala) ke adhyaksh rahe.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

nirmal varma (angrezi: Nirmal Verma, janm: 3 apral, 1929; mrityu: 25 aktoobar, 2005) hindi ke adhunik sahityakaron men se ek the. hindi sahity men nee kahani andolan ke pramukh dhvajavahak nirmal varma ka kahani men adhunikata ka bodh lane vale kahanikaron men agrani sthan hai. ‘rat ka riportar’, ‘ek chithada sukh’, ‘lal tin ki chhat’ aur ‘ve din’ nirmal varma ke charchit upanyas hai. unaka antim upanyas ‘antim arany’ 1990 men prakashit hua tha. unaki sau se adhik kahaniyan kee kahani sngrahon men prakashit huee.

jivan parichay

nirmal varma ka janm tin apral 1929 ko shimala men hua tha. british bharat sarakar ke raksha vibhag men ek uchch padadhikari shri nnd kumar varma ke ghar janm lene vale ath bhaee bahanon men se panchaven nirmal varma ki snvedanatmak bunavat par himanchal ki pahadi chhayaen door tak pahachani ja sakati hain. unhonne kam likha hai parntu jitana likha hai utane se hi ve bahut khyati pane men saphal hue hain. unhonne kahani ki prachalit kala men to snshodhan kiya hi, pratyaksh yatharth ko bhedakar usake bhitar pahunchane ka bhi prayatn kiya hai. hindi ke mahanh sahityakaron men se agyey aur nirmal varma jaise kuchh hi sahityakar aise rahe hain jinhonne apane pratyaksh anubhavon ke adhar par bharatiy aur pashchim ki snskritiyon ke antardvandv par gahanata evn vyapakata se vichar kiya.[1] dilli ke sent stiphens kaaulej se itihas men em.e. karane ke bad unhonne kuchh din tak adhyapan kiya. 1959 se 1972 ke bich unhen yoorop pravas ka avasar mila. vah prag vishvavidyalay ke prachy vidya snsthan men sat sal tak rahe. unaki kahani ‘maya darpan’ par 1973 men film bani jise sarvashreshth hindi film ka puraskar mila.[2]

karyakshetr

ve indiyan institayoot aauf edavans stadiz (shimala) ke phelo (1973), nirala srijanapith bhopal (1981-83) aur yashapal srijanapith (shimala) ke adhyaksh rahe. 1988 men inglaind ke prakashak ridars intaraneshanal dvara unaki kahaniyon ka sngrah 'd varld elsavheyar' prakashit hua. isi samay bibisi dvar un par ek dakyoomentri film bhi prasarit huee.[1]

kritiyan

‘rat ka riportar’, ‘ek chithada sukh’, ‘lal tin ki chhat’ aur ‘ve din’ nirmal varma ke charchit upanyas hai. unaka antim upanyas ‘antim arany’ 1990 men prakashit hua. unaki sau se adhik kahaniyan kee kahani sngrahon men prakashit huee. 1958 men ‘parinde’ kahani se prasiddhi pane vale nirmal varma ne ‘dhundh se uthati dhun’ aur ‘chidon par chandani’ yatra vritant bhi likhe, jisane unaki lekhan vidha ko naye mayane die.[2]

nirmal varma ne anek kahaniyan, upanyas, yatra vritant, snsmaran adi likhe hain. unaki prakashit pustaken hain[3]:

upanyas
  1. ve din (1964)
  2. lal tin ki chhat (1974)
  3. ek chithada sukh (1979)
  4. rat ka riportar (1989)
  5. antim arany (2000)
kahani sngrah
  1. parinde (1959)
  2. jalati jhadi (1965)
  3. pichhali garmiyon men (1968)
  4. bich bahas men (1973)
  5. meri priy kahaniyan (1973)
  6. pratinidhi kahaniyan (1988)
  7. kavve aur kala pani (1983)
  8. sookha tatha any kahaniyan (1995)
  9. snpoorn kahaniyan (2005)
yatra-snsmaran v dayari
  1. chidon par chandani (1963)
  2. har barish men (1970)
  3. dhundh se uthati dhun (1977)
nibndh
  1. shabd aur smriti (1976)
  2. kala ka jokhim (1981)
  3. dhalan se utarate hue (1985)
  4. bharat aur yoorop : pratishruti ke kshetr (1991)
  5. itihas smriti akanksha (1991)
  6. shatabdi ke dhalate varshon men (1995)
  7. ant aur arambh (2001)
natak
  1. tin ekant (1976)
snchayan
  1. doosari duniya (1978)
  2. parivarddhit naya snskaran (2005)
anuvad
  1. kuprin ki kahaniyan (1955)
  2. romiyo jooliyat aur andhera (1962)
  3. jhonpadivale (1966)
  4. bahar aur pare (1967)
  5. bachapan (1970)
  6. ar yoo ar (1972)

yogadan

premachnd aur unake samakaksh sahityakaron jaise bhagavaticharan varma, phanishvaranath renu adi ke bad sahityik paridrishy ekadam se badal gaya. visheshakar sath-sattar ke dashak ke dauran aur usake bad bahut kam lekhak hue jinhen kala ki drishti se hindi sahity men abhootapoorv yogadan ke liye yad kiya jayega. snkhya men gunavatta ke sapeksh anupatik vriddhi hi huee. isake karanon men ye pramukh rahe. hindi ka sarakarikaran, naye vadon-vivadon ka uday, upabhoktavad ka varchasv adi. unake jaise sahityakar se unake samakalin aur bad ke sahityakar jitana kuchh sikh sakate the aur apane yogadan men abhivriddhi kar sakate the utana ve nahin kar paye. unhen jitana man diya gaya utana hi unaka anadekha bhi hua. jitani charcha unaki kritiyon par honi chahiye thi shayad vah huee hi nahin. ve un chune hue vyaktiyon men the jinhonne sahity aur kala ki nishkam sadhana ki aur jivanaparyant apane moolyon ka nirvah kiya.

samman aur puraskar

nidhan

nirmal varma ka nidhan 25 aktoobar 2005 ko nee dilli men hua.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 nirmal varma (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) abhivyakti. abhigaman tithi: 16 janavari, 2012.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 nirmal varma ka sahity chalachitramay hai (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) veb duniya hindi. abhigaman tithi: 16 janavari, 2012.
  3. antim arany" ke bahane nirmal varma ke sahity par ek drishti (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) sahity kunj. abhigaman tithi: 16 janavari, 2012.

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