इल्तुतमिश  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

iltutamish ka maqabara, qutub minar

iltutamish (1210- 1236 ee.) ek ilbari turk tha. khokharon ke viruddh iltutamish ki kary kushalata se prabhavit hokar muhammad gori ne use “amirool umara” namak mahattvapoorn pad diya tha. akasmath mutyu ke karan kutubaddin aibak apane kisi uttaradhikari ka chunav nahin kar saka tha. atah lahaur ke turk adhikariyon ne kutubaddin aibak ke vivadit putr aramashah (jise itihasakar nahin manate) ko lahaur ki gaddi par baithaya, parantu dilli ke turko saradaron evn nagarikon ke virodh ke phalasvaroop kutubaddin aibak ke damad iltutamish, jo us samay badayoon ka soobedar tha, ko dilli amntrit kar rajyasinhasan par baithaya gaya. aramashah evn iltutamish ke bich dilli ke nikat jad namak sthan par sngharsh hua, jisamen aramashah ko bandi banakar bad men usaki hatya kar di gayi aur is tarah aibak vnsh ke bad ilbari vnsh ka shasan prarambh hua.

kathinaiyon se samana

sultan ka pad prapt karane ke bad iltutamish ko kuchh kathinaiyon ka samana karana pada. isake antargat iltutamish ne sarvapratham ‘kulbi’ arthath kutubaddin aibak ke samay saradar tatha ‘muijji’ arthath muhammad gori ke samay ke saradaron ke vidroh ka daman kiya. iltumish ne in vidrohi saradaron par vishvas n karate hue apane 40 gulam saradaron ka ek gut ya sngathan banaya, jise ‘turkan-e-chihalagani’ ka nam diya gaya. is sngathan ko ‘charagan’ bhi kaha jata hai. iltutimish ke samay men hi avadh men pirthoo vidroh hua.

1215 se 1217 ee. ke bich iltutimish ko apane do prabal pratidvanddhi 'eldauj' aur 'nasiruddin qabacha' se sngharsh karana pada. 1215 ee. men iltutimish ne eldauj ko tarain ke maidan men parajit kiya. 1217 ee. men iltutimish ne kubacha se lahaur chhin liya tatha 1228 men uchchh par adhikar kar kubacha se bina shart atmasamarpan ke lie kaha. ant men kubacha ne sindhu nadi men koodakar atmahatya kar li. is tarah in donon prabal virodhiyon ka ant hua.

mngolon se bachav

mngol akramanakari chngez khan ke bhay se bhayabhit hokar khvarijm shah ka putr 'jalaluddin mugabarni' vahan se bhag kar pnjab ki or a gaya. chngez khan usaka pichha karata hue lagabhag 1220-21 ee. men sindh tak a gaya. usane iltutamish ko sndesh diya ki vah mngabarni ki madad n karen. yah sndesh lekar chngez khan ka doot iltutamish ke darabar men aya. iltutamish ne mngol jaise shaktishali akramanakari se bachane ke lie mngabarni ki koee sahayata nahin ki. mngol akraman ka bhay 1228 ee. men mngabarni ke bharat se vapas jane par tal gaya. kutubuddin aibak ki mrityu ke bad ali mardan ne bngal men apane ko svatantr ghoshit kar liya tatha 'alauddin' ki upadhi grahan ki. do varsh bad usaki mrityu ho gee. isake bad usaka putr 'hisamuddin ivaj' uttaradhikari bana. usane 'gayasuddin ajim' ki upadhi grahan ki tatha apane nam ke sikke chalae aur khutaba (upadesh ya prashnsatmak rachana) padhavaya.

vijay abhiyan

1225 men iltutamish ne bngal men svatantr shasak 'hisamuddin ivaj' ke viruddh abhiyan chheda. ivaj ne bina yuddh ke hi usaki adhinata men shasan karana svikar kar liya, par iltutamish ke punah dilli lautate hi usane phir se vidroh kar diya. is bar iltutamish ke putr nasirooddin mahamood ne 1226 ee. men lagabhag use parajit kar lakhanauti par adhikar kar liya. do varsh ke uparant nasiruddin mahamood ki mrityu ke bad malik ikhtiyaruddin balka khalaji ne bngal ki gaddi par adhikar kar liya. 1230 ee. men iltutamish ne is vidroh ko dabaya. sngharsh men balka khalaji mara gaya aur is bar ek bar phir bngal dilli saltanat ke adhin ho gaya. 1226 ee. men iltutamish ne ranathnbhaur par tatha 1227 ee. men paramaron ki rajadhani mandaur par adhikar kar liya. 1231 ee. men iltutamish ne gvaliyar ke qile par ghera dalakar vahan ke shasak mngaladev ko parajit kiya. 1233 ee. men chndelon ke viruddh evn 1234-35 ee. men ujjain evn bhilasa ke viruddh usaka abhiyan saphal raha.

vaidh sultan evn upadhi

iltutamish ke nagada ke guhilauton aur gujarat chalukyon par kie ge akraman viphal hue. iltutamish ka antim abhiyan bamiyan ke viruddh hua. faravari, 1229 men bagadad ke khalifa se iltutamish ko samman men ‘khilat’ evn praman patr prapt hua. khalifa ne iltutamish ki pushti un sare kshetron men kar di, jo usane jite the. sath hi khalifa ne use 'sultan-e-ajam' (mahan shasak) ki upadhi bhi pradan ki. praman patr prapt hone ke bad iltutamish vaidh sultan evn dilli saltanat ek vaidh svatantr rajy ban gee. is svikriti se iltutamish ko sultan ke pad ko vnshanugat banane aur dilli ke sinhasan par apani santanon ke adhikar ko surakshit karane men sahayata mili. khilat milane ke bad iltutamish ne ‘nasir amir ul mominin’ ki upadhi grahan ki.

sikkon ka prayog

mamalook athava gulam vnsh
shasak kal
kutubuddin aibak (1206 - 1210 ee.)
aramashah (1210 - 1211 ee.)
iltutamish (1211 - 1236 ee.)
rukunuddin firozashah (1236 ee.)
raziya sultan (1236 - 1240 ee.)
muizuddin baharamashah (1240 - 1242 ee.)
alauddin masood (1242 - 1246 ee.)
nasiruddin mahamood (1246 - 1266 ee.)
gayasuddin balaban (1266 - 1287 ee.)
kaikubad v shamasuddin kyoomars (1287 - 1290 ee.)

iltutamish pahala turk sultan tha, jisane shuddh arabi sikke chalavaye. usane saltanat kalin do mahattvapoorn sikke 'chandi ka taka' (lagabhag 175 gren) tatha 'tanbe' ka ‘jital’ chalavaya. iltutamish ne sikkon par takasal ke nam ankit karavane ki parampara ko arambh kiya. sikkon par iltutamish ne apana ullekh khalifa ke pratinidhi ke roop men kiya hai. gvaliyar vijay ke bad iltutamish ne apane sikkon par kuchh gauravapoorn shabdon ko ankit karavaya, jaise “shaktishali sultan”, “samrajy v dharm ka soory”, “dharmanishthon ke nayak ke sahayak”. iltutamish ne ‘ikta vyavastha’ ka prachalan kiya aur rajadhani ko lahaur se dilli sthanantarit kiya.

mrityu

bayana par akraman karane ke lie jate samay marg men iltutamish bimar ho gaya. antatah aprail 1236 men usaki mrityu ho gee. iltutamish pratham sultan tha, jisane doab ke arthik mahattv ko samajha tha aur usamen sudhar kiya tha.

raziya ko uttaradhikar

raziya sultan iltutamish ki putri tatha bharat ki pahali muslim shasika thi. apane antim dinon men iltutamish apane uttaradhikar ke saval ko lekar chintit tha. iltutamish ke sabase bade putr nasirooddin mahamood ki, jo apane pita ke pratinidhi ke roop men bngal par shasan kar raha tha, 1229 ee. ko aprail men mrityu ho gee. sultan ke shesh jivit putr shasan kary ke kisi bhi prakar se yogy nahin the. at: iltutamish ne apani mrityu shaiyya par se apani putri raziya ko apana uttaradhikari niyukt kiya.

yatri vivaran evn snrakshak

iltutamish ki nyayapriyata ka varnan karate hue ibnabatoota likhata hai ki, sultan ne apane mahal ke samane sngamaramar ki do sheron ki moortiyan sthapit karaee thin, jinake galen men ghantiyan lagi thin, jisako koee bhi vyakti bajakar nyay ki mang kar sakata tha. 'muhammad junaidi' aur fakharul isami' ki madad se iltutamish ke darabar men 'minhaj-ul-siraj', 'malik tajuddin' ko snrakshan mila tha. minhaj-ul-siraj ne iltutamish ko mahanh dayalu, sahanubhooti rakhane vala, viddhanon evn vriddhon ke prati shraddha rakhane vala sultan bataya hai. daau. ar.pi. tripathi ke anusar bharat men muslim samprabhuta ka itihas iltutamish se arambh hota hai. avaphi ne iltutamish ke hi shasan kal men ‘jivami-ul-hikayat’ ki rachana ki. nizamulmulk muhammad junaidi, malik kutubuddin hasan gori aur fakharul mulk isami jaise yogy vyaktiyon ko usaka snrakshan prapt tha. vah shekh kutubuddin tabariji, shekh bahauddin jakariya, shekh najibuddin nakhshabi adi soofi snton ka bahut samman karata tha.

daau. eeshvari prasad ke anusar “iltutamish nissandeh gulam vnsh ka vastavik snsthapak tha.”

nirman kary

sthapaty kala ke antargat iltutamish ne kutubuddin aibak ke nirman kary ko poora karavaya. bharat men sambhavatah pahala maqabara nirmit karavane ka shrey bhi iltutamish ko diya jata hai. iltutamish ne badayoon ki jama masjid evn nagaur men atarakin ke daravaza ka nirman karavaya. ‘ajamer ki masjid’ ka nirman iltutamish ne hi karavaya tha. usane dilli men ek vidyalay ki sthapana ki. iltutamish ka maqabara dilli men sthit hai, jo ek kakshiy maqabara hai.



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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