कुब्ले ख़ाँ  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

kuble khan (1216-1294) mngol samrat tatha chin ke 'yuvan vnsh' ka snsthapak tha. vah bharatiy itihas men prasiddh chngez khan ke sabase chhote putr tuli ka dvitiy putr tha. kuble khan bachapan se hi itana honahar tha ki chngez khan ne ek bar apane putron se kaha tha ki- "tumamen se kisi ko kisi bhi prakar ki shnka ho to is ladake (kuble) se poochh lena". kuble ne tin sau varshon se bhi adhik kal tak rajy karane vale soong shasan ko samapt kar diya tha aur chin ke itihas men pahali bar samrajy videshi shasan men hote hue bhi ek sootr men bandha, jo prajatntr sthapit hone ke kuchh din pahale tak bana raha.

vaisaray

jab tuli ka jyeshth putr mngu sinhasan par baitha, usane kuble khan ko 'kin' namak prant ka vaisaray niyukt kiya aur dakshini chin ke viruddh, jo soong logon ke adhipaty men tha, yuddh snchalan ka bhar saunpa. vah yoonan prant men bhi shanti sthapit karane men saphal hua. usake senapati uriyang kataee-sabuthaee ke putr ne kuchh hi dinon bad tonking par bhi adhikar kar liya. mngoo ke vaisaray ke roop men kuble khan ne yuddh snchalan ka hi bhar apane oopar rakha aur jite hue bhagon men shasan ka bhar usane chin ke hi adhikariyon ko saunpa. mngoo ko yah ruchikar n hua aur usane kuble ko vapas bula liya.[1]

samrajy ka uttaradhikari

mngoo ne jab soong logon ke viruddh morcha sthapit kiya aur dakshini chin ke samrajy par tin or se akraman kiya; us samay kuble khan ne uttar men honan se pranrabh karake yangtaji nadi ke uttar vale bhag par vijay prapt ki aur nadi parakar voo-chang ke bade nagar par bhi akraman kiya. mngolon ko saphalata mili. 'kin' samrajy tatha soong logon ke bich ek nee sima nirdharit ki gee. soong logon ke viruddh yah sngharsh abhi chal hi raha tha ki 1259 ee. men mngoo ki mrityu ho gee. tatkal kuble ne apane mngoli snbndhiyon se, jo chin ki sena men uchchadhikari the, tatha chin ke pranton men jo mngol vaisaray the, milakar apane ‘khakan’ hone ki ghoshana kar di aur chini rajakumaron evn sena tatha prashasakiy uchchadhikariyon dvara apane ko eeshvar ka putr ghoshit kara diya aur chin samrajy ka bhi uttaradhikari ban baitha. usane apana nivas mngoliya se hatakar yenaking ke vishal tatha prachin nagar men lakar snsar par prabhutv rakhane vali dhuri ko apani jagah se hata diya. is prakar chin par prabhutv prapt karane vale mngol ne mngoliya ko, jo chngez khan ke samay snsar ke samrajy ka kendr tha, chin ke vistrit samrajy ka keval sainik mahatv ka prant bana diya aur vahan ke shasan ko chin ke antargat kar diya.

chini riti-rivajon ka prabhav

kuble khan ne tin sau varshon se bhi adhik kal tak rajy karane vale soong shasan ko samapt kar diya aur chin ke itihas men pahali bar samrajy videshi shasan men hote hue bhi ek sootr men bndh gaya, jo prajatntr sthapit hone ke kuchh din pahale tak bana raha. kuble khan apane ko chin ka vijeta nahin manata tha. us par chin ke ati prachin riti-rivajon tatha usaki sabhyata ka itana adhik prabhav pada ki usane dhir- dhire apani jati ki rashtriy parnparaon ko chhodakar madhyam raj (chin) ki yugon purani parnparaon ko apana liya.[1]

vibhinn vidhaon ka snrakshak

kuble khan ne vigyan tatha kala ki raksha ki evn snsar ke pradhan vidvanon, chitrakaron, kaviyon, vastuvisharadon tatha injiniyaron ko apane yahan amntrit kiya. usane shahi nahar ko khudavane ka kary poora karaya, jisaka adhikansh nichali yangtaji ko pili nadi se milane vale nahari marg ka bhag tha tatha jisasen piking ko chaval pahunchane men vishesh sahayata milati thi. usane ek vedhashala bhi banavaee tatha pnchang men bhi snshodhan karaya. usake samay men jyamiti, bijaganit, trikonamiti, bhoogol tatha itihas ke adhyayan ki prerana mili. usake banavae shabdakosh ab bhi vyavahar men lae jate hain. kheti, bagavani, resham ke kide palane tatha pashupalan par usane grnth likhavae. sahity ki usake samay men unnati huee tatha upanyas lekhan evn natyakala ko bhi ek naya mod mila.

garibon ko ashray

kuble khan ke samay men prati varsh raj-karmachari chin ke ek kone se doosare kone tak janata ki arthik sthiti tatha fasalon ka nirikshan karate the. garibon ke lie chaval tatha jvar ke atirikt kapade tatha ashray ka bhi prabndh karate the. vriddh, anath, rogi tatha angahinon ko rajy ki aur se sahayata di jati thi. kuble ne grihahin balakon ko ekatr kar unaki shiksha ka prabndh karaya; samrajy bhar men aspatal tatha anathalay khulavae.

vyapar ka prasar

chin ke jahaz samudr men door door shrilnka, arab tatha abisiniya tak jaya karate the. sthal marg se muslim vyapari faras tatha arab se vyaparik samagri, roos se roendar kapade ityadi late tatha lautate samay apane sath resham, bahumooly ratn tatha masale le jate. usake samay men chin vyaparik kendr ban gaya tha. kuble ke rajy kal men to isaka adbhut prasar hua.[1]

dharmik pravritti

snsar ke itihas men yah pahala avasar tha, jab pashchimi eshiya tatha chin-roos tatha tibbat ko prithakh karane ke lie n to marusthal the aur n paraspar virodhi dal athava yuddh ke lie tatpar senaen. dakaiti aur lootamar ka kahin nam n tha aur mngol sainik yatayat ki raksha karate the. dharmik vishayon men logon ko svatntrata thi. eesaee, bauddh athava muslim koee bhi mat ho, sabake sath vah pakshapatarahit ho mitrabhav rakhata tha. eesaee padariyon ke upadeshon ko vah utani hi tanmayata se sunata tha, jitani bauddh purohiton athava muslim mullaon ke upadesh. yadi kabhi usane kisi pnth par vishesh kripa ki to keval isilie ki usase niti-nirdharan men sahayata milati thi.

mrityu

pakshapatarahit vishv nagarik hote hue bhi kuble khan vyavaharikata ko adhik mahatv deta tha. usake sevakon men eshiya ki sab jatiyon ke atirikt venis nagar (itali) ke bhi tin vyakti the. 34 varsh rajy karane ke bad kuble khan ki mrityu huee aur usi ke ichchhanusar use chin men n daphanakar door mngoliya men 'onan' tatha 'kerulen' ke udgam ke nikat 'nurakan kaldun parvat' par, jahan usake pitamah chngez khan tatha usake pita tuli evn man siyoorakuk-teni ki samadhiyan thin, dafanaya gaya.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 kuble khan (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 04 joon, 2014.

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