गजानन माधव 'मुक्तिबोध'  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(मुक्तिबोध गजानन माधव se punarnirdeshit)
gajanan madhav 'muktibodh'
Gajanan-Madhav-Muktibodh.jpg
poora nam gajanan madhav muktibodh
any nam muktibodh
janm 13 navnbar 1917
janm bhoomi shyaupur (gvaliyar)
mrityu 11 sitnbar 1964 (ayu- 46 varsh)
mrityu sthan dilli
abhibhavak shri madhav muktibodh (pita)
pati/patni shrimati shanta muktibodh
karm-kshetr kavi, lekhak, samikshak
mukhy rachanaen kavita sngrah- chand ka munh tedha hai, bhoori bhoori khak dhool kahani sngrah- kath ka sapana, vipatr, satah se uthata adami alochana- kamayani : ek punarvichar, nee kavita ka atmasngharsh, ne sahity ka saundaryashastr, samiksha ki samasyaen, ek sahityik ki dayari rachanavali- muktibodh rachanavali (6 khndon men)
bhasha hindi
vidyalay nagapur vishvavidyalay
shiksha em. e.
prasiddhi pragatishil kavi
nagarikata bharatiy
vidhaen kavita, kahani, upanyas, nibndh, alochana
any janakari hindi sahity men sarvadhik charcha ke kendr men rahane vale muktibodh kahanikar bhi the aur samikshak bhi. unhen pragatishil kavita aur nayi kavita ke bich ka ek setu bhi mana jata hai.
inhen bhi dekhen kavi soochi, sahityakar soochi
gajanan madhav muktibodh ki rachanaen
gajanan madhav 'muktibodh' (angrezi: Gajanan Madhav Muktibodh, janm: 13 navnbar, 1917 - mrityu: 11 sitnbar, 1964) ki prasiddhi pragatishil kavi ke roop men hai. muktibodh hindi sahity ki svatntryottar pragatishil kavyadhara ke shirsh vyaktitv the. hindi sahity men sarvadhik charcha ke kendr men rahane vale muktibodh kahanikar bhi the aur samikshak bhi. unhen pragatishil kavita aur nayi kavita ke bich ka ek setu bhi mana jata hai.
muktibodh hindi snsar ki ek ghatana ban ge. kuchh aisi ghatana jisaki or se ankhen moond lena asambhav tha. unaka ekanishth sngharsh, unaki atoot sachchaee, unaka poora jivan, sabhi ek sath hamari bhavanaon ke kendriy mnch par samane ae aur sabhi ne unake kavi hone ko nee drishti se dekha. kaisa jivan tha vah aur aise usaka ant kyon hua. aur vah samuchit khyati se ab tak vnchit kyon raha? yah talkh tippani shamasher bahadur sinh ki hai jo unhonne bade bebak dhng se hindi jagath ke sahityakaron ki nissngata par kahi hai.[1]

janm aur shiksha

gajanan madhav 'muktibodh' ka janm 13 navnbar, 1917 ko shyaupur (gvaliyar) men hua tha. inaki arambhik shiksha ujjain men huee. muktibodh ji ke pita pulis vibhag ke inspektar the aur unaka tabadala prayah hota rahata tha. isilie muktibodh ji ki padhaee men badha padati rahati thi. indaur ke holkar se sanh 1938 men bi.e. karake ujjain ke madarn skool men adhyapak ho ge.[2] inaka ek sahapathi tha shantaram, jo gasht ki dyooti par tainat ho gaya tha. gajanan usi ke sath rat ko shahar ki ghumakkadi ko nikal jate. bidi ka chaska shayad tabhi se laga.

parivar

inake pita madhav muktibodh bhi bahut shusta fasih urdoo bolate the. ye kee sthanon men thanedar rah kar ujjain men inspaiktar ke pad se ritayar hue. muktibodh ki man bundelakhand ki thin, eesagadh ke ek kisan parivar ki. gajanan char bhaee hain. inase chhote sharatachandr marathi ke pratishthit kavi hain. parivarik asahamati aur virodh ke bavajood 1939 men shanta ke sath prem-vivah kiya.
'muktibodh' pratima

arnbhik jivan

muktibodh ji ne chhoti ayu men badanagar ke midil skool men adhyapan kary prarambh kiya. sanh 1940 men muktibodh shujalapur ke sharada shiksha sadan men adhyapak ho ge. isake bad ujjain, kalakatta, indaur, bambee, bngalaur, banaras tatha jabalapur adi jagahon par naukari ki. sanh 1942 ke andolan men jab yah sharada shiksha sadan bnd ho gaya, to yah shiraza bikhar gaya. muktibodh ujjain chale gaye. bhinn-bhinn naukariyan kin- mastari se vayusena, patrakarita se parti tak. nagapur 1948 men aye. soochana tatha prakashan vibhag, akashavani evn 'naya khoon' men kam kiya. ant men kuchh mah tak pathy pustaken bhi likhi. antat: 1958 se digvijay mahavidyalay, rajanandaganv men pradhyapak hue. unhonne likha hai ki:-

naukariyan pakadata aur chhodata raha.
shikshak, patrakar, punah shikshak, sarakari aur gair sarakari naukariyan.
nimn-madhyavargiy jivan, bal-bachche, davadaroo, janm-maut men ulajha raha.

sahapathi mitr

gajanan ke sahapathi mitron men romani kalpana ke kavi virendr kumar jain aur prabhagachandr sharma, anantar 'karmavir' men sahakari sampadak aur us samay ke ek achchhe, yogy kavi the. kavita ki or ramashnkar shukl 'hriday' ne gajanan ko kafi protsahit kiya tha. 'karmavir' men un ki kavitaen chhap rahi thin. makhanalal aur mahadevi ki rahasyatmak shaili malava ke tarun hridayon ko akrisht kiye hue thi, magar muktibodh daaustaauyavaski, flabear aur gorki men bhi kam khoye hue nahin rahate the.
muktibodh apani patni shrimati shanta ke sath

patrika sampadan

agara se nemichandr jain shujalapur pahunch ge the. prabhakar machave bhi aksar a jate. 'tar-saptak' ki mool parikalpana bhi yahin bani. sanh 1943 men agyey ke sampadan men 'tar-saptak' ka prakashan hua. jisaki shuruat muktibodh ki kavitaon se hoti hai. ujjain se sanh 1945 ke lagabhag muktibodh banaras gaye aur trilochan shastri ke sath 'hns' ke sampadan men shamil hue. vahan sampadan se lekar dispaichar tak ka kam vah karate the; sath rupaye vetan tha. unaka kashi pravas bahut sukhad nahin raha. bharatabhooshan agraval aur nemichandr jain ne unhen kalakatta bulaya. par adhyapaki ya sampadaki ka kahin koee daul nahin jama. har kar muktibodh sanh 1946-1947 men jabalapur chale gaye. vahan 'hitakarini haee skool' men vah adhyapak ho gaye. aur phir nagapur ja nikale. nagapur ka samay bihad sngharsh ka samay tha, kintu rachana ki drishti se atyant urvar. 'naya khoon' saptahik men ve niyamit roop se likhate rahe. sampradayik dnge zoron se shuroo ho gaye the. us zamane men vah dainik 'jay-hind' men bhi kuchh kam karate the. rat ki dyooti de kar karfyoo ke sannate men vah ghar lautate.

tar-saptak

shujalapur aur ujjain ne sabase moolyankan chiz jo hindi ko di vah 'tar-saptak' hai. isaki mool parikalpana prabhakar machave aur nemichandr jain ki thi. nam 'tar-saptak' prabhakar machave ka sujhaya hua tha. bharatabhooshan agraval tab nemi ji ke bade gahare mitr the. at: unaka sampark bhi shujalapur aur muktibodh se ho gaya. arambh men prabhagachandr sharma aur virendr kumar jain bhi is saptak-yojana ke svar the. agyey ji se sampark badhane par yojana ko kary roop men sampann karane ke lie usamen sampadan ka bhar un par dal diya gaya. nemichandr aur bharatabhooshan jab kalakatta (ab kolakata) men the, yojana ne antim roop le liya. agyey bhi ne daau. ramavilas sharma aur girijakumar mathur ke nam sujhaye. sat ki sima nishchit hone ke karan namavali men parivartan anivary tha. 1943 men jab yah aitihasik sngrah prakashit hua, usane ek lambe vivad ko janm diya, jo kisi n kisi sndarbh ya arth men ab bhi jari hai. us sngrah men muktibodh ka yog us samay sab se prodh chahe n ho, magar shayad sabase maulik tha. durooh hote hue bauddhik, bauddhik hote hue bhi romani.

muktibodh dvara hastalikhit kavita

bisavin sadi ki hindi kavita ka sabase bechain, sabase tadapata hua aur sabase eemanadar svar hai gajanan madhav muktibodh. muktibodh ki kavita jatil hai. bhagavan sinh ne unaki kavita ki jatilata ka bayan is tarah kiya hai, ‘ve saras nahin hain, sukhad nahin hain. ve hamen jhakajhor deti hain, gudagudati nahin. ve matr arthagrahan ki mang nahin karatin, acharan ki bhi mang karati hain. tarasaptak men muktibodh ne svayn kaha hai, ‘meri kavitaen apana path khojate bechain man ki abhivyakti hain. unaka saty aur mooly usi jiv-sthiti men chhipa hai.[1]

Blockquote-open.gif "nee kavita men muktibodh ki jagah vahi hai, jo chhayavad men nirala ki thi. nirala ke saman hi muktibodh ne bhi apani yug ke samany kavy-moolyon ko pratiphalit karane ke sath hi unaki sima ki chunauti dekar us sarjanatmak vishishtata ko charitarth kiya, jisase samakalin kavy ka sahi moolyankan ho saka." Blockquote-close.gif


lekhak sngh

ujjain men muktibodh ne madhy bharat pragatishil lekhak sngh ki buniyad dali. isaki vishisht sabhaon men bhag lene ke lie vah bahar se daau. ramavilas sharma, amritaray adi sahityik vicharakon ko bulate the. unhonne sanh 1944 ke ant men indaur men fasist virodhi lekhak sammelan ka ayojan kiya, jo rahul ji ki adhyakshata men huee. lekhakon ke dayitv par muktibodh ne svayn bhi ek nibandh us par padha tha. muktibodh navodit pratibhavon ka nirantar utsah badhate rahate aur unhen age late. harinarayan vyas, shyam paramar, jagadish vora adi un ke prabhav men the. muktibodh ne mazadooron se vastavik sampark sthapit kiya aur unase ghulamil kar rahe. aksar kasht men pade sathiyon aur sahityik bandhuon ke lie daud-dhoop karate. masalan 'natavar' ji ke lie un ki daud-dhoop ki, bat chalati hai to, log yad karate hain.

pragatishil kavi

muktibodh smarak

muktibodh moolat: kavi hain. unaki alochana unake kavi vyaktitv se hi ni:srit aur paribhashit hai. vahi usaki shakti aur sima hai. unhonne ek or pragativad ke kathamullepan ko ubhar kar samane rakha, to doosari or nayi kavita ki hrasonmukhi pravrittiyon ka pardafash kiya. yahan unaki alochana drishti ka painapan aur maulikata asandigdh hai. unaki saiddhantik aur vyavaharik samiksha men tejasvita hai. jayashnkar prasad, shamasher, kunvar narayan jaise kaviyon ki unhonne jo alochana ki hai, usamen paryapt vicharottejakata hai aur virodhi drishti rakhane vale bhi unase bahut kuchh sikh sakate hain. kavy ki srijan prakriya par unaka nibandh mahattvapoorn hai. khasakar phaintesi ka jaisa vivechan unhonne kiya hai, vah atyant gahan aur tatvik hai. unhonne nayi kavita ka apana shastr hi gadh dala hai. par ve nire shastriy alochak nahin hain. unaki kavita ki hi tarah unaki alochana men bhi vahi charamata hai, eeman aur anubhav ki vahi paradarshita hai, jo pratham shreni ke lekhakon men paee jati hai. unhonne apani alochana dvara aise anek tathyon ko udghatit kiya hai, jin par sadharanat: dhyan nahin diya jata raha. 'jadibhoot saundaryabharuchi' tatha 'vyakti ke ant:karan ke snskar men usake parivar ka yogadan' udaharan ke roop men ginae ja sakate hain. daau. namavar sinh ji ke shabdon men - "nee kavita men muktibodh ki jagah vahi hai ,jo chhayavad men nirala ki thi. nirala ke saman hi muktibodh ne bhi apani yug ke samany kavy-moolyon ko pratiphalit karane ke sath hi unaki sima ki chunauti dekar us sarjanatmak vishishtata ko charitarth kiya, jisase samakalin kavy ka sahi moolyankan ho saka."

kritiyan

muktibodh

muktibodh hindi ke ativishisht rachanakar hain. unhen umr zaroor kam mili, par kavita, kahani aur alochana men unhonne yug badal dene vala kam kiya. pahali bar vah vyavasthit roop men ‘agyey’ dvara snpadit ‘tar saptak’ men apani kavitaon ke sath upasthit hue. yah behad durbhagyapoorn tha ki unake jivanakal men unaki kavita ki koee kitab nahin prakashit ho paee. unake jivit rahate unaki sirf ek kitab chhapi, yah thi ‘ek sahityik ki dayari.’ isake bavazood bad men ve aise vilakshan rachanakar sabit hue jinake likhe ki goonj paravarti kavita, vichar, alochana ya kahani sabamen badhati hi chali gee. sanh 1954 men unhonne nagapur vishvavidyalay se hindi men em. e. kiya, jisake phalasvaroop rajanandaganv ke digvijay kaaulej men niyukt hue. unaki kuchh atyant mahattvapoorn kritiyan yahin likhi geen. unaki kritiyon ke nam is prakar hai:-[3]

kahani kavitaen
gajanan madhav 'muktibodh' ki pustaken

ek sahityik ki dayari

kath ka sapana

chand ka munh tedha hai

bhoori bhoori khak dhool

vipatr

satah se uthata adami

sahityik parichay

muktibodh smarak

muktibodh ko apane jivan kal men n to bahut pahachan mili aur n hi unaka koee bhi kavita sngrah prakashit ho saka. lekin unaki asamay mrith‍yu ke bad achanak hi muktibodh hindi sahity ke paridrishh‍y par chha gaye. sabase pahale unaki kavitayen agyey dvara snpadit ‘tar saph‍tak’ (1943) men prakashit huee thin. muktibodh ne kahani, kavita, upanyas, alochana adi vidhaon men likha aur har kshetr men unaka hash‍takshep alag se mahasoos kiya ja sakata hai. unh‍hen pragativad, prayogavad, nayi kavita adi sahityik andolanon ke sath jodakar dekha jata hai. ‘andhere men’ aur ‘brahmarakshas’ muktibodh ki sarvadhik mahath‍vapoorn rachanayen mani jati hain. ‘brahmarakshas’ kavita men kavi ne ‘brahmarakshas’ ke mithak ke jariye buddhijivi varg ke dvndv aur am janata se usake alagav ki vh‍yatha ka marmik chitran kiya hai. is kavita ke sndesh ko yadi ek pnkti men vh‍yakh‍t karana ho to kaha ja sakata hai ki ‘achh‍chhe v bure ke sngharsh se bhi ugratar / achh‍chhe v usase adhik achh‍chhe bich ka sngar’. lagabhag inh‍hin ashayon ki kahani ‘brahmarakshas ka shishh‍y’ bhi unh‍honne likhi.
kaha ja sakata hai ki ye kavitaen nirala ki snvedanashilata aur kabir ke akkhadapan ka adbhut sammishran hain. muktibodh ki rachanaen srijan ka visphot hain. ve sajag chitrakar ki bhanti duniya ka sundaratam ukerana chahate hain. ve chahate hain ujali-ujali ibarat, magar andhere bar-bar unaki rah rok lete hain. andhere ke chakravyooh men ghire ve abhimanyoo ki tarah akele hi joojhate hain, anavarat lagatar. yah yuddh kabhi khatm nahin hota, chalata hi rahata hai unake bhitar. ve ladate hain ajivan kyonki unhen lagata hai ki un jaison ke hath men sach ki virasat hai, jise unhen ane vale samay ko, pidhi ko jyon ka tyon saunpana hai.

Blockquote-open.gif muktibodh hindi snsar ki ek ghatana ban ge. kuchh aisi ghatana jisaki or se ankhen moond lena asambhav tha. unaka ekanishth sngharsh, unaki atoot sachchaee, unaka poora jivan, sabhi ek sath hamari bhavanaon ke kendriy mnch par samane ae aur sabhi ne unake kavi hone ko nee drishti se dekha. kaisa jivan tha vah aur aise usaka ant kyon hua. aur vah samuchit khyati se ab tak vnchit kyon raha? Blockquote-close.gif

‘ve ate honge log....
are jinake hathon men tumhen saunpane hi honge
ye maun upekshit ratn
matr tab tak
keval tab tak
tum chhipa chalo dhuriman unhen tam guha tale
o snvedan may gyan nag
kundali mar tum daba rakho
phootati rashmiyan.‘
've ate hi hone lo
jinhen tum doge dena hi hoga poora hisab
apana sabaka, man ka, jan ka'[1]

andhere men

‘andhere men’ muktibodh ki antim kavita hai aur shayad sabase mahath‍vapoorn bhi. is kavita men sath‍ta aur bauddhak varg ke bich gathajod, unake benakab hone, sath‍ta dvara logon par daman, purane ke dhh‍vns par naye ke srijan, itihas ke bare men nayi antardrishti adi dekhane ko milati hai. ‘andhere men’ sh‍vatntrata ke bad ke bharat ke do dashakon ka akhh‍yan nahin hai, usamen hamara snpoorn a‍tit mukharit hota suna ja sakata hai. shayad yahi vajah hai ki muktibodh ko ‘sabhh‍yata samiksha’ shabh‍d bahut priy hai. ve vartaman ki ghatanaon ko mahaz ek asnbaddh ghatana ki tarah nahin balki usake pichhe ki poori karyakaran shrrinkhala ke bataur samajhane ki koshish karate hain. jab ve is prakriya ka anusaran karate hain, to unaki kavitayen lnbi hoti chali jati hai. unh‍honne khud bhi likha hai ki unaki jo bhi kavitayen chhoti hain, ve chhoti nahin balki adhoori hain.

gady lekhan

muktibodh rachanavali

muktibodh ne kavitaon ke alava kahaniyan bhi likhin. unaki kahaniyan bhi kavitaon ka hi vish‍tar aur kee bar unaka poorvabhh‍yas lagati hain. kahaniyon men bhi vahi jatilata aur snshlishh‍t binbon vali bhasha maujood hai, jo unaki kavitaon ki vishishh‍tata hai. muktibodh ne hindi alochana men bhi mahath‍vapoorn yogadan kiya. unh‍honne ‘kamayani : ek punarvichar’ push‍tak ke jariye kamayani par chali a rahi tamam bahason ko ek naye sh‍tar tak utha diya. unh‍honne kamayani ko ek vishal phaintesi ke roop men padhane ki koshish ki, jisamen dhahate hue samnti moolh‍yon ki chhaya sh‍pashh‍t dekhi ja sakati hai. ramadhari sinh dinakar ki push‍tak ‘urvashi’ par chali bahas men unaka hash‍takshep bahut karagar tha, jisamen unh‍honne ‘urvashi’ ko vh‍yarth men mahimamndit karane ka tikha prativad kiya. muktibodh ne bhakti andolan ka bhi naye sire se moolh‍yankan kiya aur sh‍thapit kiya ki yah moolat: nichali jatiyon ka shoshak jatiyon ke khilaf vidroh tha. bad men shoshak jatiyon ne is andolan par niyntran hasil kar liya aur bhakti andolan poori tarah bikhar gaya. unh‍honne sahith‍y ki rachana prakriya ke bare men bhi mahath‍vapoorn lekhan kiya. rachana-prakriya ke sndarbh men ‘kala ka tisara kshan’ hindi sahity ki badi upalabdhi hai.[4]

gotrahin kavi

muktibodh gotrahin kavi hain. hindi men unaka koee poorvaj nahin khoja ja sakata. asal men unake poorvaj tolsatoy, dostovaski, gorki ityadi roosi upanyasakar the. aisa koee kavi pahale nahin hua jisaki prerana kavita ke alava upanyason se aee ho. muktibodh ke bad bhi kisi ne us tarah ke shilp men utani kavita likhane ki himmat nahin ki, kyonki un jaisa likhana vaise bhi snbhav nahin tha. is tarah apane samay ke andhere ko pahachanane ki cheshta karana, apane samay ke andhere ko tatolana aur us andhere men apani hissedari, apani shirakat ko, atm-nirmamata ko svikar karana, muktibodh se sikha ja sakata hai. bisavin sadi ke mahanh bharatiy lekhakon men muktibodh ka nam hamesha rahega.[5]

nidhan

muktibodh smarak

muktibodh ki ruchi adhyayan-adhyapan, patrakarita, samasamayik rajanitik evn sahity ke vishayon par lekhan men thi. 1942 ke asapas ve vamapnthi vicharadhara ki or jhuke aur shujalapur men rahate hue unaki vamapnthi chetana majaboot huee. ajivan garibi se ladate hue aur rogon ka mukabala karate hue 11 sitambar, 1964 ko nee dilli men muktibodh ki mrityu ho gayi.

muktibodh smarak

11 sitnbar, 1964 ko apani mrity se pahale tak muktibodh apane nivas sthan par rahe jise ab muktibodh smarak bana diya gaya hai. muktibodh smarak men sthit unaka ek tailachitr bhi maujood hai. yahan se ranisagar ka nazara dikhata hai. muktibodh smarak men sthit chakkaradar sidhiyan bhi hain, jinake binb unaki kavitaon men kee bar ae hain.[6]kuchh vidvanh muktibodh ko markh‍savadi aur samajavadi vicharon se prabhavit batate hain, to kuchh unh‍hen astith‍vavad se prabhavit batate hain. daau. ramavilas sharma ne unh‍hen astith‍vavad se prabhavit batate hue unaki kavitaon ko kharij kiya hai, lekin muktibodh pragatishil andolan ke chhinh‍n-bhinh‍n hone ke bad bhi pragatishil moolh‍yon par khade rahe. adhunikatavad aur vh‍yaktivad ke jariye samaj ki chinta ko sahith‍y se pare dhakelane ki koshishon ka unh‍honne virodh kiya. muktibodh ke bad ke kaviyon par unaka vh‍yapak asar hai. anek vishh‍vavidyalayon men muktibodh ki kavitaon v alochana par shodh kary hue hain aur ho rahe hain. nirdeshak mani kaul ne unaki kahani ‘sahat se uthata adami’ par ek filh‍m ka nirman kiya. 2004 men muktibodh, padumalal punnalal bakhshi aur baladev mishr ki sh‍mriti men rajanandaganv men ek sh‍marak ka nirman kiya gaya.[4]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 muktibodh ki kavita- madhyavargiy sngharsh aur vishamataon ki takat ka akhyan (hindi) phalgun vishv. abhigaman tithi: 23 disambar, 2014.
  2. hindikunj (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) hindi kunj. abhigaman tithi: 12 navnbar, 2010.
  3. gajanan madhav muktibodh (hindi) hindi samay. abhigaman tithi: 26 aktoobar, 2014.
  4. 4.0 4.1 muktibodh (hindi) sahapidiya. abhigaman tithi: 27 aktoobar, 2014.
  5. vajapeyi, ashok. muktibodhah 'ek gotrahin kavi' (hindi) bibisi hindi. abhigaman tithi: 25 disambar, 2014.
  6. gajanan madhav muktibodh jahan rahate the... (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) amar ujala. abhigaman tithi: 26 aktoobar, 2014.

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