ग़यासुद्दीन बलबन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gayasuddin balaban ka maqabara, maharauli

gayasuddin balaban (1266-1286 ee.) ilbari jati ka vyakti tha, jisane ek naye rajavnsh ‘balabani vnsh’ ki sthapana ki thi. gayasuddin balaban gulam vnsh ka navan sultan tha. balaban moolatah sultan iltutamish ka turki gulam tha. balaban ko khvaja 'jamaluddin basari' nam ka ek vyakti kharid kar 1232-33 ee. men dilli laya tha. iltutamish ne gvaliyar ko jitane ke uparant balaban ko kharid liya. apani yogyata ke karan hi balaban iltutamish ke samay men, visheshakar raziya sultan ke samay men 'amir-e-shikar', muizuddin baharamashah ke samay men 'amir-e-akhoor', alauddin masood ke samay men 'amir-e-hajib' evn sultan nasirooddin mahamood ke samay men 'amir-e-hajib' v nain ke roop men rajy ki sampoorn shakti ka kendr ban gaya. balaban ki putri sultan mueejuddin baharamashah (1246-66 ee.) ko byahi thi. jisane use apana mntri tatha sahayak niyukt kiya tha. nasiruddin ki mrityu ke uparant 1266 ee. men amir saradaron ke sahayog se vah 'gayasuddin balaban' ke nam se dilli ke rajasinhasan par baitha. is prakar vah ilbari jati ka dvitiy shasak bana. balaban jatiy shreshthata men vishvas rakhata tha. isilie usane apana snbndh firadausi ke 'shahanama' men ullikhit turani shasak ke vnsh 'afarasiyab' se joda. apane pautron ka namakaran madhy eshiya ke khyati prapt shasak 'kaikhusaro', kaikubad ityadi ke nam par kiya. usane prashasan men sirf kulin vyaktiyon ko niyukt kiya. usaka kahana tha ki “jab mai kisi tuchchh parivar ke vyakti ko dekhata hoon to, mere sharir ki pratyek nadi uttejit ho jati hai.”

vidroh ka daman

balaban ne iltutamish dvara sthapit 40 turki saradaron ke dal ko samapt kar diya, turk amiron ko shaktishali hone se roka, apane shasan kal men hue ek matr bngal ka turk vidroh, jahan ke shasak tugaril khan veg ne apane ko svatantr ghoshit kar diya tha, ki soochana pakar balaban ne avadh ke soobedar amin khan ko bheja, parantu vah asaphal hokar lauta. atah krodhit hokar balaban ne usaki hatya karava di aur usaka sir ayodhya ke phatak par lataka diya aur svny is vidroh ka vakhoobi daman kiya. bngal ki tatkalin rajadhani lakhanauti ko us samay ‘vidroh ka nagar’ kaha jata tha. tugaril veg ko pakadane evn usaki hatya karane ka shrey malik mukaddir ko mila, choonki isake pahale tugaril ko pakadane men kafi kathinaee ka samana karana pada tha, isalie mukaddir ki saphalata se prasann hokar balaban ne use ‘tugarilakush’ (tugaril ki hatya karane vala) ki upadhi pradan ki. apane putr bukhara khan ko bngal ka soobedar niyukt kiya. isake atirikt balaban ne mevatiyon evn katehar men hue vidroh ka bhi daman kiya tatha doab evn pnjab kshetr men shanti sthapit ki. is prakar apani shakti ko samekit karane ke bad balaban ne bhavy upadhi 'jille-ilahi' dharan ko kiya.

balaban ki niti v siddhant

pashchimottar sima prant par mngol akraman ke bhay ko samapt karane ke lie balaban ne ek sunishchat yojana ka kriyanvayan kiya. usane sima par kilon ki ekatar banavayi aur pratyek qile men ek badi snkhya men sena rakhi. kuchh varsho ke pashchath uttar-pashchimi sima ko do bhagon men bant diya gaya. lahaur, multan aur dipalapur ka kshetr shahazada muhammad ko aur suman, samana tatha kachchh ka kshetr bugara khan ko diya gaya. pratyek shahazade ke lie prayah 18 hazar ghudasavaron ki ek shaktishali sena rakhi gayi. usane sainy vibhag ‘divan-e-arj’ ko punargathit karavaya, imadulamulk ko divan-e-arj ke pad par pratishthit kiya tatha simant kshetr men sthit qilon ka punanirman karavaya. balaban ke siddhant v usaki niti saltanatakalin rajatv siddhant ka pramukh bindoo hai. usane divan-e-arj ko vazir ke niyntran se mukt kar diya, jisase use dhan ki kami n ho. balaban ki achchhi sena vyavastha ka shrey imadulamulk ko hi tha. sath hi usane ayogy evn vriddh sainikon ko vetan ka bhugatan nakad vetan men kiya. usane turk prabhav ko kam karane ke lie farasi parampara par adharit ‘sijada’ (ghutane par baithakar samrat ke samane sir jhukana) evn ‘pabos’ (panv ko choomana) ke prachalan ko anivary kar diya. balaban ne guptachar vibhag ki sthapana rajy ke antargat hone vale shadayantron evn vidroh ke vishay men poorv janakari ke lie kiya. guptacharon ki niyukt balaban svayn karata tha aur unhen paryapt dhan upalabdh karata tha. koee bhi guptachar khule darabar men usase nahin milata tha. yadi koee guptachar apane kartavy ki poorti nahin karata tha, to use kathor dand diya jata tha. usane farasi riti-rivaj par adharit navaroj utsav ko prarambh karavaya. apane virodhiyon ke prati balaban ne kathor ‘lauh evn rakt’ niti ka palan kiya. is niti ke antargat vidrohi vyakti ki hatya kar usaki stri evn bachchon ko das bana liya jata tha.

balaban ke viruddh shadayntr

balaban ko prapt hone vali saphalataon se turk saradaron ka ek bada dal usase eershya karane laga tha tatha ve use pad se hatane ka upay sochane lage. unhonne mil kar 1250 ee. men balaban ke viruddh ek shadayntr racha aur balaban ko padachyut karava diya. balaban ke sthan par ek bharatiy musalaman 'imaduddin rihan' ki niyukti huee. yadyapi turk saradar sare adhikaron aur sari shakti ko apane hi hathon men rakhana chahate the tathapi ve rihan ki niyukti ke lie isalie razi ho ge kyonki ve is bat par ekamat nahin ho sake ki unamen se balaban ke sthan par kisaki niyukti ho. balaban ne apana pad chhodana svikar to kar liya, par vah chupake-chupake apane samarthakon ko ikattha bhi karata raha.

shakti pariksha

padachyut hone ke do varshon ke andar hi balaban apane kuchh virodhiyon ko jitane men saphal ho gaya. ab vah shakti pariksha ke lie taiyar tha. aisa lagata hai ki balaban ne pnjab ke ek bade kshetr par qabza karane vale mngol logon se bhi sampark sthapit kiya. sultan mahamood ko balaban ki shakti ke age ghutane tekane pade aur usane rihan ko barkhast kar diya. kuchh samay bad rihan parajit hua aur use mar diya gaya. balaban ne uchit-anuchit tariqon se apane any virodhiyon ko bhi samapt kar diya. ab usane rajasi pratik 'chhatr' ko bhi grahan kar liya, par itana hone par bhi sambhavatah turk saradaron ki bhavanaon ko dhyan men rakh vah sinhasan par nahin baitha. sultan mahamood ki 1265 ee. men mrityu ho gee. kuchh itihasakaron ka mat hai ki balaban ne sultan ko zahar dekar mar diya aur sinhasan ke apane raste ko saf karane ke lie usake putron ki bhi hatya kar di. balaban dvara apanae ge upay bahut bar anuchit aur avanchhaniy hote the, par isamen koee sndeh nahin ki usake sinhasan par baithane ke sath hi ek shaktishali kendriy sarakar ke yug ka arambh hua.

afarasiyan ka vnshaj

balaban ka vishvas tha ki antarik aur bahari khataron ka samana karane ka ekamatr upay samrat ke samman aur usaki shakti ko badhana hai aur is karan vah barabar is bat ka prayatn karata raha. us kal men manyata thi ki, adhikar aur shakti keval rajasi aur prachin vnshon ka visheshadhikar hai. usi ke anuroop balaban ne bhi sinhasan ke apane dave ko mazaboot karane ke lie ghoshana ki, ki vah kahaniyon men prasiddh turk yoddha 'afarasiyan' ka vnshaj hai. rajasi vnshaj se apane sambandhon ke davon ko mazaboot karane ke lie balaban ne svayn ko turk saradaron ke agrani ke roop men pradarshit kiya. usane shasan ke uchch padon ke lie keval uchch vnsh ke sadasyon ko svikar karana arambh kiya. isaka arth yah tha ki, bharatiy musalaman in padon se vnchit rah jate the. balaban kabhi-kabhi to is bat ki had kar deta tha. udaharanarth usane ek aise bade vyapari se milana asvikar kar diya, jo oonche khanadan ka nahin tha. itihasakar 'eerani' ne, jo svayn khanadani turkon ka samarthak tha, apani rachana men balaban se yah kahalavaya hai-"'jab bhi main kisi nich vnsh ke adami ko dekhata hoon, to krodh se meri ankhen jalane lagati hain aur mere hath meri talavar tak (use marane ke lie) pahunch jate hain." balaban ne vastav men aise shabd kahe the ya nahin, lekin inase sambhavatah gair-turkon ke prati usake drishtikon ke bare men pata chalata hai.

shaktishali kendriy sena ka sngathan

khanadani turk saradaron ka svayn ko agrani batate hue bhi balaban apani shakti men kisi ko, yahan tak ki apane parivar ke sadasyon ko bhi, hissedar banane ke lie taiyar nahin tha. usaki tanashahi is had tak thi ki aur to aur vah apane kisi samarth ki bhi alochana sahan nahin kar sakata tha. usaka ek pradhan kary 'chahalagani' ki shakti ko samapt kar samrat ki shakti ko mazaboot karana tha. is lakshy ko prapt karane ke lie vah apane sambandhi 'sher khan' ko zahar dekar marane men bhi nahin hichaka. lekin sath-sath janata ke samarthan aur vishvas ko prapt karane ke lie vah nyay ke mamale men thoda bhi pakshapat nahin karata tha. apane adhikar ki avahelana karane par vah bade se bade vyakti ko bhi nahin chhodata tha. is prakar gulamon ke prati durvyavahar karane par badayoon tatha avadh ke shasakon ke pitaon ko kadi saza di gee. rajy ki sabhi prakar ki soochana prapt karane ke lie balaban ne har vibhag men apane jasoos tainat kar die. antarik vidrohon tatha pnjab men jame hue mngolon se muqabala karane ke lie ek shaktishali kendriy sena ka sngathan kiya. in mngolon se dilli saltanat ko gambhir khatara bana hua tha. isake lie usane sainik vibhag 'divan-ee-arz' ko punargathit kiya aur aise sainikon ko penshan dekar seva mukt kiya, jo ab seva ke layaq nahin rah ge the, kyonki inamen se adhikatar sainik turk the aur iltutamish ke hindustan ae the. unhonne balaban ke is qadam ke virodh men apani avaz uthaee, par balaban ne unaki ek n suni.

rajapooton ki svatntrata

dilli ke asapas ke kshetron tatha doab men altamash ki mrityu ke bad qanoon aur vyavastha ki halat bigad gayi thi. gnga-yamuna doab tatha avadh men sadakon ki sthiti kharab thi aur charon or dakuon ke bhay ke karan ve itani asurakshit thin ki, poorvi kshetron se sampark rakhana kathin ho gaya. kuchh rajapoot zamidaron ne is kshetr men qile bana lie the aur apani svatntrata ghoshit kar di thi. mevatiyon men dilli ke asapas ke kshetron men lootapat karane ka sahas a gaya tha. balaban ne in tatvon ka badi kathorata ke sath daman kiya. dakuon ka pichha kar unhen barbarata se maut ke ghat utar diya gaya. badayoon ke asapas ke kshetron men rajapooton ke qilon ko tod diya gaya tatha jngalon ko saf kar vahan afagan sainikon ki bastiyan bana di geen, taki ve sadakon ki suraksha kar saken aur rajapoot zamidaron ke shasan ke viruddh vidrohon ko turant kuchal saken.

islam ke neta ka roop

in kathor tariqon se balaban ne sthiti par niyntran kar liya. logon ko apani shakti se prabhavit karane ke lie usane apane darabar ki shan-shauqat ko badhaya. vah jab bhi bahar nikalata tha, usake charon taraf angarakshak nngi talavaren lie chalate the. usane darabar men hnsi-mazak samapt kar diya aur yah siddh karane ke lie ki usake saradar usaki barabari nahin kar sakate, unake sath sharab pina bnd kar diya. usane 'sijda' aur 'paibos' (samrat ke samane jhuk kar usake pairon ko choomana) ke rivajon ko avashyak bana diya. ye aur usake dvara apanae ge kee any rivaj moolatah eerani the aur unhen gair-islami samajha jata tha. lekin isake bavajood unaka virodh karane ki kisi men bhi himmat nahin thi. kyonki aise samay men jab madhy aur pashchim eshiya men mngolon ke akraman se adhikatar islami samrajy khatm ho chuke the, balaban aur dilli saltanat ko hi islam ke neta ke roop men dekha jane laga tha.

mrityu

1286 ee. men balaban ka bada putr muhammad achanak ek badi mngol sena se ghir jane ke karan yuddh karate hue mara gaya. vikhyat kavi amir khusara, jisaka nam tootie-hind (bharat ka tota) tha tatha amir hasan dehalavi ne apana sahityik jivan shahajada muhammad ke samay men shuroo kiya tha. apane priy putr muhammad ki mrityu ke sadame ko n bardasht kar pane ke karan 80 varsh ki avastha men 1286 ee. men balaban ki mrityu ho gee. mutyu poorv balaban ne apane doosare putr bugara khan ko apana uttaradhikari niyukt karane ke ashay se bngal se vapas bulaya, kintu vilasi bugara khan ne bngal ke aram-pasand evn svatantr jivan ko adhik pasand kiya aur chupake se bngal vapas chala gay. taduparant balaban ne apane pautr (muhammad ke putr) kaikhusaro ko apana uttaradhikari chuna.

balaban ke kathan

  1. “raja ka hriday eeshvar ki kripa ka vishesh kosh hai aur samast manushy jati men usake saman koee nahin hai.”
  2. “ek anugrahi raja sada eeshvar ke snrakshan ke chhatr se rahit rahata hai.”
  3. “raja ko is prakar jivan vyatit karana chahie ki, musalaman usake pratyek kary shabd ya kriyakalap ko manyata de aur prashnsa kare.”
  4. “jab mai kisi tuchchh parivar ke vyakti ko dekhata hoon to, mere sharir ki pratyek nadi uttejit ho jati hai.”


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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