भारत पर महमूद ग़ज़नवी के आक्रमण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bharat par mahamood gazanavi ke akraman (1001-1026 ee.)

mahamood gazanavi (971-1030 ee.) madhy afaganistan men kendrit gazanavi vnsh ka mahatvapoorn shasak tha, jo poorvi eeran men samrajy vistar ke lie jana jata hai. vah turk mool ka tha aur apane samakalin[1] saljooq turkon ki tarah poorv men ek sunni islami samrajy banane men saphal hua. usake dvara jite ge pradeshon men aj ka poorvi eeran, afaganistan aur snlagn madhy eshiya[2], pakistan aur uttar-pashchim bharat shamil the. usake yuddhon men fatimi sultanon (shiya), kabul shahiya rajaon (hindoo) aur kashmir ka nam pramukhata se ata hai. bharat men islami shasan lane aur akraman ke dauran lootapat machane ke karan bharatiy hindoo samaj men usako ek lutere akranta ke roop men jana jata hai. somanath ke mandir ko lootana is kadi ki ek mahatvapoorn ghatana thi.

bharat par akraman

999 ee. men jab mahamood gazanavi sinhasan par baitha, to usane pratyek varsh bharat par akraman karane ki pratigya ki. usane bharat par kitani bar akraman kiya yah spasht nahin hai, kintu sar henari iliyat ne mahamood gazanavi ke 17 akramanon ka varnan kiya, jinaka ullekh nimn prakar se hai-

pratham akraman (1001 ee.)- mahamood gazanavi ne apana pahala akraman 1001 ee. men bharat ke samipavarti nagaron par kiya. par yahan use koee vishesh saphalata nahin mili.

doosara akraman (1001-1002 ee. - apane doosare abhiyan ke antargat mahamood gazanavi ne simant pradeshon ke shasak jayapal ke viruddh yuddh kiya. usaki rajadhani baihind par adhikar kar liya. jayapal is parajay ke apaman ko sahan nahin kar saka aur usane ag men jalakar atmadah kar liya.

tisara akraman (1004 ee.)- mahamood gazanavi ne uchchh ke shasak vajira ko dandit karane ke lie akraman kiya. mahamood ke bhay ke karan vajira sindhu nadi ke kinare jngal men sharan lene ko bhaga aur ant men usane atmahatya kar li.

chautha akraman (1005 ee.)- 1005 ee. men mahamood gazanavi ne multan ke shasak daood ke viruddh march kiya. is akraman ke dauran usane bhatinda ke shasak anandapal ko parajit kiya aur bad men daood ko parajit kar use adhinata svikar karane ke lie badhy kar diya.

panchava akraman (1007 ee.)- pnjab men ohind par mahamood gazanavi ne jayapal ke pautr sukhapal ko niyukt kiya tha. sukhapal ne islam dharm grahan kar liya tha aur use naushashah kaha jane laga tha. 1007 ee. men sukhapal ne apani svatntrata ki ghoshana kar di thi. mahamood gazanavi ne ohind par akraman kiya aur naushashah ko bandi bana liya gaya.

chhatha akraman (1008 ee.)- mahamood ne 1008 ee. apane is abhiyan ke antargat pahale anandapal ko parajit kiya. bad men usane isi varsh kangadi pahadi men sthit nagarakot par akraman kiya. is akraman men mahamood ko apar dhan ki prapti huee.

satavan akraman (1009 ee.)- is akraman ke antargat mahamood gazanavi ne alavar rajy ke narayanapur par vijay prapt ki.

athavan akraman (1010 ee.)- mahamood ka athavan akraman multan par tha. vahan ke shasak daood ko parajit kar usane multan ke shasan ko sada ke lie apane adhin kar liya.

nauva akraman (1013 ee.)- apane nave abhiyan ke antargat mahamood gazanavi ne thaneshvar par akraman kiya.

dasavan akraman (1013 ee.)- mahamood gazanavi ne apana dasavan akraman nandashah par kiya. hindooshahi shasak anandapal ne nandashah ko apani nayi rajadhani banaya. vahan ka shasak trilochanapal tha. trilochanapal ne vahan se bhag kar kashmir men sharan liya. turko ne nandashah men lootapat ki.

gyarahavan akraman (1015 ee.)- mahamood ka yah akraman trilochanapal ke putr bhimapal ke viruddh tha, jo kashmir par shasan kar raha tha. yuddh men bhimapal parajit hua.

barahavan akraman (1018 ee.)- apane barahaven abhiyan men mahamood gazanavi ne kannauj par akraman kiya. usane bulndashahar ke shasak haradatt ko parajit kiya. usane mahavan ke shasak bulachnd par bhi akraman kiya. 1019 ee. men usane punah kannauj par akraman kiya. vahan ke shasak rajyapal ne bina yuddh kie hi atmasamarpan kar diya. rajyapal dvara is atmasamarpan se kalinjar ka chndel shasak krodhit ho gaya. usane gvaliyar ke shasak ke sath sndhi kar kannauj par akraman kar diya aur rajyapal ko mar dala.

terahavan akraman (1020 ee.)- mahamood ka terahavan akraman 1020 ee. men hua tha. is abhiyan men usane bari, bundelakhand, kirat tatha lohakot adi ko jit liya.

chaudahavan akraman (1021 ee.)- apane chaudahaven akraman ke dauran mahamood ne gvaliyar tatha kalinjar par akraman kiya. kalinjar ke shasak gonda ne vivash hokar sndhi kar li.

pandrahavan akraman (1024 ee.)- is abhiyan men mahamood gazanavi ne lodorg (jaisalamer), chikalodar (gujarat), tatha anhilavad (gujarat) par vijay sthapit ki.

solahavan akraman (1025 ee.)- is 16ven abhiyan men mahamood gazanavi ne somanath ko apana nishana banaya. usake sabhi abhiyanon men yah abhiyan sarvadhik mahattvapoorn tha. somanath par vijay prapt karane ke bad usane vahan ke prasiddh mndiron ko tod diya tatha apar dhan prapt kiya. yah mndir gujarat men samudr tat par apani apar snpatti ke lie prasiddh tha. is mndir ko lootate samay mahamood ne lagabhag 50,000 brahmanon evn hinduon ka katl kar diya. pnjab ke bahar kiya gaya mahamood ka yah antim akraman tha.

satrahavan akraman (1027 ee.)- yah mahamood gazanavi ka antim akraman tha. yah akraman sindh aur multan ke tatavarti kshetron ke jaton ke viruddh tha. isamen jat parajit hue.

mahamood ke bharatiy akraman ka vastavik uddeshy dhan ki prapti tha. vah ek moortibhnjak akramanakari tha. mahamood ki sena men sevndaray evn tilak jaise hindoo uchch padon par asin vyakti the. mahamood ke bharat akraman ke samay usake sath prasiddh itihasavidh, ganitgy, bhoogolavetta, khagol evn darshan shastr ke gyata tatha ‘kitabul hind’ ka lekhak alabarooni bharat aya. alabarooni mahamood ka darabari kavi tha. ‘tahakik-e-hind’ pustak men usane bharat ka vivaran likha hai. isake atirikt itihasakar ‘utabi’, 'tarikh-e-subuktagin' ka lekhak ‘behaki’ bhi usake sath aye. behaki ko itihasakar lenapool ne ‘poorvi peps’ ki upadhi pradan ki hai. ‘shahanama’ ka lekhak 'firadausi’, faras ka kavi jari khurasani viddhan tusi, mahanh shikshak aur vidvanh unsuri, vidvanh asjadi aur farookhi adi darabari kavi the.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. aur bad ke
  2. sammililit roop se khorasan

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah