दुर्ग  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(क़िला se punarnirdeshit)
Disamb2.jpg durg ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- durg (bahuvikalpi)

durg shabd ka tatpary hai aisa gadh jahan pahunchana kathin ho. yuddh ke tarikon men parivartan ke sath durg ka arth bhi badalata raha hai, kyonki yuddh se durg ka sidha snbndh hai. kisi bhoobhag ya kshetr ki naisargik rakshatmak shakti ki vriddhi karana bhi ab durg nirman ke antargat mana jata hai.

durg (qila ya rajadhani)

manu[1]ne rajadhani ko rashtr ke poorv rakha hai. meghatithi[2] evn kulluk ka kathan hai ki rajadhani par shatru ke adhikar se bhay utpann ho jata hai, kyonki vahin sara bhojy padarth ekatr rahata hai, vahin pramukh tattv evn sainyabal ka ayojan rahata hai. at: yadi rajadhani ki raksha ki ja saki to parahast-gat rajy lauta liya ja sakata hai aur desh ki raksha ki ja sakati hai. bhale hi rajy ka kuchh bhag shatru jit le, kintu rajadhani avijit rahani chahie. rajadhani hi shasan-yntr ki dhuri hai. kuchh lekhakon ne [3]pur (rajadhani) ya durg ko rashtr ke uparant sthan diya hai. prachin yuddh parampara tatha uttar bharat ki bhaugolik sthiti ke karan hi rajy ke tattvon men rajadhani evn durgon ko itani mahatta di gee hai. rajadhani desh ki sampatti ka darpan thi aur yadi vah oonchi-oonchi divaron se sudridh rahati thi to suraksha ka kary bhi karati thi.

yagyvalky[4] ne likha hai ki durg ki sthiti se raja ki suraksha, praja evn kosh ki raksha hoti hai[5]. manu [6] ne durg ke nirman ka karan bhali-bhanti bata diya hai, durg men avasthit ek dhanurdhar sau dhanurdharon ko tatha sau dhanurdhar ek sahasr dhanurdharon ko mar gira sakate hain.[7]. rajaniti prakash dvara uddhrit brihaspati men aya hai ki apani-apani raniyon, praja evn ekatr ki huee sampatti ki raksha ke lie raja ko prakaron (divaron) evn dvar se yukt durg ka nirman karana chahie.[8]

char prakar ke durgon ka ullekh

kautily[9] ne durgon ke nirman evn unamen se kisi ek men rajadhani banane ke vishay men savistar likha hai. unhonne char prakar ke durgon ka ullekh kiya hai, yatha-

  1. audak (jal se surakshit, jo dvip-sa ho, jisake charon or jal ho)
  2. parvat (pahadi par ya gufa vala)
  3. dhanvan (marubhoomi vala, jalavihin bhoomikhnd, jahan jhad-jhnkar hon ya anurvar bhoomi ho)
  4. van-durg (jahan khnjan, jal-murgiyan hon, jal ho, jhad-jhnkar aur bent evn banson ke jhund hon).

kautily ka kahana hai ki pratham do prakar ke durg jal-snkul sthanon ko suraksha ke lie hain aur antim do prakar jngalon ki raksha ke lie hain. vayupuran [10] ne durg ke char prakar die hain.

manu ke anusar chh: prakar ke durg

manu [11], shantiparv[12], vishnudharmasootr [13], matsyapuran [14], agnipuran [15], vishnudharmottar [16], shukranitisar [17]ne chh: prakar bataye hain, yatha-

  1. dhanv durg (jal vihin, khuli bhoomi par panch yojan ke ghere men)
  2. mahidurg (sthal durg, prastar khndon ya eenton se nirmit prakaron vala, jo 12 phut se adhik chauda aur chaudaee se duguna lamba ho)
  3. jaladurg (charon or jal se avrit)
  4. varksh-durg (jo charon or se ek yojan tak kntile evn lambe-lambe vrikshon, kntile lata-gulmon evn jhadiyon se avritt ho)
  5. nridurg (jo chaturngini sena se charon or se surakshit ho)
  6. giridurg (pahadon vala durg, jis par kathinaee se chadha ja sake aur jisamen keval ek hi snkirn marg ho).

manu [18] ne giridurg ko sarvashreshth kaha hai, kintu shantiparv [19] ne nridurg ko sarvottam kaha hai, kyonki use jitana bada hi kathin hai. manasollas [20] ne prastaron, eenton evn mitti se bane any tin prakar jodakar nau durgon ka ullekh kiya hai. manu [21], sabhaparv [22], ayodhya [23], matsyapuran [24], kamandakiy nitisar [25], manasollas [26], shukranitisar [27], vishnudharmottar [28] ke anusar durg men paryapat ayudh, ann, aushadh, dhan, ghode, hathi, bharavahi pashu, brahman, shilpakar, mashinen (jo saikadon ko ek bar marati hain), jal evn bhoosa adi saman hone chahie. nitivakyamrit[29] ka kahana hai ki durg men gupt surng honi chahie, jisase gupt roop se nikala ja sake, nahin to vah bandi grih sa ho jayega, ve hi log ane-jane payen, jinake pas snket chihn hon aur jinaki huliya bhali-bhanti le li gayi ho. vishesh janakari ke lie dekhie kautily [30], rajadharmakand [31], rajadharmakaustubh [32], jahan ushana, mahabharat, matsyapuran, vishnudharmottar adi se katipay uddharan diye ge hain.[33]

vaidik kalin durg

rigved men bahudha nagaron ka ullekh hua hai. indr ne purukuts ke lie sat nagar dhvast kar dale [34]. indr ne dasyuon ko mara aur unake ayash (tamr; 'hatvi dasyoonh pur ayasirh ni tarith') ke nagaron ko nasht kar diya[35]. spasht hai, rigved ke kal men bhi prakarayukt durg hote the. kintu divaren mitti ya lakadi ki thin ya patthar, eenton ki thin; kuchh spasht roop se kaha nahin ja sakata.[36] taittiriyasnhita [37] ne asuron ke tin nagaron ka ullekh kiya hai, jo ayash, chandi evn sone (harini) ke the. shatapath brahman men varnit agnichayan men sahasron pakki eenton ki avashyakata padati thi. sindhu ghati ki nagariyon (mohanajodadon evn hadappa) men pakki eenton ka prayog hota tha[38]. rigved kal men bhi aisa paya jana asambhav nahin hoga. ramayan evn mahabharat men prakaron (divaron), toranon, attalakon (oopari mnjilon), upakulyaon adi ka ullekh rajadhaniyon ke silasile men paya jata hai. kabhi-kabhi nagaron ke nam par hi dvaron ke nam pad jate the. pandav log hastinapur ke bahar vardhamanapur dvar se gaye[39]. mahalon men nartanagar bhi hote the.[40] ramayan [41]men lnka ke sat-sat evn ath-ath mnzil vale prasadon evn pachchikaron se yukt pharshon ka ullekh milata hai. brihatasnhita [42] men vastushastr par 115 shlok aye hain, jinamen bhavanon, prasadon adi ke nirman ke vishay men lamba-chauda akhyayan paya jata hai. inamen divaron ke lie eenton ya lakadi ke prayog ki bat chalayi gee hai.[33]

puranon men

raja ki rajadhani durg ke bhitar ya sarvadha svatntr roop se nirmit ho sakati thi. manu[43], ashramavasik[44], shantiparv [45], kamandakiy nitisar [46], matsyapuran[47] evn shukranitisar [48] ne rajadhani ke nirman ke vishay men ullekh kiya hai. kautily [49] ne vistar ke sath rajadhani ke nirman ki vyavastha di hai. kautily ke mat se rajadhani ke vistar-dyotak roop men poorv se pashchim tin rajamarg tatha uttar se dakshin tin rajamarg hone chahie. rajadhani men is prakar barah dvar hone chahie. usamen gupt bhoomi evn jal hona chahie. rathamarg evn ve marg jo dronamukh, sthaniy, rashtr evn charagahon ki or jate hain, chaudaee men char dand (16 hath) hone chahie. kautily ne isake uparant any kamon ke lie bane margon ki chaudaee ka ullekh kiya hai. raja ka prasad poorvabhimukh ya uttarabhimukh hona chahie aur lambaee aur chaudaee men sampoorn rajadhani ka 9/10 bhag hona chahie. rajaprasad rajadhani ke uttar men hona chahie. rajaprasad ke uttar men raja ke achary, purohit, mntriyon ke grih tatha ygy-bhoomi evn jalashay hone chahie. kautily ne isi prakar rajaprasad ke chaturdik, adhyakshon, vyapariyon, pramukh shilpakaron, brahmanon, kshatriyon, vaishyon, badhiyon, shoodron adi ke avason ka ullekh kiya hai. rajadhani ke madhy men aparajit, apratihat, jayant evn vaijayant ke moortigrih tatha shiv, kuber, ashvini, lakshmi, madira (durga) ke mandir bane rahane chahie. pramukh dvaron ke nam brahm, yam, indr evn kartikey ke namon par rakhe jane chahie. khaee ke age 100 dhanushon (100 hath) ki doori par pavitr pedon ke mandap, kunj evn bandh hone chahie. uchch varnon ke shmashan sthal dakshin men tatha any logon ke poorv ya uttar men hone chahie. shmashan ke age nastikon evn chandalon ke avas hone chahie. das gharon par ek koop hona chahie. tel, ann, chini, davaen, sookhi tarakariyan, eedhan, hathiyar tatha any avashyak samagriyan itani matra evn snkhya men ekatr honi chahie ki akraman ya ghir jane par varshon tak kisi vastu ka abhav n ho. upayukt vivaran se matsyapuran ki bahut si baton ka mel nahin baithata[50]. rajanitiprakash [51] evn rajadharmakand[52] ne matsyapuran ko adhikansh men uddhrit kiya hai. rajanitiprakash [53] ne devipuran se nagar, hatt, puri, pattan, mandiron ke nirman ke vishay men bahut-se ansh uddhrit kar rakhe hain.[54][33]

gram evn nagar ka antar

panini (7|3|14) ne gram evn nagar ka antar bataya hai[55]. patnjali ne isaki vyakhya karate hue likha hai ki gram, ghosh, nagar evn snvah bhanti-bhanti ke janadhivasiton (bastiyon) ke ya bastiyon ke dalon ke nam hain. vayupuran[56] ne prithakh roop se puron (nagaron ya puriyon), ghoshon (gvalon ke gramon), gramon evn pattanon ka ullekh kiya hai. rajadhani, prasad, kachahariyon, karyalayon, khaiyon adi ke nirman ke vishay men dekhie shukranitisar [57], yuktikalpataru [58], vayupuran [59], matsyapuran [60]. shukranitisar [61] ne padya (phutapath), vithi (gali) evn marg ki chaudaee kam se kam 3, 5 evn 10 hath kahi hai. ayodhya ki rajadhani ke varnan ke lie dekhie ramayan (2|100|40-42). ramayan [62] evn mahabharat [63] se pata chalata hai ki sadakon par chhidakav hota tha. harshacharit [64] men ban ne sthanvishvar (thaneshvar) ka sundar varnan kiya hai. rajadhani ke sthaniy shasan ke vishay men dekhie kautily [65]. pahadapur patr (gupt snvath 159=478-9 ee.) se pata chalata hai ki nagar shreshthi (rajadhani ke vyapariyon evn dhanagar shreshthiyon ke pramukh) ka chunav sambhavat: svayn raja karata tha[66]. sambhavat: rajadhani ke shasak ko shasan kary men sahayata dene ke lie pauramukhyon ya pauravriddho ki ek samiti hoti thi. damodarapur ke patr [67] men nagar seth (nagar shreshthi) ka ullekh hai. megasthanij[68] ne palivothra (pataliputr) nagar tatha usake shasan ka varnan kiya hai. vah kahata hai ki 5-5 sadasyon sadasyon ki 6 samitiyan thi, jo kram se (1) shilpon, (2) videshiyon, (3) janm-maran, (4) vyapar, batakharon (5) nirmit samanon evn (6) bechi huee vastuon ka dasavan bhag ekatr karane arthath chungi karati thi. megasthaniz ke kathan se pata chalata hai ki pataliputr 80 stediya lamba evn 15 stediya chauda tha, isaka akar samanantar chaturbhuj ki bhanti tha aur isake charon aur lakadi ki divaren thin, jinamen tir chhodane ke lie chhidr bane hue the. rajadhani ke samane khaee bhi thi. eriyan [69] ke anusar pataliputr men 570 stambh evn 64 dvar the. apane mahabhashy men patnjali ne pataliputr ka ullekh kee bar kiya hai.[70] mahabhashy men pataliputr shon ke kinare bataya gaya hai[71]aur isamen isake prasadon ka bhi ullekh hua hai[72]. phahiyan (san 399-414 ee.) ne bhi pataliputr ki shobha ka ullekh kiya hai aur use pretatmaon ke dvara banaya hua kaha hai.[73]

bhagavat puran[74] men aya hai ki ven ke putr prithu ne sarvapratham prithvi ko samatal karaya aur gramon, nagaron, rajadhaniyon, durgon adi men janon ko basaya. prithu ke poorv lok jahan chahate the rahate the, n to gram the aur n hi nagar. rajanitikaustubh ke anusar shridhar dvara uddhrit bhrigu ke mat se gram vah basti hai, jahan brahman log apane karmiyon (matadooron) evn shoodron ke sath rahate hain. kharbat nadi ke tat ki us basti ko kahate hain, jahan mishrit log rahate hain aur jisake ek or gram aur doosari or nagar ho. rajanitikaustubh[75] dvara uddhrit shaunak ke mat se khet use kahate hain, jahan brahman, kshatriy, evn vaishy rahate hain, vah sthan jahan sabhi jatiyan rahati hain, nagar kahalata hai. shaunak ke mat se brahman grihasthon ko shvet evn sugandhit mitti men, kshatriyon ko lal evn sugandhit mitti vale nagaron men tatha vaishyon ko pili mitti vale sthanon se basana chahie.[33]

bharat men durg

bharat men durg ki anek kismen gyat thin. chanaky ne jaladurg, marudurg, vanadurg adi anek prakar ke durgon ka varnan kiya hai. bharat ke mugal shasak durg rachana men badi dilachaspi rakhate the, jisaka praman dilli aur agare ke lal qile tatha ilahabad sthit akabar ka qila hai. pashchaty deshon men durg-nirman-kala ka vikas top aur topakhane ki phayar shakti ke vikas ke sath sath hua. bharat men topakhane ka sarvapratham upayog bahut samay bad, 1526 ee. men babar ne panipat ke yuddh men kiya tha. at: yahan durg kala ka vaisa vikas hona snbhav nahin tha.

durgabndi

durgabndi (dekhen qilabndi) do prakar ki hoti hai, sthayi aur asthayi. shanti ke samay knkrit aur prastar nirmit qile, khaiyan, badhaen aur sainik avas sthayi durgabndi hain aur shatru se muthabhed hone par, ya yuddh avashynbhavi hone ki sthiti men ki janevali durgabndi, asthayi ya maidani kahalati hai. maidani durgabndi lachili hoti hai, at: raksha ke sath hi akraman hone ke pahale apane sthiti ko dridh kar lene ka avasar pradan karati hai. khaeebndi, astr abhisthapan, astron ke lie spasht phayar kshetr, surng, kntile tar adi badhaen tatha gir ped, chattan jaise padarthon se upalabdh prakritik badhaon ko aur bhi dridh karana ityadi maidani durgabndi ke antargat hai. adhunik maidani durgabndi men gopan aur chhadmavaran avashyak hain.

akabar ka qila, ajamer

ek samay tha jab yuddh men akraman ki apeksha saphal pratiraksha hi yuddh ki nirnayika hoti thi. un dinon sthayi durgabndi par bahut dhyan diya gaya. top ke avishkar ke poorv madhyayugin qile lagabhag abhedy the. shaktishali se shaktishali akramanakari bhi durg ka ghera dale mahinon pade rahate the. un dinon pratiraksha ka arth parajay ko yathasnbhav adhik se adhik samay tak talana matr tha. durg rachana ki kala men jarman, phransisi, british aur itali yogadan paryapt hain. 11vin shatabdi men naaurman durg bane jo, bhittipatakon tak ka prahar jhel jate the. dharmayuddhon ke kal men bhi durgakala ka vikas hua. kramik pratiraksha pnkti ke siddhant par ekakendriy durg bane jinhen 13vin aur 14vin shatabdi ke ghera injan bhi nahin tod pate the. barood ke avishkar ne yuddh vigyan men kranti kar di aur phalat: durgabndi men bhi bade parivartan hue. dvitiy vishvayuddh ke samay men prabalatam durgon ka dhvns karane vale astr ban sake the.

maidani durgabndi

shatru ke marg men badha upasthit karana, bahut prachin vidya hai. badha aisi honi chahie ki shatru apane astron ka prayog karane men asuvidha ka anubhav kare, lekin pratirakshak ko koee asuvidha n ho. shatru ke akraman tatha sthaniy akraman ko vibhakt karane men maidani durgabndi sahayak hoti hai. phayar shakti, taink aur chhatadhari sena ke karan ab sthayi durgon ka koee upayog nahin rah gaya hain, kintu maidani durgabndi se badha utpann karake shatru ke ane men der ki ja sakati hai.

khaee yuddh

khaee yuddh koee nee vidya nahin hai. prachin rom men har sainik ko khaee khodani padati thi. jooliyas sizar ne kntile taron, surngon aur visphotakon ko chhodakar, adhunik kal men gyat sabhi vidyaon ka prayog kiya tha. mngolon ne 13vin shatabdi men khaee bndi ka prayog kiya tha. antar yah hai ki adhunik kal ki khaiyan topakhane ke karan adhik gahari aur mazaboot hoti hain. astron ke vikas ne maidani durgabndi ko bahut prabhavit kiya hai.

pashchimi deshon ki apeksha amarika valon ne maidani durgabndi ko teji se grahan kiya, kyonki amarika men sthayi durg nahin the. krantiyuddh men amarikiyon ko sada hi maidani durgabndiyon par nirbhar rahana pada.

pratham vishvayuddh ke dauran

pratham vishvayuddh pashchim men pratham vishvayuddh gherabndi ka yuddh tha. lakhon sainik mahinon tak khaiyon men pade rahate the. khaiyon men pratiraksha ki karyavaiyan hoti thin aur topakhanon ka vinyas is prakar kiya jata tha ki shatru ka pravesh tisari pnkti men n ho sake. donon paksh manobal todane ke prayason par adhikadhik bal dete the.

surng ka avishkar

pratham vishvayuddh ki samapti aur dvitiy yuddh ke prarnbh ke madhyakal men surng ka avishkar mahattvapoorn raha. khaee tntr, kntile tar ki badha, mashinagan tatha topakhana abhisthapan aur tainkon se bachav ke lie surng bichhane ka adhyayan kiya gaya. durgabndi ki disha men phrans men majino rekha, jarmani men sigaphrad rekha aur roos men stalin rekha par dhyan kendrit hua. tainkon ke marg men badha utpann karane ke lie ispat aur knkrit ki badhaon ke atirikt jngalon au badh kshetron ka bhi upayog kiya gaya. havaee suraksha ke lie atirikt top abhisthapan, khoj batti aur vyapak teliphon snchar ki vyavastha huee tatha havaee prekshan se bachane aur shatru ki sthal sena ko dhokha dene ke lie chhipane ki vidhiyon ka nirman hua. maidani durgabndiyon tak pahunchane ke lie rel aur sadakon ki vriddhi ki gee tatha vayuyanon ke utarane ke lie avataranakshetr aur bhoomigat vayuyan shalaon ka nirman hua. vishaili gaison se raksha tatha paidal sena ke najadiki akraman ka samana karane ke lie sthitiyon ka sngathan kiya gaya. in dinon tatiy durgabndi par bada dhyan rakha gaya. lekin yuddh se siddh ho gaya ki top aur taink ke sammukh inaka astitv mahatvahin hai.

doosara vishvayuddh ke dauran

doosara vishvayuddh men tainkon se bachane ka prashn tha. taikon ke marg men surng bichhakar unake pahunchane men deri ki ja sakati thi. prashant dvipon men ret ke boron ka prayog hua. japaniyon ki maidani durgabndi, suvyavasthit hoti thi. khode hue sthan ko jngali patton, tahaniyon se ve is prakar chhipa dete the ki sainik sthitiyon ko pahachanana kathin ho jata tha. nagaron men gharon men rahakar yuddh karana, maidani durgabndi men sammilit kiya gaya. yuddh ke lie patthar ke bane mazaboot ghar chun lie ge aur khaiyan khodane ke lie buladozaron ka upayog kiya gaya. in sadhanon ka thik prakar se samanvayan avashyak tha, jisake abhav men inase apana hi ghatak ahit hota tha.

jarmani ne smal qila jitakar kiya chakit

jarmani ne ek din ke andar beljiyam ka elben-smal qila jitakar sare vishv ko chakit kar diya. is qile ko jarmani ne kisi gupt astr ke upayog se nahin jita, balik isalie jita ki usane maaudalon dvara akraman ka anek bar poorvabhyas kar liya tha. jarmani ne majino rekha ko uttar ki or se par karake prabhavahin kar diya. isi upay se unhonne stalin rekha ko prabhavahin kiya. roosiyon ki 100 mil gahari durgabndi bhi jarmanon ki chalon ke age prabhavahin siddh huee. lekin roosiyon ko jarmani ke akraman ki disha ka pata lag gaya, jisake karan ve unake akraman ki tivrata ko rokane men saphal hue. kuchh samay bad japaniyon ne singapur ki tatiy durgabndi ko nirarthak kar diya. japani is durg ke uttar men utar pade the aur is shaktishali durg ki topen keval samudr ki disha men phayar kar sakati thin.

doosare vishvayuddh se yah lagabhag siddh ho gaya ki sthayi durgabndi ke nirman men dhan aur shram vyay karana vyarth hai, kyonki shatru ke ane men der utpann karane ke aur bhi upay hain. isaka arth yah nahin ki sthayi durg sarvada ke lie samapt ho ge, kyonki bhavishy men paramanaviy yuddh ke samay senaon ko knkrit ki bani khaiyon ka ashray lena pad sakata hai.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. manu (9|294)
  2. meghatithi (manu 9|295)
  3. (yahan tak ki manu ne bhi, 7|69-70)
  4. yagyvalky (1|321)
  5. (janakoshatmakaguptaye)
  6. manu (7|74)
  7. dekhie pnchatantr (1|229 evn 2|14)
  8. brihaspati. atmadararthalokanan sanchitanan tu guptaye. nripati: karayed durg prakaradvarasnyutamh. rajanitiprakash, prishth 202 evn rajadharm kand, prishth 28.
  9. kautily (2|3 evn 4)
  10. vayu puran (8|108)
  11. manu (7|70)
  12. shantiparv (56|35 evn 86|4-5)
  13. vishnudharmasootr (3|6)
  14. matsyapuran (217|6-7)
  15. agnipuran (222|4-5)
  16. vishnudharmottar (2|26|6-9, 3|323|16-21)
  17. shukranitisar (4|6)
  18. manu (7|79)
  19. shantiparv (56|35)
  20. manasollas (2|5, prishth 78)
  21. manu (7|75)
  22. sabhaparv (5|36)
  23. ayodhya (100|53)
  24. matsyapuran (217|8)
  25. kamandakiy nitisar(4|60)
  26. manasollas (3|5, shlok 550-555)
  27. shukranitisar (4|612-13)
  28. vishnudharmottar (2|26|20-88)
  29. (durgasamuddesh, prishth 199)
  30. kautily (2|3)
  31. rajadharmakand (prishth 28-36)
  32. rajadharmakaustubh (prishth 115-117)
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 pustak- dharmashastr ka itihas | prishth snkhya- 663 - 666 | lekhak- pandurng vaman kane
  34. (rigved 1|63|7)
  35. (rigved 2|20|8)
  36. dekhie haaupkins, je.e.o.es., jild 13, prishth 174-176.
  37. taittiriyasnhita (6|2|3|1)
  38. (marshal, jild 1, prishth 15-26)
  39. (vanaparv, 1|9-10)
  40. (virataparv 22|16 evn 25-26). aur dekhie shantiparv (69|60, 86|4-15).
  41. ramayan (5|2|50-53)
  42. brihatasnhita (adhyay 53)
  43. manu (7|70 evn 76)
  44. ashramavasik (5|16-17)
  45. shantiparv (86|6-10)
  46. kamandakiy nitisar (4|57)
  47. matsyapuran (217|9)
  48. shukranitisar (1|213-217)
  49. kautily (2|4)
  50. (matsyapuran 217|9-87)
  51. rajanitiprakash (prishth 208-213)
  52. rajadharmakand (prishth 28-36)
  53. rajanitiprakash (prishth 214-219)
  54. emilaiye 'grama hattadishoonya:, purohattadimaty:, t ev mahaty: pattanani, durganyaudakadini. kheta: karshakagrama:. kharvata: parvataprantagrama iti.' shridhar (bhagavatapuran 4|18|31), rajanitikaustubh dvara uddhrit (prishth 102). shilparatn (adhyay 5) men gram, khetak, kharvat, durg, rajadhani, pattan, dronik, shibir, skandhavar, sthaniy, vidambak, nigam evn shakhanagar ki paribhashaen di gayi hain. may mat (10|92) ne inamen das ka ullekh kiya hai aur (9|10) gram, khet, kharvat, durg tatha nagar ke vistar ka varnan kiya hai.
  55. (prachangramanagaranamh)
  56. vayupuran (94|40)
  57. shukranitisar (1|213-258)
  58. yuktikalpataru (prishth 22)
  59. vayupuran (8|108)
  60. matsyapuran (130)
  61. shukranitisar (1|260-267)
  62. ramayan (6|112|42, siktarathyantarayana)
  63. mahabharat (adiparv 221|36)
  64. harshacharit (3)
  65. kautily (2|36)
  66. (epi. i., jild 20, prishth 59)
  67. (epi. ee., jild, 15, prishth 130, 133, gupt snvat 129)
  68. (maikarindil ki enshyent indiya, fraigament 34, prishth 187)
  69. (maikarindil, prishth 209-210)
  70. (jild 1, prishth 380).
  71. (panini 2|1|16)
  72. (vartik 4, panini 4|3|36 evn jild 2, prishth 321, panini 4|3|134)
  73. aur dekhie rais devids (buddhist indiya, prishth 34-41).
  74. bhagavat puran (4|18|30-32)
  75. rajanitikaustubh (prishth 130-4)

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