चाणक्य  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

chanaky
chanaky
poora nam chanaky
any nam kautily, vishnugupt
janm anumanat: eesa poorv 370
janm bhoomi pnjab
mrityu anumanat: eesa poorv 283
mrityu sthan pataliputr
pati/patni 'brihatkathakosh' ke anusar chanaky ki patni ka nam 'yashomati' tha.
karm bhoomi bharat
karm-kshetr shikshak
mukhy rachanaen arthashastr
prasiddhi rajanitigy aur chndragupt maury ke mahamntri
vishesh yogadan chanaky ki sahayata aur unake kushal nirdeshan se hi chndragupt maury ne bharat men maury vnsh ki sthapana ki thi.
nagarikata bharatiy
snbndhit lekh chndragupt maury, dhanannd, takshashila
mukhy prasng 'mudrarakshas' men kaha gaya hai ki raja nand ne bhare darabar men chanaky ko usake us pad se hata diya, jo use darabar men diya gaya tha. is par chanaky ne shapath li ki "vah usake parivar tatha vnsh ko nirmool karake nand se badala lega."
any janakari chanaky ne 'arthashastr' namak ek granth ki rachana ki, jo tatkalin rajaniti, arthaniti, itihas, acharan shastr, dharm adi par bhali-bhanti prakash dalata hai. 'arthashastr' maury kal ke samaj ka darpan hai, jisamen samaj ke svaroop ka sarvagn dekha ja sakata hai.

kautily athava 'chanaky' athava 'vishnugupt' (janm- anumanat: eesa poorv 370, pnjab; mrityu- anumanat: eesa poorv 283, pataliputr) sampoorn vishv men ek mahanh rajanitigy aur maury samrat chndragupt maury ke mahamntri ke roop men prasiddh hain. inaka vyaktivachak nam 'vishnugupt', sthaniy nam 'chanaky' (chanakyavasi) aur gotr nam 'kautily' (kutil se) tha. ye chandragupt maury ke pradhanamantri the. chanaky ka nam snbhavat unake gotr ka nam 'chanak', pita ke nam 'chanak' athava sthan ka nam 'chanak' ka parivartit roop raha hoga. chanaky nam se prasiddh ek nitigranth 'chanakyaniti' bhi prachalit hai. takshashila ki prasiddhi mahanh arthashastri chanaky ke karan bhi hai, jo yahan pradhyapak tha aur jisane chandragupt ke sath milakar maury samrajy ki ninv dali. 'mudrarakshas' men kaha gaya hai ki raja nand ne bhare darabar men chanaky ko usake us pad se hata diya, jo use darabar men diya gaya tha. is par chanaky ne shapath li ki "vah usake parivar tatha vnsh ko nirmool karake nand se badala lega." 'brihatkathakosh' ke anusar chanaky ki patni ka nam 'yashomati' tha.[1]

janm tatha shiksha

mana jata hai ki chanaky ne eesa se 370 varsh poorv rishi chanak ke putr ke roop men janm liya tha. vahi unake arnbhik kal ke guru the. kuchh itihasakar manate hain ki chanak keval unake guru the. chanak ke hi shishy hone ke nate unaka nam 'chanaky' pada. us samay ka koee pramanik itihas upalabdh nahin hai. itihasakaron ne prapt soochanaon ke adhar par apani-apani dharanaen banaee. parntu yah sarvasammat hai ki chanaky ki arnbhik shiksha guru chanak dvara hi di gee. snskrit gyan tatha ved-puran adi dharmik grnthon ka adhyayan chanaky ne unhin ke nirdeshan men kiya. chanaky medhavi chhatr the. guru unaki shiksha grahan karane ki tivr kshamata se atynt prasann the. tatkalin samay men sabhi soochanaen v vidhaen dharmagrnthon ke madhyam se hi prapt hoti thin. at: dharmik pustakon ka adhyayan shiksha prapt ka ekamatr sadhan tha. chanaky ne kishoravastha men hi un grnthon ka sara gyan grahan kar liya tha.[2]

arthashastr

inhonne 'arthashastr' namak ek granth ki rachana ki, jo tatkalin rajaniti, arthaniti, itihas, acharan shastr, dharm adi par bhali bhanti prakash dalata hai. 'arthashastr' maury kal ke samaj ka darpan hai, jisamen samaj ke svaroop ko sarvagn dekha ja sakata hai. arthashastr se dharmik jivan par bhi kafi prakash padata hai. us samay bahut se devataon tatha deviyon ki pooja hoti thi. n keval bade devata-devi apitu yaksh, gandharv, parvat, nadi, vriksh, agni, pakshi, sarp, gay adi ki bhi pooja hoti thi. mahamari, pashurog, bhoot, agni, badh, sookha, akal adi se bachane ke lie bhi bahut se dharmik krity kiye jate the. anek utsav, jadoo tone adi ka bhi prachar tha. arthashastr rajaniti ka utkrit granth hai, jisane paravarti rajadharm ko prabhavit kiya. chanaky ne arthashastr men varta (arthashastr) tatha dandaniti (rajyashasan) ke sath anvikshiki (tarkashastr) tatha trayi (vaidik granthon) par bhi kafi bal diya hai. arthashastr ke anusar yah rajy ka dharm hai ki vah dekhe ki praja varnashram dharm ka 'uchit palan karati hai ki nahin.[3]

kautiliy arthashastr ke anusar

raja ka mukhy kartavy tha praja dvara varnashram dharm aur naitik acharan ka palan karana. chanaky rajanitishastr ke prasiddh granth 'kautiliy arthashastr' ke rachayita evn chandragupt maury ke pradhan mantri the. chanaky ka likha hua arthashastr aj bhi apane vishay ka ek shreshth grnth hai. arthashastr men unhonne svayn likha hai-

'yen shastrn ch shastrn nandarajagata ch bhoo:.
asarshenoddhritanyashu ten shastramidn kritamh..'

arthath jisane kop se shastr, shastr aur nandaraja ke adhinasth bhoomi ka shighr uddhar kiya, usi ne arthashastr namak grnth ki rachana ki hai. vishnu puran men bhi likha hai ki kautily namak brahman nand vnsh ka vinash karega aur chandragupt maury ko raja banayega. in pramanon se siddh hota hai ki kautily chandragupt maury ke mahamaty the aur arthashastr ka rachana kal lagabhag 300 eesa poorv hai.

achary dandi ne kautily ke arthashastr ke padhane ki snstuti ki hai aur likha hai ki usaka vishay dandaniti hai tatha usamen 600 shlok hain. dandi ki tarah hi achary kamandak ne bhi likha hai ki vishnugupt ne arthashastr ke samudr se nitishastr roopi amrit nikala hai aur vah rajy vidya ke janane valon men sarvashreshth hai. kintu banabhatt ne kautily ke arthashasatr ko praman manane valon ko atinrishns aur nirghrin kaha hai. isase spasht hai ki unake samay men arthashastr ke mahattv ka hras ho gaya tha.

arthashastr ki parampara

kautily ne anekon grnthon ka adhyayan karake arthashastr ki rachana ki thi. bauddh dharm ke jatak grnthon, lagabhag 600 eesa poorv se arthashastr ki ganana ek pramukh roop men hone lagi thi. ashvalayan grihasootr men adity namak ek achary ka ullekh milata hai, jinhonne arthashastr par ek grnth likha hai. svayn kautily ne apane arthashastr men manav, barhaspaty, aushanas, parashar, pishun (narad), kausapadant (bhishm-ambhiy), vatavyadhi (uddhav), vahudanti putr (indr), bharatadvaj, vishalaksh, dron adi arthashastr ke acharyon ka namollekh kiya hai. isake atirikt inhonne 'iti acharyon' kahakar kisi any achary ka bhi ullekh kiya hai. adhunik vidyarthi ke mat se ve achary kautily ke guru the. kautily ne in sabhi acharyon ke maton ki alochana ki hai aur ant men apana mat prastut kiya hai. aise avasaron par ek ya kee acharyon ke mat ka udaharan dekar ve likhate hain- 'neti kautily', arthath kautily aisa nahin manate hain.

kautily ke bad arthashastr ka vishay dand niti se hatakar janapad snbndhi karyon ka vidhan ho gaya. tab se dharmashastr ke lekhak dandaniti aur arthashastr ke siddhanton ki bhi charcha apane granthon men karane lage the. isi prakar puranakar bhi puranon men inaki charcha karane lage the. parantu kautily ke arthashastr ki parampara men ye granth mukhyat: nahin ate hain. unaki parampara men kamandak ka nitisar, shukr nitisar, brihaspati sootr, somadev ka nitivakyatamrit, viramitroday, rajanitimayookh, rajaniti kamadhenu adi granth hain. brihaspati sootr moolaroop men kautily ke prachin tha, kintu jis roop men aj vah upalabdh hai, vah navam shatabdi ka snskaran hai. isi prakar kamandak nitisar mool roop se 400 eesavi ka granth hai. kintu aj vah jis roop men upalabdh hai, vah 17vin shatabdi ka hai. isi prakar shukr nitisar bhi aj jis roop men milata hai, vah kautily poorv shukr ya ushanas ka likha hua nahin hai. vartaman manusmriti bhi kautily poorv manu ki rachana nahin hai. is prakar is samay arthashastr vishayak sabase prachin granth kautily ka arthashastr hi hai. isake poorv nishchay hi brihaspati shukr tatha manu ke rachit granth the, kintu ab ve upalabdh nahin hain.

arthashastr ki khoj

20vin shati men mahamahopadhyay shamashastri aur mahamahopadhyay ganapati shastri ne arthashastr ki khoj ki aur use sampadit karake prakashit kiya. shamashastri ne isaka angrezi anuvad 1915 men maisoor se prakashit kiya. mahamahopadhyay ganapati shastri ne is par ek tika snskrit men likhi tatha mool aur tika donon ko maisoor se 1925 men tin khndon men prakashit kiya. tika k poorv snskrit men bhattasvami aur madhavayajva ne arthashastr par tikaen likhin. is par ek tika malayalam mishrit tamil men bhi hai. kintu ve tinon tikaen apoorn hain. poorn tika keval ganapati shastri ki hai. arthashastr ka hindi anuvad vachaspati gairola ne kiya hai, jo varanasi se prakashit hai. daau. kashi prasad jayavasal, daau. veni prasad, daau. ji. boohalar prabhooti vidvanon ne kautily ke rajanitik siddhanton ka vivechanatmak anushilan prastut kiya. kintu ve anushilan abhi aparyapt hain. at: abhi is or gnbhir anushilan kary ho raha hai. 1976 men pro. vi.pi. sinha ne 'ridings in kautilyaj arthashastr' nam se ek aisa hi anushilan dilli se prakashit kiya hai.

arthashastr ki parampara ke vishay men yah gyatavy hai ki yah manu ki parampara se bhinn hai. manu ki parampara ved moolak hai aur arthashastr ki parampara lokayatamoolak hai. pahali anudan parampara hai aur doosari pragatishil tatha udar parampara hai. dason, shoodron, striyon adi ke bare men in donon paramparaon ko rekhankit kiya ja sakata hai. arthashastr ki parampara vastut: ihalokavad (sekulenrijam) ki parampara hai. vah arth ko pradhan purusharth manati hai, jab ki manu ki parampara dharm ko pradhan purusharth manati hai.

darshanashastr

aushanas dndaniti ko hi ekamatr vidya manate hain. barhaspaty varta aur dndaniti in vidhaon ko manate the. manav trayi (ved), varta aur dndaniti in tin vidhaon ko manate hain. ve sabhi achary anvikshiki (darshanashastr) ko koee svatntr vidya ya shastr nahin manate the. kintu kautily anvikshiki ko ek prithakh vidya manate hue kahate hain ki anvikshiki, trayi, varta aur dndaniti ye char vidyaen hain. anvikshiki ke antargat ve sankhy yog aur lokayat ko rakhate hain. unake mat se anvikshiki any tinon vidyaon ke balabal (pramany ya apramany) ka nirdharan hetuon se karati hain. nishchay hi anvikshiki ke sarvadhik mahatv ko sarvapratham kautily ne hi pratipadit kiya hai. unaka kahana hai-

pradip: sarvavidyayanamupay: sarvakarmanamh.
ashray: sarvadharmanan shashvadanvikshiki mata..

arthath anvikshiki sabhi vidyaon ka shashvat pradip, sabhi karyon ka shashvat sadhan aur sabhi dharmon ka shashvat ashray hai. kautily ne jaise arthashastr namak ek naye shastr ka pravartan kiya vaise hi unhonne anvikshiki ke sahi svaroop ki bhi snsthapana ki hai.

dnd ya rajashasan praja ko dharm, arth aur kam men pravritt karata hai. yah dnd ya rajashasan hi kautily ke arthashastr ka mukhy varny vishay hai. adhunik anushilanon se siddh hai ki kautily ne jis rajy ki avadharana ki thi, vah ek lok kalyanakari rajy (belafeyar stet) hai. yadyapi ve samrajyavadi the aur manate the ki dharm, vyavahar, charitr aur rajy shasan qanoon ke char pad hain aur in padon men uttarottar pad poorvapad se adhik pramanik aur sabal hain, tathapi unake mat se samrat nirnkush nahin hain. samrat ko varnashram ki vyavastha ka palan evn snrakshan karana chahie, kyonki varnashram dharm ke nasht ho jane par samast pooja ka nash ho jata hai. aisa isalie hota hai ki tab praja kinkartavyavimukh ho jati hai aur arajakata ki sthiti paida ho jati hai.

chanaky

punashch, kautily manate hain ki arth hi pradhan purusharth hai aur dharm tatha kam arth par nirbhar karate hain. 'arth evn pradhan: iti kautily: arthamoolau hi dharmakamaviti'. phir arth ki paribhasha dete hue ve kahate hain ki manushyon ki vritti arth hai ya manushyavati bhoomi arth hai. is arth ke labh aur palan ke upay ko batalane vala shastr arthashastr hai. is prakar kautily ke arthashastr men adhunik rajaniti aur adhunik arthashastr donon ka vidhan hai. kautily ne rajasatta aur arth ko anyonyashrit mana hai. yah ek shastr hai aur pratyek shastr lokahit ka vardhak hota hai. at: arthashastr bhi lokahit ka hi sampadan karata hai. yadi kartavyavash kisi raja ya doot ko apane shatruon se chhal karane ki shiksha yah shastr deta hai to is karan is shastr ko asatshastr ya vnchanashastr nahin kaha ja sakata. yah vyakti vishesh ki paristhiti ka dayitv hai, jise koee yatharthavadi nakar nahin sakata. advaitavedanti anandagiri ne arthashastr vishayak chintan ko shishton ka paramarth chintan mana hai, kyonki jo sukh hai, vah arthaghn nahin ho sakata-'n charthachann sukhamh'. punashch, jis arth sadhan ka vidhan arthashastr karata hai, vah trivarg ka sadhak hai, ath ch dharm aur kam purushartha ka unnayak hai. vastav men moolat: arthashastr ka ekamatr prayojan praja ke sukh tatha hit ka snvardhan karana hai. isaka auchity anvikshiki par adharit hai aur is karan kautily ke arthashastr men samaj darshan, rajaniti darshan, arth darshan aur vidhi darshan ke siddhant nihit aur charchit hain.

arthashastr 32 yuktiyon se yukt hone ke karan ek shastr hai. ve yuktiyan arthashastr ke antim adhyay men varnit hain.

gyanamimansa aur tarkashastr ke drishtikon se in tntrayuktiyon ka mahatv atyadhik hai. adhunik yug men ekziyomaitiks (abhigrihitamimansa), snpratyatmak yojana (kanasepchual skim) ka tatha adhisaddhant (meta-thiyari) ki jo parikalpanaen ki gee hain, ve sab tntrayukti ke antargat a jati hain. kisi shastr ya vigyan ki vaigyanikata ki kasauti ke roop men aj bhi inaka mahattv akshunn hai. yah doosari bat hai ki aj in tntrayuktiyon ke naye vargikaran kiye ge hain aur kuchhek ko joda aur hataya bhi gaya hai. kintu kautily ne inaka pravidhan kiya hai aur inake bal par arthashastr ko ek shastr ya vigyan siddh kiya hai. yah keval aitihasik drishti se hi abhootapoorv kary nahin tha, apitu tarkik snkalpana ki drishti se bhi isaka mahatv abhootapoorv tha. at: kautily ka yogadan tarkashastr men bhi atyant mahattvapoorn hai.

samaj ki avadharana

kautily ne jis samaj ki avadharana ki hai, usaka pran tatv raja ya rajasatta (stet) hai. rajasatta ke abhav men matsyanyay tatha arajakata utpann hoti hai, parantu rajasatta par bhi dharm ka anushasan rahata hai, kyonki dharm rajasatta ka poorvavarti aur prerak tatv hai. is prakar kautily ka samaj aryon ka varnashram dharm se anushasit samaj hi hai. parantu usake anusar aryon men das pratha ka abhav hai. unhonne likha hai ki koee ary das nahin ho sakata- 'netvevaryasy dasabhav:'. das keval ve hi ho sakate hain, jo anary ya mlechchh hon. parantu aryon men bhi apatti ke samay kuchh kal ke lie das banaye jate the, banaye ja sakate hain, aisa kautily ne likha hai. kintu adarsh roop men unhonne yahi mana hai ki yatha sambhav aryon men das bhav nahin hona chahie. isi adhar par maigasthanij ne likha tha ki maury kal men bharatiyon men vah das pratha nahin thi, jo yoonaniyon men thi. kintu aryon ka samaj brahman, kshatriy, vaishy aur shoodr in char varnon men bnta tha aur pratyek varn ke vyaktiyon ke shasatranumodit kartavy the. yadyapi niyamat: koee vyakti apane paitrik vyavasay ke atirikt doosare varn ka vyavasay nahin kar sakata tha, tathapi kuchhek log aisa vyavasay parivartan kar lete the. kautily ne brahman, kshatriy aur vaishyon ke lie brahmachary, grihasth, vanaprasth tatha sannyas ashramon ka vidhan kiya hai. kintu jab tak kisi vyakti ke oopar ghareloo dayitv hai, tab tak use vanaprasth ya sannyas ashram men nahin jana chahie, aisa unaka mat hai. isi prakar jo striyan santan paida kar sakati hain, unhen sannyas grahan karane ka upadesh dena kautily ki drishti men anuchit hai. isase spasht hai ki kautily ne grihasth ashram sudridh karane ka athak parishram kiya hai. vivah ke bare men kautily ka mat manu ke mat ki tulana men kuchh pragatishil hai. samaj men jitane prakar ke vivah hote the, un sabako kautily ne pramanit mana hai. kisi prakar ghrina ya hinata ki drishti se unako nahin dekha gaya hai. brahman adi pratham char prakar ke vivahon men pita hi praman hai aur gndharv adi char vivahon men mata tatha pita donon praman hain. antarjitiy vivah, vidhava vivah tatha talak ki prathaen bhi us samay prachalit thin.

kintu kautily ke samaj ki sabase badi visheshata yah hai ki vah ek sarvabhaum samaj tha. vah sabhi jatiyon aur deshon ke lie hitakar tha. yah kahane men atishiyokti nahin hai ki tatkalin vishv men kautily ka samaj nishchay hi sarvadhik manavavadi aur janavadi tha. rajasatta ka uddeshy praja ke sukh aur hit ka snvardhan tatha snrakshan karana tha. pratidin uthate hi shasak ko sochana chahie ki praja ka arthik utthan kis prakar ho aur arthanushasan kaise sthapit ho. unnati ka mool arthik unnati hai.

prajasukhe snkhu ragy: prajanan ch hite hitamh.
natmapriyn hitn ragy: prajanan tu priyn hitamh..
tasmannityotthato raja kuryadarthanushasanamh.
arthasyamoolamutthanamanarthasy visharyay:..


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

pandey, pro. sngamalal vishv ke pramukh darshanik (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog, nee dilli, 158.

  1. kautily (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 16 julaee, 2013.
  2. chanaky jivan gatha (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 14 faravari, 2014.
  3. 'kautily' aur 'arthashastr'

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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