बाबर  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

babar
babar
poora nam zahir ud-din muhammad babar
any nam mugal shah, al-sultanu i azam va i hakam, padashah-e-gazi
janm 14 faravari, sanh 1483 ee.
janm bhoomi andina (faragana rajy ki rajadhani)
mrityu tithi 26 disambar, sanh 1530 ee.
mrityu sthan agara
pita/mata umar shekh mirza, qutaluganigar khanam (yoonus ki putri)
sntan putr- humayoon, kamaran, askari, hindal, putri- gulabadan begam
upadhi gazi (khanava ke yuddh men vijay ke bad)
shasan kal san 1526 se 1530 ee.
sha. avadhi 4 varsh
rajyabhishek 8 joon, sanh 494 ee. [1]
yuddh panipat ka pratham yuddh[2], khanava ka yuddh[3], chnderi ka yuddh[4], ghaghara ka yuddh[5]
nirman qabuli bag masjid,[6], jami masjid [7], agara ki masjid [8], noor afagan[9], babari masjid [10]
uttaradhikari humayoon
rajagharana chagataee vnsh
vnsh taimoor [11] aur chngez khan ka vnsh [12]
maqabara qabul
bharat par akraman bajaur evn bhira akraman 1518 se 1519 ee., peshavar akraman 1519 ee., syalakot, bhira akraman 1520 ee., sultanapur, lahaur, dipalapur akraman 1524 ee.
rachanaain babaranama ya tuzuq-e-babari, divan [13], risal-e-usaj [14], mubiyan [15]

zahir ud-din muhammad babar (angrezi: Babur, janm- 14 faravari, 1483 ee., faragana; mrityu- 26 disambar, 1530 ee., agara) jo ki bharatiy itihas men babar ke nam se prasiddh hai, mugal shasak tha. vah bharat men mugal vnsh ka snsthapak tha. babar taimoor lng ke parapota tha aur vishvas rakhata tha ki chngez khan usake vnsh ka poorvaj tha. 1526 ee. men panipat ke pratham yuddh men dilli saltanat ke antim vnsh (lodi vnsh) ke sultan ibrahim lodi ki parajay ke sath hi bharat men mugal vnsh ki sthapana ho gee thi. is vnsh ka snsthapak zahir ud-din muhammad babar tha. babar ka pita umar shekh mirza, faragana ka shasak tha, jisaki mrityu ke bad babar rajy ka vastavik adhikari bana. parivarik kathinaeeyon ke karan vah madhy eshiya ke apane paitrik rajy par shasan nahin kar saka. usane keval 22 varsh ki ayu men qabul par adhikar kar afaganistan men rajy qayam kiya tha. vah 22 varsh tak qabul ka shasak raha. us kal men usane apane poorvajon ke rajy ko vapis pane ki kee bar koshish ki, par saphal nahin ho saka.

janm evn abhishek

14 faravari, 1483 ee. ko faragana men 'zahiruddin muhammad babar' ka janm hua. babar apane pita ki or se taimoor ka panchava evn mata ki or se chngez khan (mngol neta) ka chaudahavan vnshaj tha. usaka parivar turki jati ke 'chagataee vnsh' ke antargat ata tha. babar apane pita 'umar shekh mirza' ki mrityu ke bad 11 varsh ki ayu men shasak bana. usane apana rajyabhishek apani dadi ‘aisan daulat begam’ ke sahayog se karavaya. babar ne apane faragana ke shasan kal men 1501 ee. men samarakand par adhikar kiya, jo matr ath mahine tak hi usake qabze men raha. 1504 ee. men qabul vijay ke uparant babar ne apane poorvajon dvara dharan ki gee upadhi ‘mirza’ ka tyag kar nee upadhi ‘padashah’ dharan ki.

babar ki bharat vijay

babar ka bharat ke virudv kiya gaya pratham abhiyan 1519 ee. men 'yusoophajaee' jati ke viruddh tha. is abhiyan men babar ne ‘bajaur’ aur ‘bhera’ ko apane adhikar men kiya. yah babar ka pratham bharatiy abhiyan tha, jisamen usane topakhane ka prayog kiya tha. 1519 ee. ke apane doosare abhiyan men babar ne ‘bajaur’ aur ‘bhera’ ko punah jita sath hi ‘syalakot’ evn ‘saiyyadapur’ ko bhi apane adhikar men kar liya. 1524 ee. ke chauthe abhiyan ke antargat ibrahim lodi evn daulat khan lodi ke madhy matabhed ho jane ke karan daulat khan, jo us samay lahaur ka gavarnar tha, ne putr dilavar khan evn alam khan (bahalol khan ka putr) ko babar ko bharat par akraman karane ke lie amntrit karane ke lie bheja. sambhavatah isi samay rana sanga ne bhi babar ko bharat par akraman karane ke lie nimatrnn bheja tha.

babar ko bharat amntran ke karan

babar ko bharat par akraman ke lie amntrit karane ke pichhe sambhavatah kuchh karan is prakar the-

  1. daulat khan pnjab men apana svatantr astitv banaye rakhana chahata tha.
  2. alam khan kisi bhi tarah se dilli ke sinhasan par apana adhikar karana chahata tha.
  3. rana sanga sambhavatah babar ke dvara afaganon ki shakti ko nasht karava kar svayn dilli ke sinhasan ko prapt karana chahata tha.

apane chauthe abhiyan 1524 ee. men babar ne lahaur evn dipalapur par adhikar kar liya. navambar 1526 ee. men babar dvara kiye gaye panchave abhiyan men, jisamen badakhshan ki sainik tukadi ke sath babar ka putr humayoon bhi a gaya tha, usane sarvapratham daulat khan ko samarpan ke lie vivash kiya aur bad men use bandi bana liya gaya. shighr hi alam khan ne bhi atsamarpan kar diya. is tarah poora pnjab babar ke qabze men a gaya.

panipat ka pratham yuddh (21 aprail, 1526 ee.)

is samay ibrahim lodi dilli ka sultan tha aur daulat khan lodi pnjab ka rajyapal. daulat khan lodi, ibrahim lodi se naraz tha. usane dilli saltanat se vidroh kar babar ko apani madad ke liye qabul se bulaya. babar khud bhi bharat par hamala karana chah raha tha. vah daulat khan lodi ke nimantran par bharat par akraman karane ki taiyari karane laga. us samay turk-afagan bharat par akraman loot se malamal hone ke liye karate rahate the. babar ek bahut badi sena lekar pnjab ki or chal diya.

yah yuddh sambhat: babar ki mahatvakankshi yojanaon ki abhivyakti thi. yah yuddh dilli ke sultan ibrahim lodi (afagan) evn babar ke madhy lada gaya. 12 aprail, 1526 ee. ko donon or ki senaen panipat ke maidan men amane-samane a geen aur yuddh ka arambh 21 aprail ko hua. aisa mana jata hai ki is yuddh ka nirnay dopahar tak hi ho gaya. yuddh men ibrahim lodi buri tarah se parast hua aur mar diya gaya. babar ne apani kriti ‘babaranama’ men is yuddh ko jitane men matr 12000 sainikon ke upayog kie jane ka ullekh kiya hai. kintu is vishay par itihasakaron men bahut matabhed hai. is yuddh men babar ne pahali bar prasiddh ‘tulagama yuddh niti’ ka prayog kiya. isi yuddh men babar ne topon ko sajane men ‘usmani vidhi’ (roomi vidhi) ka prayog kiya tha. babar ne tulagama yuddh paddhati ujabekon se grahan ki thi. panipat ke hi yuddh men babar ne apane prasiddh nishanebaz ‘ustad ali’ aur ‘mustapha’ ki sevaen lin.

is yuddh men loote ge dhan ko babar ne apane sainik adhikariyon, naukaron evn sage sambandhiyon men bant diya. sambhavat: is bntavare men humayoon ko vah kohinoor hira prapt hua, jise gvaliyar naresh ‘raja vikramajit’ se chhina gaya tha. is hire ki qimat ke bare men yah mana jata hai ki isake mooly dvara poore snsar ka adhe din ka kharch poora kiya ja sakata tha. bharat vijay ke hi upalakshy men babar ne pratyek qabul nivasi ko ek-ek chandi ka sikka upahar svaroop pradan kiya tha. apani isi udarata ke karan use ‘kalandar’ ki upadhi di gee thi. panipat vijay ke bad babar ne kaha, ‘kabul ki garibi ab phir hamare lie nahin’. panipat ke yuddh ne bharat ke bhagy ka to nahin, kintu lodi vnsh ke bhagy ka nirnay avashy kar diya. afaganon ki shakti samapt nahin huee, lekin durbal avashy ho gee. yuddh ke pashchath dilli tatha agara par hi nahin, balki dhire-dhire lodi samrajy ke samast bhagon par bhi babar ne adhikar kar liya.

khanava ka yuddh (17 march, 1527 ee.)

uttari bharat men dilli ke sultan ke bad sabase adhik shaktishali shasak chittaud ka rajapoot naresh rana sanga (sngram sinh) tha. usane do musalamanon, ibrahim lodi aur babar ke yuddh men tatasthata ki niti apanayi. vah sochata tha ki babar loot-marakar vapis chala jayega, tab lodi shasan ko hata dilli men hindoo rajy ka use suyog prapt hoga. jab usane dekha ki babar mugal rajy ki sthapana ka ayojan kar raha hai, tab vah usase yuddh karane ke lie taiyar hua. rana sanga vir aur kushal senani tha. vah anek yuddh kar chuka tha, use sadaiv vijay prapt huee thi. udhar babar ne bhi samajh liya tha ki rana sanga ke rahate hue bharat men mugal rajy ki sthapana karana sambhav nahin hain; at: usane bhi apani sena ke sath rana se yuddh karane ka nishchay kiya.

kabul ke chahar bag men humayoon ke janm ka utsav manata babar

17 march, 1527 ee. men khanava ka yuddh babar aur rana sanga ke bich lada gaya. is yuddh ke karanon ke vishay men itihasakaron ke anek mat hain. pahala, choonki panipat ke yuddh ke poorv babar evn rana sanga men hue samajhauten ke tahat ibrahim lodi ke khilaf sanga ko babar ke sainy abhiyan men sahayata karani thi, jisase rana sanga bad men mukar gaya. doosara, sanga babar ko dilli ka badashah nahin manata tha. in donon karanon se alag kuchh itihasakaron ka manana hai ki, yah yuddh babar evn rana sanga ki mahatvakankshi yojanaon ka parinam tha. babar sampoorn bharat ko raundana chahata tha tatha rana sanga turk-afagan rajy ke khandaharon ke avashesh par ek hindoo rajy ki sthapana karana chahata tha, parinamasvaroop donon senaon ke madhy 17 march, 1527 ee. ko yuddh arambh hua. is yuddh men rana sanga ka sath maravad, ambar, gvaliyar, ajamer, hasan khan mevati, basin chnderi evn ibrahim lodi ka bhaee mahamood lodi de rahe the.

is yuddh men rana sanga ke snyukt morche ki khabar se babar ke sainikon ka manobal girane laga. babar ne apane sainikon ke utsah ko badhane ke lie sharab pine aur bechane par pratibandh ki ghoshana kar sharab ke sabhi patron ko tudava kar sharab n pine ki kasam li, usane musalamanon se ‘tamaga kar’ n lene ki ghoshana ki. tamaga ek prakar ka vyaparik kar tha, jise rajy dvar lagaya jata tha. is tarah khanava ke yuddh men bhi panipat yuddh ki rananiti ka upayog karate hue babar ne rana sanga ke viruddh ek saphal yuddh ki rananiti tay ki.

babar ki vijay

rajasthan ke aitihasik kavy 'vir vinod' men sanga aur babar ke is yuddh ka vistarapoorvak varnan kiya gaya hai ki, babar bis hazar mugal sainikon ko lekar sanga se yuddh karane aya tha. usane sanga ki sena ke lodi senapati ko pralobhan diya, jisase vah sanga ko dhokha dekar sena sahit babar se ja mila. babar aur sanga ki pahali muthabhed bayana men aur doosari usake pas khanava namak sthan par huee thi. rajapooton ne viratapoorvak yuddh kiya. ant men sanga ki har huee aur babar ki vijay. is vijay karan babar ke sainikon ki virata nahin, balki unaka adhunik topakhana tha. rajapooton se yuddh karate hue turkon ke pair ukhad gaye, jisase rajapooton ki vijay aur turkon ki parajay dikhaee dene lagi, kintu jab babar ke topakhane ne ag barasayi, tab sanga ki jiti bazi har men badal gee. phir bhi sanga aur usake vir marate dam tak ladate rahe. babar ne rajapooton ke bare men likha hai,− 've marana−marana to janate hai; kintu yuddh karana nahin janate.' sanga aur babar ka yah nirnayak yuddh fatehapur sikari ke pas khanava namak sthan men 16 aprail, sanh 1527 men hua tha. is tarah us samay ke brajamndal men jayachndr ke bad rana sanga ki bhi har huee.

taimoor, babar aur humayoon

is yuddh men rana sanga ghayal hua, par kisi tarah apane sahayogiyon dvara bacha liya gaya. kalantar men apane kisi samant dvara zahar diye jane ke karan rana sanga ki mrityu ho gee. khanava ke yuddh ko jitane ke bad babar ne ‘gazi’ ki upadhi dharan ki.

babar ke jivan men sthirata

khanava ke yuddh ke uparant babar ke ghumakkad evn asthir jivan men sthirata aee. 29 janavari, 1528 ee. ko babar ne ‘chnderi ke yuddh’ men vahan ke soobedar 'medini ray' ko parast kiya. chnderi yuddh ke bad babar ne rajapootana ke kate huye siron ki minar banavaee tatha jihad ka nara diya. medini ray ki do putriyon ka vivah 'kamaran' evn 'humayoon' se kar diya gaya. 6 mee, 1529 ee. ko babar ne ‘ghaghara ke yuddh’ men bngal evn bihar ki snyukt sena ko parast kiya. ghaghara yuddh jal evn thal par lada gaya. parinamasvaroop babar ka samrajy aauksas se ghaghara evn himalay se gvaliyar tak pahunch gaya. ghaghara yuddh ke bad babar ne bngal ke shasak nusarat shah se sndhi kar usake samrajy ki snprabhuta ko svikar kiya. nusarat shah ne babar ko ashvasan diya ki vah babar ke shatruon ko apane samrajy men sharan nahin dega.

mugal rajy ki sthapana

ibrahim lodi aur rana sanga ki har ke bad babar ne bharat men mugal rajy ki sthapana ki aur agara ko apani rajadhani banaya. usase pahale sultanon ki rajadhani dilli thi; kintu babar ne use rajadhani nahin banaya, kyonki vahan pathan the, jo turkon ki shasan−satta pnsad nahin karate the. prashasan aur raksha donon nazariyon se babar ko dilli ke muqabale agara sahi laga. mugal rajy ki rajadhani agara hone se shuroo se hi braj se ghanisht snbndh raha. madhy eshiya men shasakon ka sabase bada pad 'khan' tha, jo mngol vnshiyon ko hi diya jata tha. doosare bade shasak 'amir' kahalate the. babar ka poorvaj taimoor bhi 'amir' hi kahalata tha. bharat men dilli ke muslim shasak 'sultan' kahalate the. babar ne apana pad 'badashah' ghoshit kiya tha. babar ke bad sabhi mugal samrat 'badashah' kahalaye gaye.

mrityu

babar keval 4 varsh tak bharat par rajy kar saka. lagabhag 48 varsh ki ayu men 26 disambar, 1530 ee. ko babar ki agara men mrityu ho gee. prarambh men usake shav ko agara ke 'aram bag' men rakha gaya, par antim roop se babar ki antim ichchhanusar usaka shav qabul le jakar dafanaya gaya, jahan usaka maqabara bana hua hai. usake bad usaka jyeshth putr humayoon mugal badashah bana.

bag-e-babar

babar ki upalabdhiyan

sambhavatah babar kushanon ke bad aisa pahala shasak tha, jisane kabul evn kndhar ko apane poorn niyntran men rakha. usane bharat men afagan evn rajapoot shakti ko samapt kar ‘mugal samrajy’ ki sthapana ki, jo lagabhag paune do sau varshon tak jivit raha. babar ne bharat par akraman kar ek nee yuddh niti ka prachalan kiya. babar ne sadakon ki map ke lie 'gaz-e-babari' ka prayog ka shubharambh kiya.

vidvanh vyakti

babar yogy shasak hone ke sath hi turki bhasha ka vidvanh bhi tha. usane turki bhasha men apani atmakatha ‘babaranama’ ki rachana ki, jisaka farasi bhasha men anuvad bad men abdul rahim khanakhana ne kiya. liden evn arsakin ne 1826 ee. men 'babaranama' ka angrezi bhasha men anuvad kiya. bevarij ne isaka ek snshodhit angrezi snskaran nikala. isake atirikt babar ko ‘mubiyan’ namak pady shaili ka janmadata bhi mana jata hai. isake atirikt babar ne 'khat-e-babari' namak ek lipi ka bhi avishkar kiya. babar ne apani atmakatha 'babaranama' men keval panch muslim shasakon- bngal, dilli, malava, gujarat evn bahamani rajyon tatha do hindoo shasakon mevad evn vijayanagar ka ullekh kiya hai.

pramukh itihasakaron ke mat

  • smith ne babar ko apane yug ke eshiyaee shasakon men sabase adhik pratibhashali evn kisi desh tatha kal ke samraton men uchch pad panen yogy bataya.
  • rashabruk ne to ek vyakti evn shasak ke roop men babar ki bhoori-bhoori prashnsa ki hai.
  • iliyat ne kaha ki, ‘prasann chitt’, vir, mahan, vicharashil tatha nishpaksh vyaktitv ke karan yadi babar ka palan-poshan evn prashikshan inglaind men hota to avashy hi vah ‘henari chaturth’ hota.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 11 varsh 4 mahine ki umr men
  2. 1526 ee. men ibrahim lodi evn babar ke madhy
  3. babar v rana sanga 1527 ee. men
  4. 1528 ee. men babar v medini ray
  5. 1529 ee. men babar v mahamood lodi
  6. panipat 1529 ee. men
  7. ruhelakhnd
  8. sodi qile ke andar
  9. agara men jyamitiy vidhi par adharit ek udyan
  10. senapati mir baqi dvara nirmit
  11. pitri paksh se taimoor ka panchavan vnshaj
  12. matri paksh se chngez khan ka chaudahavan vnshaj
  13. gazal aur rubaiyan sngrah
  14. khat-e-babari
  15. muslim qanoon ki pustak

snbndhit lekh


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