आलोचना (साहित्य)  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

alochana shabd 'luch' dhatu se bana hai. 'luch' ka arth hota hai- 'dekhana'. isilie kisi vastu ya kritiki samyakh vyakhya, usaka moolyankan adi karana hi 'alochana' hai- "a samntath lochanamh avalokanamh iti alochanamh. samiksha aur samalochana shabdon ka bhi yahi arth hai. angrezi ke 'kritisijm' shabd ke samanarthi roop men 'alochana' ka vyavahar hota hai. bharat ki prachin bhasha snskrit men prachalit 'tika-vyakhya' aur kavy-siddhant adi ke niroopan ke lie bhi alochana shabd ka prayog kar liya jata hai, kintu achary ramachndr shukl ka spasht mat hai ki "adhunik alochana, snskrit ke kavy-siddhant niroopan se svatntr chiz hai.

alochana ka kary

alochak kisi kavi ya lekhak ki kriti ko dekhata hai ya parakhata hai. alochana kavi ya lekhak aur pathak ke bich ki shrinkhala hai. rajashekhar ne kavikarm ko prakash men lana hi bhavayitri pratibha athava alochak ki pratibha kaha hai. alochana ka kary hai kisi sahityik rachana ki achchhi tarah pariksha karake usake roop, gun aur arthavyavastha ka nirdharan karana.[1]

"yadi ham sahity ko jivan ki vyakhya manen to alochana ko us vyakhya ki vyakhya manana padega."

yani ki 'alochana ka karttavy sahityik kriti ki vishleshanaparak vyakhya hai. sahityakar jivan aur anubhav ke jin tatvon ke snshleshan se sahity ki rachana karata hai, alochana unhin tatvon ka vishleshan karati hai. sahity men jahan ragatatv pradhan hai, vahan alochana men buddhi tatv. alochana aitihasik, samajik, rajanitik paristhitiyon aur shaktiyon ka bhi akalan karati hai aur sahity par unake padane vale prabhavon ki vivechana karati hai. vyaktigat ruchi ke adhar par kisi kriti ki ninda ya prashnsa karana alochana ka dharm nahin hai. kriti ki vyakhya aur vishleshan ke lie alochana men paddhati aur pranali ka mahattv hota hai. alochana karate samay alochak apane vyaktigat rag-dvesh, ruchi-aruchi se tabhi bach sakata hai, jab vah paddhati ka anusaran kare. vah tabhi vastunishth hokar sahity ke prati nyay kar sakata hai. is drishti se hindi men achary ramachandr shukl ko sarvashreshth alochak mana jata hai.

prakar

adhikanshat: alochana karate samay jin manyataon aur paddhatiyon ko svikar kiya jata hai, unake anusar alochana ke prakar vikasit ho jate hain. isake nimnalikhit char prakar svikar kiye ge hain-

  1. saiddhantik
  2. nirnayatmak
  3. prabhavabhivynjak
  4. vyakhyatmak

saiddhantik alochana

is alochana men sahity ke siddhanton par vichar hota hai. isamen prachin shastriy kavy ke angon, jaise- ras, alnkar adi aur sahity ki adhunik manyataon tatha niyamon ki mukhy roop se vivechana ki jati hai. saiddhantik alochana men vichar ka bindu yah hai ki sahity ka manadnd shastriy hai ya aitihasik. manadnd ka shastriy roop, sthir aur aparivartanashil hota hai. kintu manadndon ko aitihasik shreni manane par unaka svaroop parivartanashil aur vikasatmak hota hai. in donon prakar ki saiddhantik alochanaen upalabdh hain, kintu ab usi saiddhantik alochana ka mahattv adhik hai, jo sahity ke tatvon aur niyamon ki aitihasik prakriya men pragatishil hoti hai.[1]

nirnayatmak alochana

is prakar ki alochana men nishchit siddhanton ke adhar par jab sahity ke gun-dosh, shreshth-nikrisht ka nirnay kar diya jata hai, tab use nirnayatmak alochana kahate hain. ise ek prakar ki naitik alochana bhi mana jata hai. isaka mukhy svabhav nyayadhish ki tarah sahityik kritiyon par nirnay dena hai. aisi alochana pray: hi siddhant ka yantrik dhng se upayog karati hai. isalie nirnayatmak alochana ka mahattv kam ho jata hai. yadyapi mooly ya shreshth sahity aur nikrisht sahity ka bodh paida karana alochana ke pradhan dharmon men se ek hai, lekin vah siddhanton ke yantrik upayog se snbhav nahin hai.

prabhavabhivynjak alochana

is alochana men kavy ka jo prabhav alochak ke man par padata hai, use vah sajile pad-vinyas men vyakt kar deta hai. isamen vaiyaktik ruchi hi mukhy hai. achary ramachandr shukl ke anusar-

"prabhavabhivynjak samalochana koee thik-thikane ki vastu nahin hai, n gyan ke kshetr men usaka mooly hai n bhav ke kshetr men."

vyakhyatmak

vyakhyatmak alochana men kisi sahityik kriti men nihit anubhav ki vastavikata aur usake kala-vivek ko samajhane ka prayatn kiya jata hai. vyakhyatmak alochana men kavita aur sahity tatha usake siddhanton ko antim aur poorn nahin man liya jata hai. vah manati hai ki jivan aur gyan ke vikasaman sndarbh men sahity aur usake manadnd bhi vikasit hote rahate hain. isalie vyakhyatmak alochana sahity par vichar aur vishleshan karate samay itihas, samajashastr, manovigyan adi ka upayog avashyak roop se karati hai. is prakar ki alochana men jab kriti ki vyakhya karate samay usaki aitihasik prishthabhoomi par adhik bal ho to use aitihasik alochana kaha jata hai. isi prakar jab manovigyan ke tatvon par bal dekar kriti ki vastavikata ki vyakhya hoti hai to use manovaigyanik alochana kahate hain.[1]

pragativadi alochana

sahity ki vyakhya-sarahana jab aitihasik aur dvandvatmak bhautikavad ke adhar par hoti hai, jisamen samaj ki vargiy sthitiyon aur sngharshon se manushy ke anubhav ka nirman hota hai, tab use 'pragativadi alochana' kaha jata hai. vartaman kal men roopavadi aur snrachanavadi alochana ka bhi chalan ho gaya hai. is koti ki alochana men sahity ka roopapaksh aur rachana-vinyas hi mukhy hota hai. yah alochana sahity men 'bhav vastu', jise angrezi men kntent kaha jata hai, ko gaun manati hai.

alochala ka uddeshy

  1. lekhak apani rachana ke madhyam se kya kahana chahata hai.
  2. lekhak apane kathy ko snpreshit karane men saphal ho saka hai ya nahin, yadi saphal hua hai to kis sima tak saphal hua hai. isake sath-sath yah bhi mahattvapoorn hai ki rachanakar apani rachana ke madhyam se jo kuchh bhi abhivyakt karana chahata hai, ya kar paya hai, usaki prasngikata kya hai? vah abhivyakt karane yogy bhi hai ya nahin? alochana ke usi uddeshy ko dhyan men rakh kar daau. shyamasundar das ne likha tha- "yadi ham sahity ko jivan ki vyakhya manen, to alochana ko us vyakhya ki vyakhya manana padega." daau. nagendr ke shabdon men, "...ham yah dekhane ka prayas karate hain ki jo mooly rachanakar ne rachana men moortiman kiye hai unaka manav jagath ke sath kya snbndh hai, athava lok.chetana ke sndarbh men kisi bhi bhanti ki chetana ka kya mooly hai."[2]

bahudha alochana ko rachanakar vyaktigat alochana man kar du:khi, nirash ya naraj ho jata hai. kuchh alochak bhi apani alochana ke madhyam se kisi rachanakar ko uthane aur kisi ko girane ke lie prayatn karate hain. kintu is sndarbh men yah bat mahattvapoorn hai ki svasth alochana vyaktigat rag-dvesh se rahit hoti hai. svasth alochana sada rachana se snbndh rakhati hai. rachanakar aur alochak ke vyaktigat snbndhon se vah prabhavit nahin honi chahie. "alochana svasth man se sahity ya kala ka adhyayan karana aur usake saundary ko parakhana sikhati hai. yahi usaka param kartavy hai."[3]

achchhe alochak ke gun

ek achchhe alochak men in gunon ka hona avashyak hai- nishpakshata, sahas, sahanubhootipoorn drishtikon, itihas aur vartaman ka samyak gyan, deshi-videshi sahity aur kalaon ka gyan, snvedanashilata, adhyayanashilata aur mananashilata. in gunon ke abhav men korhi alochak kisi rachana ke oopari gun-dosh to rekhankit kar sakata hai, usake andar tak paith pane ki kshamata usake pas nahin hoti. aisi pallavagrahi alochanaen n to pathakon ko korhi disha de pati hain aur n hi rachana ke sath nyay kar pati hain." ...nisht rachana utani hanikarak nahin hoti jitani ek nisht alochana." [4]

alochana tatha kavyashastr men antar

alochana aur kavyashastr ke antar ko samajhane ke lie kavyashastr ke arth ko samajhana bhi avashyak hai.

kavyashastr

arth-kavy ya sahity ka moolyankan karane vala ya sahity saundary ki parakh karane vala shastra (vidha) kavyashastr kahalata hai." hindi sahity kosh men bhi kavyashastr ka yahi arth diya gaya hai. kavy ke anushilan ke lie jis shastra ka gyan avashyak hai, vahi kavyashastr hai. kavyashastri rajashekhar ka mat hai- jaise dipak ke prakash ke bina padarthon ka gyan pratyaksh nahin ho sakata usi prakar shastr-gyan ke bina kavy-gyan asnbhav hai. age usaki vyakhya karate hue likha hai-"shabd aur arth ke sahabhav ko batane vali vidha (shastr) sahity vidha hai. is prakar kavyashastr ke antargat kavy-sahity ke un manadndon par vichar kiya jata hai jinake adhar par kisi rachana ki pariksha ki ja sake. bharatiy kavyashastr men anek drishtikonon se in mapadndon par vichar kiya jata raha hai. jaise- kavy ki atma kya hai- ras, alnkar, dhvani, vakroti ka auchity? kavy ke hetu kya hain? kavy ke lakshan kaun se hain? kis prakar ki kavita kaun se chhndon men bandhane yogy hai? kavy ka roop kya hai? bad men nayak-nayika bhed bhi is shastr se jud gaye. pashchim men bhi anek vicharakon ne in prashnon par vichar kiya. arastoo, pleto, kroche, maithyoo arnald, arhi.e. richardas adi anek nam is sndarbh men ginaye ja sakate hain. in sabhi kavyashastriyon ke nishkarsh apane samay ke sahity aur paristhitiyon ke pariprekshy men the.
alochana mukhy roop se do prakar ki hoti hai- saiddhantik alochana aur vyavaharik alochana. saiddhantik alochana ek prakar se kavyashastr ka hi doosara nam hai. lekin yah alochana ka keval ek paksh hai. keval siddhant. vivechan alochana nahin hai, aur n hi bane-banaye siddhanton ke adhar par sada sahity-samiksha ki ja sakati hai. samay aur paristhitiyon ke anusar ye siddhant aur unake bndhan badalate aur tootate rahate hain. bharatamuni ne apane naty shastr men bahut se drishyon aur prasngon ka nishedh kiya tha, parntu aj ke natakon men ve nishiddh prasng maujood hain. kisi samay dhirodattata nayak ka anivary gun tha, kintu aj yah aprasngik hai. nayi kavita, nayi kahani, akavita-akahani ke nayak khndit, toote-parajit aur kshubdh hain. adhunik sahity men am adami aur usaki samasyaon par rachanakar ki drishti kendrit hai, rajaon, rajakumaron ke prem-prasngon aur yuddhon par nahin. chhnd aur alnkar shastr men parngat hona kisi samay kaviyon ki pratibha ki kasauti tha, parntu aj ki kavita, chhndon-alnkaron ke kathor anushasan se mukt hai. bharatiy parnpara men pray: sabhi rachanaon ka ant, sukhamay hota tha, kintu pashchim ke prabhav se du:khant rachanaon ko bhi mahattv milane laga. madhyakal tak ke sahity ki pariksha kisi sima tak kavyashastriy manakon ke adhar par ki ja sakati hai, lekin adhunik kal ke sahity ke lie unhin manakon ko poornat: adhar nahin banaya ja sakata. doosare jo siddhant ya manak kavita ke lie banaye gaye hain, ve sahity ki any vidhaon- katha sahity, yatra-vritraant, snsmaran, riportaj adi-ke lie bhi upayukt ho yah avashyak nahin hai. vyavaharik alochana men kabhi siddhanton ka sahara liya jata hai, kabhi rachanakar ke jivan or usaki paristhitiyon ka, kabhi itihas aur samajashastr ka aur kabhi us rachana ke samagr prabhav ka.[5]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 alochana (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 5 march, 2013. baboo shyamasundar das ne alochana ki paribhasha in shabdon men di hai-
  2. manaviki paribhashiki kosh, sahity khnd, pri. 65
  3. hindi sahity kosh, khnd 1e pri. 122
  4. hindi sahity kosh, sahity.khnd, pri. 122
  5. mohan, daau. mnjula. adhunik alochana (hindi) Hindi. abhigaman tithi: 3 apral, 2015.

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