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malava / malav / malaba

malava jvalamukhi ke udgar se bana pashchimi bharat ka ek anchal hai jo vartaman men madhy pradesh prant ke pashchimi bhag men sthit hai. ise prachinakal men malava ya malav ke nam se jana jata tha. malav 'devi lakshmi ke avas ka hissa' kahalata hai. samudr tal se isaki ausat oonchaee 496 mitar hai. akaravnti poorv tatha pashchim malava ka snyukt nam hai. yah kark rekha dvara do hisson men vibhajit hai. is kshetr men indaur, bhopal, gvaliyar v jabalapur snbhagon ke lagabhag 18 zile aur maharashtr v rajasthan ke kuchh hisse shamil hain. isamen prachin avnti, akara aur darasan ke kuchh kshetr shamil hain. malava ka adhikansh bhag chnbal nadi tatha isaki shakhaon dvara snchit hai, pashchimi bhag mahi nadi dvara snchit hai.

namakaran

malava ka nam narmada - chnbal ke upajaoo aitihasik, sanskritik aur bhautik kshetr men basane vale logon ke nam par pada. malava ke adhikansh bhag ka gathan jis pathar dvara hua hai usaka nam bhi isi anchal ke nam se malava ka pathar hai. malava ka ukt nam 'malav' namak jati ke adhar par pada is jati ka ullekh sarvapratham ee. poo. chauthi sadi men milata hai, jab is jati ki sena sikndar se yuddh men parajit huee thi. ye malav prarnbh men pnjab tatha rajapootana kshetron ke nivasi thi, lekin sikndar se parajit hokar ve avanti v usake as-pas ke kshetron men bas gaye. unhonne akar (dasharn) tatha avanti ko apani rajanitik gatividhiyon ka kendr banaya.

dasharn ki rajadhani vidisha thi tatha avanti ki rajadhani ujjayini thi. kalantar men yahi donon pradesh milakar malava kahalaye. is prakar ek bhaugolik ghatak ke roop men 'malava' ka nam lagabhag pratham eesvi sadi men milata hai.

itihas

malav ke samooche itihas ke dauran yahan vibhinn qabile basate rahe, lekin bauddh kal men maury vnsh ke shasan (238 ee.poo. tak) men yah kshetr kala aur vastushilp men kafi vikasit hua. bad men uttari malava par kshatrapon, gupt rajaon aur antatah paramar vnsh ka shasan ho gaya. raja bhoj tritiy ne dhar aur ujjain men rajadhani sthapit karake ise nayi oonchaiyon tak pahunchaya. 1401 men dilavar khan gori ne malava ke sultanon ka rajy qayam kiya aur unaka putr rajadhani ko dhar se mandoo le gaya. mugal badashah babar ne malava ka varnan hindustan ke chauthe sabase mahattvapoorn rajy ke roop men kiya hai. 1561 men baz bahadur ke akabar ke hathon parajit hone ke bad yah kshetr mugalon ke adhin ek sooba ban gaya. yah kshetr apane itihas ke lambe samay tak kalah aur arajakata se ghira raha. dakkan ko uttar se jodane vale marg men handiya, maheshvar, mandoo aur burahanapur mahattvapoorn shahar the. 1724 men peshava bajirav ke netritv aur sindhiya, holkar aur puar ki madad se marathon ne malava men pravesh kiya. tisare maratha yuddh (1817) men satta angrezon ke hathon men chali gee. 1861 men malava ko madhy prant ka hissa banaya gaya. 1948 aur usake bad 1956 men aupacharik roop se malava ka vibhajan madhy pradesh, maharashtr tatha rajasthan rajyon ke bich kar diya gaya.

rajaniti

  • madhy pradesh ke pashchimi bhag tatha rajasthan ke dakshini-pashchimi bhag se gathit yah kshetr aryon ke samay se hi ek svatntr rajanitik ikaee raha hai.
  • yadyapi isaki rajanitik simayen samay-samay par thodi parivartit hoti rahi tathapi is kshetr men apani vishisht sabhyata, snskriti evn bhasha ka vikas hua hai.
  • bharat ke any rajyon ki bhanti malava ki bhi rajanitik simaen rajanitik gatividhiyon v prashasanik karanon se parivartit hoti rahi hai.

bhoogol

vyapak arth men

anek aitihasik sakshyon evn bhaugolik sthiti ke adhar par prachin malava ke bhaugolik vistar ke sndarbh men vibhinn vidvanon ke alag-alag mat hain. vyapak arth men yah uttar men gvaliyar ki dakshini sima se lekar dakshin men narmada ghati ke uttari tat se snlagn mahanh vindhy kshetron tak tatha poorv men vidisha se lekar rajapootana ki sima ke madhy phaile hue bhoo-bhag ka pratinidhitv karata hai.

vigyan ke anusar

bhoo-akriti vigyan ke anusar, is kshetr ko malava pathar, vindhy kshetr, satapuda ki pahadiyon aur narmada ke maidan men banta ja sakata hai. jatil bhoogarbhiy snrachana vale pathar men har jagah vilag pahadiyan paee jati hain. vindhy kshetr poorv ki or traip ke niche tak phaila hua hai. gondavana kshetr satapuda ke pahadi ilaqe ko apane men samete hai, jisake uttar ki or suspasht dhal hai. dakkan ka lava kshetr kafi bade ilaqe men phaila hua hai aur isamen patal shailayukt bhoo-bhag hai. yah lava aisi bhoomi par gira tha, jo pahale hi paripakvata ke antim charan men pahunch chuki thi. agney chattanen (besalt chattanen) malava kshetr ke bade hisse par samarup dhng se sthit hain. is kshetr men do apavah tntr hain narmada, tapti v mahi (arab sagar apavah) aur chnbal v betava, jo yamuna (bngal ki khadi apavah) se milatin hain. is kshetr men oonchaee aur akshanshiy vividhata se prabhavit ushnakatibndhiy manasooni jalavayu hai.

arthavyavastha

yahan ki arthavyavastha men krishi ki pradhanata hai. ujjain, indaur, bhopal, khndava, ratalam aur nimach jaise audyogik shaharon ka vikas hua hai. dakkan ke lava ke chattanon ke lagatar aparadan ke karan is samooche kshetr men kali mitti paee jati hai, jisamen kafi matra men potash aur choona hota hai, jo kapas, jvar, gehoon, ganne tatha moongaphali ki kheti ke lie upayukt hai. yah samoocha kshetr patharon par savana jaisi vanaspati aur dakshini hisse men, amataur par vindhy tatha satapuda ki pahadiyon par nam parnapati vanon se dhaka hua hai.

udyog aur vyapar

yahan vanijyik roop se mahattvapoorn sagaun ke ped pae jate hain. lakh, rngaee v charmashodhan ka saman, gond, phal, savaee ghas (moolyavan bharatiy reshedar ghas) aur shahad yahan ke any utpad hain.

yah kshetr chnderi aur sironj men mahin malamal aur chhint vale kapade ke utpadan ke lie vikhyat hai. yahan ke udyogo men sooti vastr nirman, kapas ki otaee aur hathakaragha bunaee se jude udyog shamil hain.

siment, eent v chini mitti ke karakhane, charmashodhan, shalaen, haddiyon ko pisane ke karakhane, resham mil, ara mil, mashinon ke auzar, aushadhi v rasayan nirman aur van adharit udyog yahan hain. laghu aur kutir udyog kshetriy arthavyavastha men mahattvapoorn sthan rakhate hain.

khanij

malava kshetr men kee prakar ke khanij bhndara hain, jinamen koyala, mainganij, abhrak, lauh, ayask, tanba, baauksait, esbestas, choona-patthar, chikani mitti, kailsait, selakhadi, sisa, jasta v grefait shamil hain. inamen se adhikansh ka, jahan tak snbhav hai, vanijyik dohan kiya ja raha hai.

krishi

mukhy mausam khrarif hai, jisamen jvar, gehoon, makka, chana, arahar, moong, kapas, ganja, jvar aur bajara ki kheti hoti hai. krishi adharit mahattvapoorn udyogon men chini, chaval, tel, dal, aur ate ki milen pramukh hain.

parivahan

yah kshetr rel aur sadak marg dvara bhalibhanti juda hua hai. yah dilli-chennee, dilli-munbee aur kolakata-munbee rashtriy rajamarg par sthit hai. munbee se ilahabad aur havada jane vali mukhy rel lain yahan se gujarati hai. itarasi, sagar, nagada aur ratalam yahan ke mahattvapoorn sthan hain.

malava chitrakala

  • malava shaili ki chitrakala men vastushilpiy drishyon ki or jhukav, savadhanipoorvak taiyar ki gayi sapat kintu suvyavasthit snrachana, shreshth praroopan, shobha hetu prakritik drishyon ka srijan tatha roopon ko ubharane ke lie ek rng ke dhabbon ka suniyojit upayog darshaniy hai.
  • stri-purush donon ka chitran tnvagi roop men laghumukh evn ayatalochanamay roop men kiya gaya hai. madhodas rachit 'rngamala' ke drishy is shaili ke anupam udaharan hain.
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