श्यामसुन्दर दास  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

shyamasundar das
Dr. Shyam Sunder Das.jpg
poora nam daau.shyamasundar das
janm 1875 ee.
janm bhoomi varanasi, bharat
mrityu 1945 ee.
mrityu sthan bharat
abhibhavak lala devi das khanna
karm bhoomi varanasi
karm-kshetr adhyapak, sampadak, sahityakar, lekhak
mukhy rachanaen 'chandravali' athava 'nasiketopakhyan', ramacharitamanas, prithviraj raso, ashok ki dharmalipiyan, rani ketaki ki kahani, bhasha patr bodh, 'hindi kusumavali'
vishay grnth, pustak, patrika, anuvad
shiksha snatak
upadhi 'sahity vachaspati' aur kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay se 'di.lit.'
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi

daau.shyamasundar das (janm- 1875 ee., kashi; mrityu- 1945 ee.) ne jis nishtha se hindi ke abhavon ki poorti ke liye lekhan kary kiya aur use kosh, itihas, kavyashash‍tr bhashavigyan, anusndhan pathyapustak aur sampadit granthon se sajakar is yogy bana diya ki vah itihas ke khndaharon se bahar nikalakar vishvavidyalayon ke bhavy-bhavanon tak pahunchi.

jivan parichay

shyamasundar das ka janm sanh 1875 ee. kashi (varanasi) men hua tha. inake poorvaj lahaur ke nivasi the aur pita lala devi das khanna kashi men kapade ka vyapar karate the. inhonne 1897 ee. men bi.e. pas kiya tha. yah 1899 ee. men hindoo skool men kuchh dinon tak adhyapak rahe. usake bad lakhanoo ke kalicharan skool men bahut dinon tak haidamastar rahe. sanh 1921 ee. men kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ke hindi vibhag ke adhyaksh pad par niyukt hue.

anany nishtha

shyamasundar das ji ki prarambh se hi hindi ke prati anany nishtha thi. nagari pracharini sabha ki sthapana 16 julaee, sanh 1893 ee. ko inhonne vidyarthi kal men hi apane do sahayogiyon ramanarayan mishr aur thakur shiv kumar sinh ki sahayata se ki thi. kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay men ane ke poorv inhonne hindi sahity ki sarvatomukhi samriddhi ke lie nyayalayon men hindi pravesh ka andolan (1900 ee.), hastalikhit granthon ki khoj (1899 ee.), ary bhasha pustakalay ki sthapana (1903 ee.), prachin mahattvapoorn granthon ka sampadan sabha-bhavan ka nirman (1902 ee.), 'sarasvati patrika' ka sampadan (1900 ee.) tatha shikshastar ke anuroop pathy pustakon ka nirman kary arambh kar diya tha. nishchit yojana aur adamy sahas ke abhav men anek dishaon men ek sath saphalatapoorvak kary arambh karana sambhav nahin tha. yah ajivan ek gati se sahity seva men lage rahe.

kritiyan

shyamasundar das ji ne parichayatmak aur alochanatmak grnth likhane ke sath hi kee darjan pustakon ka snpadan kiya. pathyapustakon ke roop men inhonne kee darjan susnpadit sngrah grnth prakashit karae. shyamasundar das ki sahity-kritiyan nimnalikhit hain.

sampadit granth
san kritiyan
1901 'chandravali' athava 'nasiketopakhyan'
1903 chhatr prakash
1904 ramacharitamanas
1904 prithviraj raso
1906 hindi vaigyanik kosh
1906 vanita vinod
1906 indravati bhag 1
1908 hammir raso
1908 shakuntala natak
1911 pratham hindi sahity sammelan ki lekhavali
1908 bal vinod
1916 hindi shabd sagar' khand 1-4
1920 meghadoot
1921 dinadayal giri granthavali
1921 paramal raso
1923 ashok ki dharmalipiyan
1925 rani ketaki ki kahani
1927 bharatendu natakavali
1928 kabir granthavali
1930 radhakrishn granthavali
1933 satasee saptak
1933 dvivedi abhinandan granth
1933 ratnakar
1935 bal shabd sagar
1945 tridhara
- nagari pracharini patrika' (1-18 bhag)
- 'manornjan pustak mala' (1-50 snkhya)
1900 sarasvati
pustak sngrah
san kritiyan
1902 bhasha sar sngrah' bhag 1
1902 bhasha patr bodh
1903 prachin lekh manimala
1902 alok chitran
1904 alok chitran
1905 hindi praimar
1905 hindi ki pahali pustak
1906 hindi gramar
1908 gavarnament af indiya
1908 hindi sngrah
1908 balak vinod
1919 saral sngrah
1919 nootan sngrah
1919 anulekh mala
1923 'nayi hindi ridar' bhag 6, 7
1925 'hindi sngrah' bhag 1, 2
1925 'hindi kusum sngrah' bhag 1,2
1927 'hindi kusumavali'
1927 hindi proj selekshan
1928 'sahity suman' bhag 1-4
1931 gady ratnavali
1932 sahity pradip
1936 'hindi gady kusumavali' bhag 1, 2
1939 hindi praveshika padyavali
1945 hindi gady sngrah
1945 sahityik lekh
maulik kritiyan
san kritiyan
1896 nagari varnamala
1900- 1905 hindi hastalikhit granthon ka varshik khoj vivaran
1906- 1908 hindi hastalikhit granthon ki khoj
1909 'hindi kovid ratnamala' bhag 1, 2
1923 sahityalochan
1924 bhasha vigyan
1924 hindi bhasha ka vikas
1923 hastalikhit hindi granthon ka snkshipt vivaran
1925 gady kusumavali
1927 bharatendu harishchandr
1930 hindi bhasha aur sahity
1931 gosvami tulasidas
1931 roopak rahasy
1935 bhasha rahasy' bhag 1
1940 hindi gady ke nirmata' bhag 1,2
1942 meri atm kahani

uparyukt kritiyon ke atirikt inake vibhinn vishayon par likhe gaye sphut nibandhon aur vibhinn sammelanon ke avasar par di gayi vaktritaon ki sammilit snkhya 41 hai. is vistrit samagri ka anushilan karane se spasht hai ki inaki satark drishti hindi ke samast abhavon ko lakshy kar rahi thi aur yah poori nishtha se unhen door karane men prayatnashil the.

gady sadhana

shyamasundar das ke samay men upanyas, natak, kavy aur katha adi kshetron men drutagati se sahity nirman ho raha tha, par anusandhan, bhasha vigyan aur sahitya lochan adi vishayon par kisi ka dhyan nahin gaya. is prakar inhonne pahali bar is kshetr men padarpan kar hindi ki avashyakataon ko poorn kiya. angrezi sahity ke gyata hone ke karan inhonne angrezi sahity ka adhar lekar anusandhan, bhasha vigyan , sahityalochan, kavi samiksha aur natyashastr jaise goodh aur gnbhir vishayon par hindi men likha. angrezi ki samikshatmak pustakon ka bhavapaharan hone ke karan inake saiddhantik grnthon men bhale hi maulikata ki kami ho, par vivechana ka dhng to sarvatha inaka niji hai aur tatkalin paristhitiyon v yug men isake atirik koee marg bhi n tha. is prakar yah hindi ke maulik alochak the.

bhasha shaili

shyamasundar das ne shuddh sahityik hindi ka prayog kiya tatha videshi shabdon ko bhi hindi ke sanche men dhal liya. inaki bhasha men snskrit ke tatsam aur prachalit tadbhav shabdon ki adhikata hai. urdoo shabdon ko bhi grahan karane ke poorv unhonne hindi bhasha ki prakriti ke anusar unake roop aur dhvani men parivartan kiya. unaki bhasha klisht aur jatil nahin hai tatha sarvatr sugathit aur sulajhi huee hai. goodh se goodh vishayon ke pratipadan men unaki bhasha saphal rahi. bhasha gnbhir aur snyat hote hue bhi dharavahik pravah lie hue hai. shyamasundar das ji ne shaili ko bhasha ka vyaktigat prayog mana, atah shaili vishayak unaka mntavy bhasha vivechan ke prasng men a gaya hai. inaki shaili men saralata aur subodhata ka sahaj gun hai, jo vishayanuroop sarvatr yathavasar parivartanashil rahi. inake nibndh pray: tin prakar ke hain, tadanuroop inaki lekhani shaili bhi tin prakar ki ho gayi hai- vyakhyatmak, vicharatmak aur gaveshanatmak, kintu baboo ji moolatah vyas shaili ke hi lekhak rahe.[1]

abhavon ki poorti

shyamasundar das bahut achchhe prabandhak the. inhonne vividh kshetron men hindi ke abhavon ki poorti ke lie avashyak samagri prastut kar dene ki cheshta ki hai. isilie yah poori shakti ka prayog kisi ek kshetr men nahin kar sake hain. isilie lekhak ke roop men, alochak ke roop men, sampadak ke roop men, kavyakritiyon aur siddhanton ke vyakhyata ke roop men ya bhasha-tattvavetta ke roop men, chahe jis roop men dekha jae, sarvatr yahi sthiti hai, kintu isase inaka mahattv ya mooly kam nahin hota hai. kriti ka mooly bahut kuchh usamen nihit rachanavivek aur drishtikon par adhrit hota hai. “hindi alochana ka saiddhantik adhar snskrit aur angrezi donon ki kavy shastriy manyataon ke samanvay men prastut hona chahie. hindi sahity ke itihas nirman men kaviyon ke itivritt ke sath yuganukool aitihasik paristhitiyon ka vivechan tatha kavy aur kala men tatvik ekata hone ke karan, kavy vikas ke sath kala vikas ka adhyayan bhi prastut kiya jana chahie. sampadan men kritiyon ki prachinatam prati ko any bhashaon ka samany parichay aur hindi ke aitihasik vikas ka gyan hona chahie”- rachana aur adhyayan ka yah vivek shyamasundaradas ki bahut badi den hai.

drishtikon

abhavon ki shighratishighr poorti ko lakshy men rakhakar niyojit dhng se hone vale nirman kary men vyapakata, vaividhy aur sthool upayogita ka drishtikon hi pradhan hota hai. shyamasundar das ke samane bhi yahi drishtikon tha, isilie inamen maulikata aur gaharaee ka apekshakrit abhav hai. vyakti ka mooly yug ki sapekshata men hi anka jana chahie. inaki buddhi vimal, drishti saph, hriday udar aur drishtikon samanvayavadi tha. sahity aur bhasha sabhi ke snghatan men inhonne auchity aur samnjasy ka dhyan rakha hai. hindi bhasha ke snghatan ke sambandh men vichar karate hue inhonne hindi ke atirikt snskrit aur arabi- farasi ke shabdon ko bhi grahan karane ki bat kahi hai. kintu variyata ke kram se pahala sthan shuddh hindi shabdon ko, doosara snskrit ke sugam shabdon ko aur tisara farasi adi videshi bhashaon ke sadharan aur prachalit shabdon ko diya hai. bhashasambandhi yah drishtikon sabhi vivekashil vyaktiyon ko many hain.

vyavaharik alochana

shyamasundar das vyavaharik alochana ke kshetr men bhi samnjasy ko lekar chale hain. isilie inaki alochana paddhati men aitihasik vyakhya, vivechana, tulana, nishkarsh, nirnay adi anek tattv sannihit hain. videshi sahity ke prabhav se akrant hindi janata ko inake jaise udar, vivekashil, satark, karmath, svabhimani aur samanvayavadi neta ke kushal netritv ki hi avashyakata thi. apane jivan ke pachas varshon men anavarat roop se hindi ki seva karate hue inhonne ise kosh, itihas, kavyashastr, bhasha vigyan, shodhakary, upayogi sahity, pathy pustak aur sampadit granth adi se samriddh kiya, usake mahattv ki pratishtha ki, usaki avaz ko jan-jan tak pahunchaya. use khandaharon se uthakar vishvavidyalayon ke bhavy-bhavanon men pratishthit kiya. vah any bhashaon ke samakaksh baithane ki adhikarini huee. hindi sahity sammelan ne inako 'sahity vachaspati' aur kashi hindoo vishvavidyalay ne 'di.lith.' ki upadhi dekar apaki sevaon ka mahattv svikar kiya.

nidhan

jivan ke antim varshon men shyamasundar das bimar pade to phir uth n sake. samvat 2002 (1945 ee.) ke lagabhag unaka svargavas ho gaya.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 baboo shyamasundar das (hindi) rajabhasha hindi. abhigaman tithi: 13 apral, 2015.

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