bharatakosh ke snsthapak/snpadak ke fesabuk laiv ke lie yahan klik karen.

मौर्य काल का शासन प्रबंध  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mauryon ke shasanakal men bharat ne pahali bar rajanitik ekata prapt ki. 'chakravarti samrat' ka adarsh charitarth hua. kautily ne chakravarti kshetr ko sakar roop diya. usake anusar chakravarti kshetr ke antargat himalay se hind mahasagar tak sara bharatavarsh hai. 'maury yug' men rajatntr ke siddhant ki vijay hai. is yug men gan rajyon ka hras hone laga aur shasan satta atyadhik kendrit ho gee. samrajy ki sima par tatha samrajy ke andar kuchh ardh-svatntr rajy the, jaise- kamboj, bhoj, paittanik tatha atavik rajy.

rajashasan ki vaidhata

'maury kal' men praja ki shakti men atyadhik vriddhi huee. paramparagat rajashastr siddhant ke anusar raja dharm ka rakshak hai, dharm ka pratipadak nahin. rajashasan ki vaidhata is bat par nirbhar thi ki vah dharm ke anukool ho. kintu kautily ne is disha men ek naya pratiman prastut kiya. kautily ke anusar- 'rajashasan dharm, vyavahar aur charitr (lokachar) se oopar tha'. is prakar rajagya ko pramukhata di gee. is badhati huee prabhusatta ke karan hi maury samrat ashok ke samay rajatntr ne paitrik nirnkushata ka roop dharan kiya. ashok sari praja ko saman manata tha. unake aihik aur paralaukik sukh ke lie svny ko uttaradayi samajhata tha aur praja ko uchit kary karane ka upadesh deta tha.

shasan ka kendr bindu

choonki shasan ka kendr bindu raja tha, atah itane bade samrajy ke shasan snchalan ke lie yah avashyak tha ki raja utsahi, sphoortivan aur praja hit ke karyon ke lie sada tatpar ho. chndragupt maury evn ashok donon maury samraton men ye gun prachur matra men vidyaman the. chndragupt ki kary tatparata ke sambandh men megasthaniz ne likha hai ki- "raja darabar men bina vyavadhan ke karyarat rahata tha". kautily ne kaha hai ki- "jab raja darabar men hi baitha ho to use praja se bahar pratiksha nahin karavani chahie, kyonki jab raja praja ke lie durlabh ho jata hai aur kam apane matahat adhikariyon ke bharose chhod deta hai, to vah praja men vidroh ki bhavana paida karata hai aur raja ke shatruon ke shadayntr ka shikar ho jane ki ashnka paida ho jati hai." apane chhathe shilalekh men ashok ne yah vigypti jari ki thi ki- "vah praja ke kary ke lie pratikshan aur pratyek sthan par mil sakata hai aur praja ki bhalaee ke lie kary karane men use bada sntosh milata hai".

niti nirdharan

raja hi rajy ki niti nirdharit karata tha aur apane adhikariyon ko rajagyaon dvara samay-samay par nirdesh diya karata tha. ashok ke shila tatha stnbh lekhon se yah spasht hai ki praja ke nam usaki rajagyaen jari hoti thi. chndragupt maury ke samay men guptacharon ke madhyam se doorasth pradeshon men shasan kar rahe adhikariyon par samrat ka poora niyntran rahata tha. ashok ke samay paryatak mahamatron, rajukon, pradeshikon, purushon tatha any adhikariyon ki sahayata lete the. snchar vyavastha ke snchalan ke lie sadaken thin, samarik mahattv ki jagahon par sena ki tukadiyan tainat raha karati thin. adhikariyon ki niyukti desh ki antarik raksha aur shanti, yuddh snchalan, sena ki niyntran adi sabhi raja ke adhin tha.

adhikariyon ka chayan

kautily ka dridh mat tha ki rajasv (prabhuta) bina sahayata se sambhav nahin hai, atah raja ko sachivon ki niyukti karani chahie tatha unase mntrana leni chahie. rajy ke sarvochch adhikari mntri kahalate the. inaki snkhya tin ya char hoti thi. inaka chayan amaty varg se hota tha. 'amaty' shasan tntr ke uchch adhikariyon ka varg tha. raja dvara mukhyamntri tatha purohit ka chunav unake charitr ki bhali-bhanti janch ke bad kiya jata tha. is kriya ko 'upadha parikshan' kaha gaya hai (upadha shuddhamh). ye mntri ek prakar se antarng mntrimndal ke sadasy the. rajy ke sabhi karyon par is antarng mntrimndal men vichar-vimarsh hota tha aur unake nirnay ke pashchath hi karyarambh hota tha.

mntriparishad

mntrimndal ke atirikt ek aur mntriparishadh bhi hoti thi. ashok ke shilalekhon men 'parisha' ka ullekh hai. raja bahumat ke nirnay ke anusar kary karata tha. jahan tak mntriyon tatha mntriparishadh ke adhikar ka saval hai, unaka mukhy kary raja ko paramarsh dena tha. ve raja ki nirnkushata par niyntran rakhate the, kintu mntriyon ka prabhav bahut kuchh unaki yogyata tatha karsathata par nirbhar karata tha. ashok ke chhathe shilalekh se anuman lagata hai ki parishadh rajy ki nitiyon athava rajagyaon par vichar-vimarsh karati thi aur yadi avashyak samajhati thi to unamen snshodhan ka sujhav bhi deti thi. yah raja ke hit men tha ki vah mntri ya parishad ke sadasyon ke paramarsh se labh uthae. kintu kisi niti ya kary ke vishay men antim nirnay raja ke hi hath men hota tha.

shasan ka bhar

shasan kary ka bhar mukhyatah ek vishal varg par tha, jo samrajy ke vibhinn bhagon se shasan ka snchalan karate the. 'arthashastr' men sabase oonche star ke karmachariyon ko 'tirth' kaha gaya hai. aise atharah tirthon ka ullekh hai, inamen se kuchh mahattvapoorn padadhikari the- mntri, purohit, senapati, yuvaraj, samaharta, sannidhata tatha mntriparishadadhyaksh. tirth shabd ek-do sthanon par prayukt hua hai. adhikatar sthalon par inhen 'mahamatr' ya 'mahamaty' ki sngya di gee hai. sabase mahattvapoorn tirth ya mahamatr mntri aur purohit the. raja inhin ke paramarsh se any mntriyon tatha amatyon ki niyukti karata tha. rajy ke sabhi adhikaranon par mntri aur purohit ka niyntran rahata tha. senapati sena ka pradhan hota tha. jyeshth putr yuvaraj pad par vidhivat abhishikt hota tha. shasan kary men shiksha dene ke lie use kisi zimmedar pad par niyukt kiya jata tha. bindusar ke kal men ashok malava pradesh ka prashasak tha aur use vidrohon ko dabane ya vijayabhiyan ke lie bheja jata tha.

rajasv

rajasv ekatr karana, ay vyay ka byaura rakhana tatha varshik bajat taiyar karana, samaharta ke kary the. dehati kshetr ki shasan vyavastha bhi usi ke adhin thi. shasan ki drishti se desh ko chhoti chhoti ikaiyon men vibhakt kiya jata tha aur adhikariyon ki sahayata se shasan kary chalaya jata tha. inhin adhikariyon ki sahayata se vah janaganana, ganvon ki krishi yogy bhoomi, logon ke vyavasay, ay vyay, tatha pratyek parivar se milane vale kar ki matra ki janakari rakhata tha. yah janakari varshik ay vyay ka bajat taiyar karane ke lie avashyak thi. guptacharon ke dvara vah deshi v videshi logon ki gatividhiyon ki poori janakari rakhata tha. jo ki suraksha ke lie kafi mahattvapoorn zimmedari thi. pradeshtri athava pradeshikon, sthanikon aur gop ki sahayata se vah chori, daqaiti karane vale aparadhiyon ko dndit karata tha. is prakar samaharta ek prakar se adhunik vitt mntri aur grihamntri ke kartavyon ko poora karata tha.

sannidhatri ek prakar se koshadhyaksh tha. usaka kam tha samrajy ke vibhinn pradeshon men koshagrih aur koshthagar banavana aur naqad tatha ann ke roop men prapt hone vale rajasv ki raksha karana. arthashastr ke 'adhyaksh prachar' adhyay men 26 adhyakshon ka ullekh hai. ye vibhinn vibhagon ke adhyaksh hote the aur mntriyon ke nirikshan men kam karate the. katipay adhyaksh is prakar the—koshadhyaksh, sitadhyaksh, panyadhyaksh, mudradhyaksh, pautavadhyaksh, bandhanagaradhyaksh adi. in adhyakshon ke kary—vistar ke adhyayan se gyat hota hai ki rajy desh ke samajik evn arthik jivan aur kary—vidhi par poora niyntatr rakhata tha. shasan ke kee vibhagon ke adhyaksh, mndal ki sahayata se kary karate the. jinaki or megasthaniz ka dhyan akrisht hua. kendriy mahamaty (mahamatr) tatha adhyakshon ke adhin anek nimn star ke karmachari hote the jinhen 'yukt' aur 'upayukt' ki sngya di gee hai. ashok ke shilalekhon men yukt ka ullekh hai. in karmachariyon ke madhyam se kendr aur sthaniy shasan ke bich sampark bana rahata tha.

kendriy shasan ka ek mahattvapoorn vibhag sena vibhag tha. yoonani lekhakon ke anusar chndragupt ke sena vibhag men 60,000 paidal, 50,000 ashv, 9,000 hathi v 400 rath ki ek sthayi sena thi. isaki dekhadekh ke lie prithakh sainy vibhag tha. is vibhag ka sngathan 6 samitiyon ke hath men tha. pratyek samiti men panch sadasy hote the. samitiyan sena ke panch vibhagon ki dekhadekh karati thi—paidal, ashv, hathi, rath tatha nausena. sena ke yatayat tatha yuddh samagri ki vyavastha ek samiti karati thi. senapati sena ka sarvochch adhikari hota tha. simanton ki raksha ke lie mazaboot durg the jahan par sena antapal ki dekharekh men simaon ki raksha men tatpar rahati thi.

samrat nyay prashasan ka sarvochch adhikari hota tha. maury samrajy men nyay ke lie anek nyayalay the. sabase niche gram star par nyayalay the. jahan gramani tatha gramavriddh katipay mamalon men apana nirnay dete the tatha aparadhiyon se zurmana vasool karate the. gram nyayalay se oopar sngrahan, dronamukh, sthaniy aur janapad star ke nyayalay hote the. in sabase oopar pataliputr ka kendriy nyayalay tha. yoonani lekhakon ne aise nyayadhishon ki charcha ki hai jo bharat men rahane vale videshiyon ke mamalon par vichar karate the. gramasngh aur raja ke nyayalay ke atirikt any sabhi nyayalay do prakar ke the—dharmasthiy aur kntakashodhan. dharmasthiy nyayalayon ka nyay—nirnay, dharmashastr men nipun tin dharmasth ya vyavaharik tatha tin amaty karate the. inhen ek prakar se divani adalaten kah sakate hain. kuchh vidvanon ke anusar dharmasth nyayalay ve nyayalay the, jo vyaktiyon ke parasparik vivad ke sambandh men nirnay dete the. kntakashodhan nyayalay ke nyayadhish tin pradeshtri tatha tin amaty hote the aur rajy tatha vyakti ke bich vivad inake nyay ke vishay the. inhen ham ek tarah se fauzadari adalat kah sakate hain. kintu in donon ke bich bhed itana spasht nahin tha. avashy hi dharmasthiy adalaton men adhikansh vad—vishay vivah, stridhan, talaq, day, ghar, khet, setubndh, jalashay—sambandhi, rin—sambandhi vivad bhrity, karmakar aur svami ke bich vivad, kray—vikray sambandhi jhagade se sambandhit the. kintu chauri, dake aur loot ke mamale bhi dharmasthiy adalat ke samane pesh kie jate the. jise 'sahas' kaha gaya hai. isi prakar kuvachan bolana, manahani aur marapit ke mamale bhi dharmasthiy adalat ke samane prastut kie jate the. inhen 'vakh parushy' tatha 'dnd parushy' kaha gaya hai. kintu samaj virodhi tatvon ko samuchit dnd dene ka kary mukhyatah kntakashodhan nyayalayon ka tha. nilaknth shastri ke anusar kntakashodhan nyayalay ek ne prakar ki avashyakataon ko poora karane ke lie banae ge the taki ek atyant sngathit shasan tntr ke vividh vishayon se sambaddh nirnayon ko karyanvit kiya ja sake. ve ek prakar ke vishesh nyayalay the jahan abhiyogon par turant vichar kiya jata tha.

maury shasan prabandh men goodh purushon (guptacharon) ka mahattvapoorn sthan tha. itane vishal samrajy ke sushasan ke lie yah avashyak tha ki unake amatyon, mntriyon, rajakarmachariyon aur paurajanapadon par drishti rakha jae, unaki gatividh aur manobhavanaon ka gyan prapt kiya jae aur padosi rajyon ke vishay men bhi sari janakari prapt hoti rahe. do prakar ke guptacharon ka ullekh hai—snstha aur snchar. snstha ve guptachar the jo ek hi sthan par snsthaon sngathit hokar kapatikakshatr, udasthit, grihapatik, vaidehak (vyapari) tapas (sir munday ya jatadhari sadhu) ke vesh men kam karate the. in snsthaon men sngathit hokar ye rajakarmachariyon ke shauq ya bhrashtachar ka pata lagate the. snchar aise guptachar the jo ek sthan se doosare sthan par ghoomate rahate the. ye anek veshon men ek sthan se doosare sthan par jakar soochana ekatrit kar rajaon tak pahunchate the.

rajy ko kee prashasanik ikaiyon men banta gaya tha. sabase badi prashasanik ikaee prant thi. chndragupt ke samay in pranton ki sakhya kya thi, yah nishchit roop se nahin kaha ja sakata hai. kintu ashok ke samay panch pranton ka ullekh milata hai-- (1) uttarapath—isaki rajadhani takshashila thi, (2) avantirashtr—jisaki rajadhani ujjayini thi, (3) kalingaprant—jisaki rajadhani tosali thi, (4) dakshinapath—jisaki rajadhani suvarnagiri thi, aur (5) prashi (prachi, arthath poorvi pradesh)—isaki rajadhani pataliputr thi. prashi athava magadh tatha samast uttari bharat ka shasan pataliputr se samrat svny karata tha. saurashtr bhi chndragupt ke samrajy ka ek prant tha. itihasakaron ke anusar saurashtr ki sthiti ardh—svatntr prapt ki thi aur chndragupt ke samay pushyagupt tatha ashok ke samay tushasph ki sthiti ardh—svashasan prapt samnt ki thi. tathapi usake karyakalap samrat ke hi adhikar kshetr ke antargat ate the.

pranton ka shasan vaisaray roopi adhikari dvara hota tha. ye adhikari rajavnsh ke hote the. ashok ke abhilekhon men unhen "kumar ya aryaputr" kaha gaya hai. kendriy shasan ki hi bhanti prantiy shasan men mntriparishadh hoti thi. romila thapar ka sujhav hai ki prantiy mntriparishadh kendriy mntriparishadh ki apeksha adhik stntrat thi. divyavadan men kuchh uddharanon se unhonne yah nishkarsh nikala hai ki prantiy mntriparishadh ka samrat se sidha sampark tha. ashok ke shilalekhon se bhi yah spasht hai ki samay—samay par kendr se samrat pranton ki rajadhaniyon men mahamatron ko nirikshan karane ke lie bhejata tha. samrajy ke antargat kuchh—kuchh ardhasvashasit pradesh the. yahan sthaniy rajaon ko manyata di jati thi kintu antapalon dvara unaki gatividhi par poora niyntran rahata tha. ashok ke any mahamatr in ardhasvashasit rajyon men dhamm mahamatron dvara dharm prachar karavate the. isaka mukhy uddeshy unake uddnd kriya—kalapon ko niyntrit karana tha. prant zilon men vibhakt the, jinhen 'ahar' ya 'vishay' kahate the aur jo sambhavatah vishayapati ke adhin tha. zile ka shasak sthanik hota tha aur sthanik ke adhin gop hote the jo poore 10 ganvo ke oopar shasan karate the. sthanik samaharta ke adhin bhi the. samaharta ke adhin ek aur adhikari shasan kary chalata tha jise 'pradeshtr' kaha gaya hai. vah sthanik gop aur gram adhikariyon ke karyo ki janch karata tha. in pradeshtriyon ko ashok ke pradeshikon ke samaroop mana gaya hai.

megasthaniz ne nagar shasan ka vistrit varnan diya hai. nagar ka shasan prabandh 30 sadasyon ka ek mnndal karata tha. mandal samitiyon men vibhakt tha. pratyek samiti ke panch sadasy hote the. pahali samiti udyog shilpon ka nirikshan karati thi. doosari samiti videshiyon ki dekharekh karati thi. isaka kartavy tha, videshiyon ke avas ka uchit prabandh karana tatha bimar padane par unaki chikitsa ka uchit prabandh karana. usaki suraksha ka bhar bhi isi samiti par tha. videshiyon ki mrityu hone par unaki antyeshti kriyaon tatha unaki sampatti uchit uttaradhikariyon ke supurd karane ka kary bhi yahi samiti karati thi. yah dekharekh ke madhyam se videshiyon ki gatividhiyon par nazar bhi rakhati thi. tisari samiti janm—maran ka hisab rakhati thi. janm—maran ka byaura keval karon ka anuman lagane ke lie hi nahin balki isalie bhi rakha jata tha ki sarakar ko pata rahe ki mrityu kyon aur kis prakar huee. rajy ki drishti se yah janakari avashyak thi. chauthi samiti vyapar aur vanijy ki dekharekh karati thi. map—taul ki janch, vastu vikray ki vyavastha karana aur yah dekhana ki pratyek vyapari ek se adhik vastu ka vikray n kare. ek se adhik vastu ka vikray karane vale ko atirikt shulk dena padata tha. panchavin samiti nirmit vastuon ke vikray ka nirikshan karati thi aur is bat ka dhyan rakhati thi ki nee aur purani vastu ko milakar to nahin becha ja raha. is niyam ka ullaghnn karane valon ko saza di jati thi. nee—purani vastuon ko milakar bechana qanoon ke viruddh tha. chhathi upasamiti ka kary bikrikar vasool karana tha. vikray mooly ka dasavan bhag kar ke roop men vasool kiya jata tha. is kar se bachane vale ko mrityudnd diya jata tha.

maury samrajy jaise vistrit samrajy ke snchalan ke lie dhan ki avashyakata rahi hogi—isamen to sandeh ho hi nahin sakata. vastav men is yug men pahali bar rajasv pranali ki rooparekha taiyar ki gee aur usake paryapt vivaran kautily ne bhi die hain. rajy ki ay ka pramukh sroton ke kuchh vivaran oopar bhi die ja chuke hain. unake atirikt anek vyavasay aise the, jin par rajy ka poorn adhipaty tha aur jisaka snchalan rajy ke dvara kiya jata tha. inamen khan, jngal, namak aur astr—shastr ke vyavasay pramukh the. raja ka yah dayitv tha ki vah kushal karmakaron ka prabandh kar khanon ka pata lage, khanon se khanij padarth nikalakar unhen karmanton ya karakhanon men bhijavae aur jab vastuen taiyar ho jaen to unaki bikri ka prabandh kare. kautily ne do prakar ki khanon ka ullekh kiya hai—sthal khanen aur jal khanen. sthal khanon se sona, chandi, loha, tanba, namak adi prapt kie jate the aur jal khanon se mukta, shukti, shnkh adi. in khanon se rajy ko paryapt ay hoti thi. jngal rajy ki sampatti hote the. jngal ke padarthon ko karakhanon men bhejakar unase vividh prakar ki pany vastuen taiyar karaee jati thin. rajy ko koshthagaron men snchit ann se, khanon aur jngalon se prapt dravy se aur karmanton men bani huee pany vastuon ke vikray se bhi kafi ay hoti thi. mudra—paddhati se bhi ay hoti thi. mudra snchalan ka adhikar rajy ko tha. lakshanadhyaksh sikke jari karata tha aur jab log sikke banavate to unhen rajy ka lagabhag 13.50 pratishat byaj rupika aur parikshan ke roop men dena padata tha. vividh prakar ke dndon se tatha sampatti ki zabti se bhi rajy ki amadani hoti thi. kautily ke arthashastr men anek aisi paristhitiyon ka niroopan kiya gaya hai, jinase rajy sampatti zabt kar leta tha. snkat ke kal men rajy anek anuchit upayon se bhi dhan snchay karata tha, jaise adarbhut pradarshan aur melon ko sngathit karana. pntajali ke anusar maury kal men dhan ke lie devataon ki pratimaen banakar bechi jati thin. is prakar maury shasan kal men rajy ki ay ke sabhi sadhanon ko jutaya gaya.

rajakiy vyay ko vibhinn vargon men rakha ja sakata hai—jaise 1. raja aur rajy parivar ka bharan—poshan, 2. rajy karmachariyon ke vetan. rajy ki ay ka bada bhag vetan dene par kharch hota tha. sabase adhik vetan 48,000 pan mntriyon ka tha aur sabase kam vetan 60 pan tha. achary, purohit aur kshatriyon ko vah deh bhoomi dan men di jati thi jo kar mukt hoti thi. khan, jngal, rajakiy bhoomi par krishi adi ke vikas ke lie rajy ki or se dhan vyay kiya jata tha. sena par kafi dhan vyay kiya jata tha. arthashastr ke anusar prashikshit padati ka vetan 500 pan, rathik ka 200 pan aur arohik (hathi aur ghode par chadhakar yuddh karane vale) ka vetan 500 se 1000 pan varshik rakha gaya tha. isase anuman lag sakata hai ki sena par kitana kharch hota tha. uchch senadhikariyon ka vetan 48,000 pan se lekar 12,000 pan varshik tak tha.

yadyapi maury samrajy men sainikon par atyadhik kharch kiya jata tha, tathapi yah svikar nahin kiya ja sakata ki is shasan—vyavastha men kalyanakari rajy ki kee visheshataen paee jati hain, jaise rajamargon ke nirman, sinchaee ka prabandh, pey jal ki vyavastha, sadakon ke kinare chhayadar vrikshon ka lagana, manushy aur pashuon ke lie chikitsalay, mrit sainikon tatha raj karmachariyon ke parivaron ke bharan—poshan, kripan—din—anathon ka bharan—paushan adi. in sab karyon par bhi rajy ka vyay hota tha. ashok ke samay in paropakari karyon ki snkhya men atyadhik vriddhi huee.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

sambndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah