यात्रा साहित्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

manushy jatiyon ka itihas unaki yayavari pravritti se sambaddh hai. sambhavat: yah manav ki ek mool pravritti hai. prarambh men yah usake lie avashyak bhi thi. parntu usake saundaryabodh ke vikas ke sath chaturdik phaile hue jagath ka akarshan bhi usake lie badhata gaya hai. yahan ke deshon men vividhata hai, rituon men parivartan hota hai aur sath-sath hi prakriti ke roopon men vibhinnata aur saundary ka vaichitry hai. isake atirikt sarjan men svat: ek gati hai, jisake sath tal milakar chalana svat: ek ullas hai. is prakar saundaryabodh ki drishti se ullas ki bhavana se prerit hokar yatra karane vale yayavar ek prakar se sahityik manovritti ke mane ja sakate hain aur unaki mukt abhivyakti ko yatra sahity kaha jata hai.

sahityik yayavar

sahityik yayavar ko ek adbhut akarshan apani aur khinchata hai. vah mntramugdh ki bhanti usaki aur khinch jata hai. snsar ke log is pukar ko sun nahin pate ya sunakar bhi anasuna kar dete hain. ve chalate hain, yatra karate hain, par ve teli ke bail ki tarah apane bhar ke sath kolhoo ke charon or ghoomane men hi apane parishram ki sarthakata man baithate hain. par sahityik yayavar mukt manovritti ke sath ghoomata hai, usaki yatra ghumakkadi ka arth apane ap poorn hota hai.[1]

ghumakkad

snsar ke bade-bade yayavar apani manovritti men sahityik the. fahyan, hven tsang, itsing, ibn batoota, alaberooni, markopolo, barniyar aur tavaraniyar adi jitane bhi prasiddh ghumakkad hue hain athava desh-videsh ke sahasi anveshak hue hain, sab men 'sahityik yayavar' ka roop rakshit hai. ve ni:sngabhav se ghoomate rahe hain. ghoomana hi unake lie pradhan uddeshy raha hai. yatra karane matr se koee sahityik yayavar ki sngya nahin prapt kar sakata aur na hi yatra ka vivaran prastut kar dena matr 'yatra sahity' hai.

pichhale yug ke yatri

pichhale yugon ke yatriyon men rajanitik, dharmik, samajik athava sanskritik drishti ko pradhanata mili hai, parntu inake bich men aise snsmaraniy ansh bhi hain, jinase unaki antarik prerana ka abhas mil jata hai. bharat men yatriyon ki kami nahin rahi hai, kyonki tibbat, chin, brahm desh(barma) , malaya aur sudoor poorv ke dvipon men bharatiy dharm aur snskriti ka sandesh in yatriyon ke pichhe gaya hoga, par bharatiy drishti men itihas, vivaran, snsmaran tatha atmacharit ke prati vichitr anastha arambh se rahi hai. sambhat: yahi pradhan karan hai ki bharatiy sahity men uparyukt angon ke sath yatra-vivaranon ka nitant abhav hai. parntu kalidas ke vibhinn deshon tatha prakritik roopon ke varnanon se unaki yayavari manovritti ka parichay milata hai. ban ki ghumakkad pravritti ki abhivyakti unake 'harshacharit' tatha 'kadambari' ke desh-desh ki prakriti aur nana prakar ke logon ke varnanon men huee hai. adhunik hindi sahity men yah roop bhi kee any roopon ke sath pashchaty sahity ke sampark men ane ke bad hi vikasit hua hai.[1]

yatra sahity ka vikas

prarambhik lekhakon ne yatra vivaran lekh roop men prastut kiye hain. bharatendu harishchandr ne is prakar ke ullekh kiye hain. parntu yatra sahity ka vikas shuddh nibandhon ki shaili se mana ja sakata hai. nibandh shaili ke vyaktiparakata, svachchhandata tatha atmiyata adi gun yatra sahity men bhi paye jate hain. nibandhakar jis prakar apane vishay ko apani manasik snvedak sthiti men grahan karata aur usi ki prerana se vistar bhi deta hain, bilkul usi prakar yatri bhi apani yatra ke pratyek sthal aur kshanon men se unhin kshanon ko snjota hai, jinako vah anubhoot saty ke roop men grahan karata hai. vah sarvasadharan ki drishti se pratyek bat ka vivaran dekar nahin chalata aur yadi vivaran tatha vistar dena hi hota hai to vah unhen apane bhavavesh men prastut karata hai athava atmiyata ke vatavaran men upasthit karata hai.

pithika

yatri apane sahity men snvedanashil hokar bhi nirapeksh karata hai. aisa n hone par yatra ke sthan par yatri ke adhik pradhan ho uthane ki sambhavana hai. yatra men svat: sthan, drishy, pradesh, nagar, gram adi mukharit hote hain. unaka apana vyaktitv ubharata hai. is path par milane par milane vale nar-nari, bachche-boodhe apane nanavidh charitron ke sath usake vyaktitv ko adhik spandit aur mukharit karate hain. marg men padane vale mandiron, masjidon, minaron, vijay-stambhon, smarakon, maqabaron, qilon aur purane mahalon se snskriti, kala aur itihas ke upakaranon ko jutakar yatra ki pithika taiyar hoti hai. phir bhi apane ko adrishy bhav se sarvatr rakhana hi hota hai. yatri apani yatra ko manasik pratikriyaon ke roop men hi grahan karata hai. apane ko kendr men rakhakar bhi pramukh n hone dena sahityik yayavar ka kartavy hai, kyonki yadi lekhak ka vyaktitv ubharega to any sab gaun ho jayaga aur yatra sahity n hokar atmacharit hi rah jayaga. yatra snsmaran n rahakar atm-snsmaran ho jayaga.[1]

gayakon ka bhavavesh v nibandhakar ki masti

yatri men, pragiton ke gayakon ka-sa bhavavesh aur nibandhakar ki-si masti rahati hai. vah laparavahi aur mauj se jivan ke prati ek vishesh drishtikon rakhata hai. is bat ko adhunik yatra sahity ke yatriyon ne mukt kanth se ghoshit bhi kiya hai. mahapandit rahul sankrityayan ke anusar-

"jisane ek bar ghumakkad dharm apana liya, use paishan kahan, use vishram kahan? akhir men haddiyan katate hi bikhar jayngi." - 'kinnar desh men'
  • devendr satyarthi yatra ke ahvan ko sun rahe hain-
"mera path mere samane hai. main jivit manav ka paksh leta hoon.... jivan aj usi yatra ke lie ahvan kar raha hai." - 'rath ke pahiye'
  • deveshachandr das yatra ko mukti ke roop men grahan karate hain-
"aj chhutti hai, chhutti. man-hi-man jis vasnt-vyakulata ka anubhav karata tha, usase aj bandhan mukt hooonga. kam ki badha door ho gayi, vah kisi prakar kyon n huee ho- andhi men udakar athava varsha men ghulakar- aur main anirdisht path par bahar nikal aya hoon." - 'yooropa'
  • 'agyey' jivan ko yayavar ka chirntan path manakar kahate hain-
"yayavar ko bhatakate chalis baras ho gaye, kintu is bich n to vah apane pairon-tale ghas jamane de saka hai, n thath jama saka hai, n kshitij ko kuchh nikat la saka hai. usake tare chhoone ki to bat hi kya. yayavar ne samajha hai ki devata bhi jahan mandiron men ruke ki shila ho gaye, aur pran-snchar ki pahali shart hai gati: gati: gati." - 'are yayavar, rahega yad'

shaili tatha uddeshy

yatra sahity vibhinn shailiyon men likha gaya hai aur usake vibhinn roop paye jate hain. is vishay men kuchh aisa sahity hai, jo keval yatropayogi sahity kaha ja sakata hai aur jisaka uddeshy vibhinn deshon athava sthanon ka vistrit aur vyapak parichay dena rahata hai. inamen bhi kuchh parichayatmak adhik rahata hai aur kuchh yatra ke lie anyon ko prerana dene ke lie hota hai. rahul sankrityayan[2], svami pranavanand[3], shivanandan sahay[4], gopal nevatiya[5], bhikshu dharmarakshit[6] adi ka yatra sahity isi koti men ata hai. parntu inake yatra varnanon men bhi sthan-sthan par bhavaveg, ullas, atmiyata adi ki abhivyakti payi jati hai.

kuchh yatriyon ka uddeshy desh-vishesh ke vyapak jivan ko usake sampoorn pariprekshon men ubharana rahata hai. inamen satyanarayan[7], yashapal[8], jagadishachandr jain[9], rajavallabh ojha[10], govind das[11] adi lekhak hain. inhonne desh ke prakritik roop aur sanskritik jivan ko ek sath abhivyakt karane ka prayatn kiya hai, desh ki samajik, rajanitik, arthik sthitiyon par apane niji vicharon ya prabhavon ko vyakt kiya hai. in lekhakon ki shaili pray: yatharth chitran ki hai aur ye kramash: yatra men padane vale nagaron, sthanon, drishyon ka varnan prastut karate chalate hain aur un sthanon ke jivan par bhi prakash dalate hain. parntu inamen kee sthalon par lekhak apane prabhavon aur bhavatmak pratikriyaon ka bhi samavesh karata hai.

snsmaranatmak sahity

adhikatar yatra sahity snsmaranatmak hota hai aur isamen yatri apane prabhavon, pratikriyaon aur snvedanaon ko mahattv deta hai. bhagavatasharan upadhyay[12], amrit ray[13], rangey raghav[14] tatha ramavriksh benipuri[15] adi isi koti ke lekhak hain, jinhonne apani yatra men apani drishti, apani pratikriyaon tatha snvedanaon ko adhik mahattv diya aur desh ke jivan, paristhitiyon tatha patron ko isi drishti se dekha hai. isi karan apekshakrit in kritiyon men adhik sahityik akarshan hai.[1]

prakriti saundary

kuchh yatri prakriti saundary tatha usake jivan se adhik akarshit tatha abhibhoot hote hain. unake sahity men usi ki abhivyakti pradhan hoti hai. kaka kalelakar ki 'himalay yatra', hns kumar tivari ka 'bhoosvarg kashmir', shrinidhi ki 'shivalik ki ghatiyon' men adhikatar yahi saundary hai. samanyat: yatra sahity men prakriti ka saundary sarvatr ek mahattvapoorn sthan rakhata hai.

samagr jivan ki abhivyakti

kuchh aise yayavar bhi hain, jo apane yatra sahity ko samagr jivan ki abhivyakti ke roop men grahan karate hain. unake lie prakriti sajiv hai, yatra men milane vale patr atmiy, svajan ho jate hain. ve desh ki atma ka sakshatkar karate hain. ve desh-desh men bikhare hue itihas ko, snskriti ko, samaj ko apani anubhooti ka ang banakar abhivyakt karate hain. unake yatra sahity men mahakavy aur upanyas ka virat tattv, kahani ka akarshan, gitikavy ki mohak bhavashilata, snsmaranon ki atmiyata, nibandhon ki mukti, sab ek sath mil jati hai. utkrisht yatra sahity aisa hi hota hai. 'agyey' ke 'are yayavar rahega yad' men aisa hi saundary tatha akarshan hai. isake sath deveshachandr das ki 'yooropa' tatha 'rajavade', mohan rakesh ki 'akhiri chattan tak', 'hari ghati', 'ek boond sahasa uchhali', 'gete ke desh men' adi ka nam bhi liya ja sakata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 hindi sahity kosh, bhag 1 |prakashak: gyanamandal limited, varanasi |snkalan: bharatakosh pustakalay |snpadan: daau. dhirendr varma |prishth snkhya: 512 |
  2. 'himalay-parichay', 'meri yoorop-yatra' adi.
  3. 'kailas-manasarovar'
  4. 'kailas-darshan'
  5. 'bhoomandal-yatra'
  6. 'nepal-yatra, lnka-yatra'
  7. 'avare ki yoorop-yatra'
  8. 'lohe ki divar ke donon or'
  9. chini janata ke bich
  10. 'badalate drishy'
  11. 'sudoor dakshin-poorv'
  12. 'vo duniya'
  13. 'subah ke rng'
  14. 'toophanon ke bich'
  15. 'pairon me pnkh bandhakar' tatha 'hava par'

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