सिकन्दर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(सिकंदर se punarnirdeshit)
sikandar
Alexander.jpg
poora nam sikndar mahanh / Alexander
any nam alakshyendr, elekzendar tritiy, elekzendar mesedoniyan
janm 20 julaee, 356 ee. poo.
janm bhoomi pela, maisedon, yoonan
mrityu tithi 10 ya 11 joon, 323 ee. poo. (umr 33 varsh)
mrityu sthan bebilon
pita/mata philip dvitiy, olnpiyaz
pati/patni rukhasana, baiktriya, straiteyara dvitiy
sntan sikndar chaturth
upadhi king
rajy sima yoonan, faras aur pnjab
shasan kal 336 – 323 ee. poo.
sha. avadhi 13 varsh
poorvadhikari philip dvitiy

sikandar athava alakshyendr, mesedoniya ka grik prashasak tha. vah elekzendar tritiy, Alexander the Great tatha elekzendar mesedoniyan ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. itihas men sikandar sabase kushal aur yashasvi senapati mana gaya hai. apani mrityu tak sikandar us tamam bhoomi ko jit chuka tha, jisaki janakari prachin yavan (grik) logon ko thi. isalie use vishvavijeta bhi kaha jata hai. sikandar ke pita ka nam filip tha.

aitihasik ullekh

  • sikandar ko sabase pahale ek ganarajy ke pradhan ke virodh ka samana karana pada, jise yoonani aistiz kahate hain, snskrit men jisaka nam hastin hai; vah us jati ka pradhan tha jisaka bharatiy nam hastinayan tha [1]. yoonani men isake lie astakenoee ya astanenoee-jaise shabdon ka prayog kiya gaya hai, aur usaki rajadhani pyookelaotis arthath pushkalavati likhi gee hai. is vir saradar ne apane nagarakot par yoonaniyon ki gherebndi ka poore tis din tak mukabala kiya aur ant men ladata hua mara gaya. isi prakar ashvayan tatha ashvakayan bhi akhiri dam tak lade, jaisa ki is bat se pata chalata hai ki unake kam se kam 40,000 sainik bndi bana lie ge. unaki arthik samriddhi ka bhi anuman is bat se lagaya ja sakata hai ki is ladaee men 2,30,000 bail sikandar ke hath lage.[2]
  • ashvakayanon ne 30,000 ghudasavar 38,000 paidal aur 30 hathiyon ki sena lekar, jinaki sahayata ke lie maidanon ke rahane vale 7,000 vetanabhogi sipahi aur the, sikandar se morcha liya. yah poori ashvakayanon ki qilebnd rajadhani massag[3] men apani virangana rani kliyofis[4] ke netritv men ashvakayanon ne "ant tak apane desh ki raksha karane ka dridh snkalp kiya." rani ke sath hi vahan ki striyon ne bhi pratiraksha men bhag liya. vetanabhogi sainik ke roop men bade nirutsah hokar lade, parantu bad men unhen josh a gaya aur unhonne "apaman ke jivan ki apeksha gaurav ke mar jana" hi behatar samajha.[5] unake is utsah ko dekhakar abhisar namak nikatavarti parvatiy desh men bhi utsah jagrat hua aur vahan ke log bhi pratiraksha ke lie dat ge. us pradesh ke svatntr nagaron ne bhi, jaise aornos, bazira, ora athava dayarta adi ne, pratishodh ka yahi marg apanaya aur unamen pratyek ne bahut lambi gherebndi ke bad hi hathiyar dale.[2]

shasan kshetr

sikandar ne apane karyakal men eeran, siriya, misr, mesopotamiya, phinishiya, judea, gajha, baiktriya aur bharat men pnjab tak ke pradesh par vijay hasil ki thi. sikandar ne sabase pahale grik rajyon ko jita aur phir vah eshiya mainar (adhunik turki) ki taraph badha. us kshetr par us samay faras ka shasan tha. farasi samrajy misr se lekar pashchimottar bharat tak phaila tha. faras ke shah dara tritiy ko usane tin alag-alag yuddhon men parajit kiya, halanki usaki tathakathit 'vishv-vijay' faras vijay se adhik nahin thi par use shah dara ke alava any sthaniy prantapalon se bhi yuddh karana pada tha. misr, baktriya, tatha adhunik tazikistan men sthaniy pratirodh ka samana karana pada tha.

bharat men sikandar

bharat men sikandar ka puru se yuddh hua. jisamen puru ki har huee. bharat par sikandar ke akraman ke samay chanaky (vishnugupt athava kautily) takshashila men pradhyapak the. takshashila aur gandhar ke raja ambhi ne sikandar se samajhauta kar liya. chanaky ne bharat ki snskriti ko videshiyon se bachane ke lie sabhi rajaon se agrah kiya kintu sikandar se ladane koee nahin aya. puru ne sikandar se yuddh kiya, kintu har gaya. magadh ke raja mahapadmannd ne chanaky ka sath dene se mana kar diya aur chanaky ka apaman bhi kiya. chanaky ne chandragupt ko sath lekar ek naye samrajy ki sthapana ki aur sikandar dvara jite ge rajy pnjab ke rajadoot selyookas ko haraya. sikandar ke akraman ke samay sindhu nadi ki ghati ke nichale bhag men shivigan ke pados men rahane vala ek gan ka nam agalassoee tha. sikandar jab sindhu nadi ke marg se bharat se vapas laut raha tha, to is gan ke logon se usaka muqabala hua. assakenoee logon ne sikandar se jamakar loha liya aur unake ek tir se sikandar ghayal bhi ho gaya. lekin ant men vijay sikandar ki hi huee. usane massag durg par adhikar kar liya aur bhnyakar narasnhar ke bad assakenoee logon ka daman kar diya. assapesioee gan bharat par sikandar mahanh ke akraman ke samay pashchimottar sima par kunad athava trichal nadi ki ghati men rahata tha. abhisaresh sikandar ke akraman ke samay abhisar janapad ka raja tha.

vibhinn jatiyon ka sngharsh

bharatiy sainyabal apane charam roop men raja poras (paurav) ki sena men dikhaee diya, jo sikandar ka sabase shaktishali shatru tha. usane arriyan ke anuman ke anusar 30,000 paidal sipahiyon, 4,000 ghudasavaron, 300 rathon aur 200 hathiyon ki sena lekar sikandar ka mukabala kiya. usaki parajay ke bad bhi sikandar ko usaki taraf maitri ka hath badhana pada.

  • agalassoee jati ke logon ne 40,000 paidal sipahiyon aur 3,000 ghudasavaron ki sena lekar sikandar se takkar li. kaha jata hai ki unake ek nagar ke 20,000 nivasiyon ne apane-apako bndiyon ke roop men shatruon ke hathon men samarpit karane ke bajay bal-bachchon sahit ag men koodakar pran de dena hi uchit samajha.
  • isake bad sikandar ko kee svayatt jatiyon ke sngh ke sngathit virodh ka samana karana pada, jinamen malav tatha kshudrak adi jatiyan thin, jinaki snyukt sena men 90,000 paidal sipahi, 10,000 ghudasavar aur 900 se adhik rath the. unake brahmanon ne bhi padhane-likhane ka kam chhodakar talavar sambhali aur ranakshetr men ladate hue mare ge, "bahut hi kam log bndi banae ja sake."
  • kath ek aur vir jati thi, jo apane shaury ke lie door-door tak vikhyat thi.[6] kaha jata hai ki ranakshetr men unake 17,000 log mare ge the aur 70,000 bndi bana lie ge the.
  • malavon ne alag se bhi 50,000 sainikon ki sena lekar ek nadi ki ghati ki raksha ki. anbashthon ki sena men 60,000 paidal, 6,000 ghudasavar aur 500 rath the. akele sindhu ghati ke nichale bhag men hone vale yuddhon men 80,000 sipahi mare ge.
  • is ilake men brahmanon ne aguvaee ki aur pratirodh ki bhavana tatha yuddh ke prati logon men adamy utsah paida kiya aur dharm ki raksha karate hue hnsate-hnsate apane pranon ki ahuti de di.[7][2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. (panini, VI, 4, 174)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 chndragupt maury aur usaka kal |lekhak: radhakumud mukharji |prakashak: rajakamal prakashan |
  3. snskrit:- mashak, jo mashakavati namak nadi ke tat par sthit tha, jisaka ullekh panini ke kashik bhashy men milata hai (VI, 2, 85;VI,3,119)};
  4. (snskrit:- kripa?)
  5. maikakrindil-krit inavezan, prishth 194 (kartiyas), 270 (diyodoras)
  6. (arriyan, V. 22,2)
  7. (plootark, laivs X; kainbrij histri, I, prishth 378)

snbndhit lekh

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