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muhammad gori
Muhammad-Ghori.jpg
poora nam sulatan shahabuddin muhammad gori
janm 1149 ee.
janm bhoomi gor, afaganistan
mrityu tithi 15 march, 1206 ee.
mrityu sthan jhelam kshetr, pakistan
sha. avadhi afaganistan, pakistan, bharat
dharmik manyata sunni, islam
yuddh prithviraj ke viruddh jo abhiyan kiya
rajadhani lahaur, pakistan
rajagharana gori
snbndhit lekh prithviraj chauhan, mahamood gazanavi, qutubuddin aibak, jayachndr, gazani
any janakari jis sthal par jayachndr aur muhammad gori ki senaon men nirnayak yuddh hua tha, use 'chndravar' kaha gaya hai. yah ek aitihasik sthal hai, jo ab firozabad, uttar pradesh ke nikat ek chhote ganv ke roop men sthit hai.

shahabuddin muhammad gori 12vin shatabdi ka afagan yoddha tha, jo gazani samrajy ke adhin gor namak rajy ka shasak tha. muhammad gauri 1173 ee. men gor ka shasak bana tha. jis samay mathura mndal ke uttar-pashchim men prithviraj aur dakshin-poorv men jayachndr jaise mahanh nareshon ke shaktishali rajy the, us samay bharat ke pashchim uttar ke simant par shahab-ud-din muhammad gori (1173-1206 ee.) namak ek musalaman saradar ne mahamood gazanavi ke vnshajon se rajyadhikar chhin kar ek naye islami rajy ki sthapana ki. muhammad gori bada mahattvakankshi aur sahasi tha. vah mahamood gazanavi ki bhanti bharat par akraman karane ka ichchhuk tha, kintu usaka uddeshy gazanavi se alag tha. vah lootamar ke sath hi sath is desh men muslim rajy bhi sthapit karana chahata tha. us kal men pashchimi pnjab tak aur doosari or multan evn sindh tak musalamanon ka adhikar tha, jisake adhikansh bhag par mahamood ke vnshaj gazanavi saradar shasan karate the. muhammad gori ko bharat ke antarik bhag tak pahunchane ke lie pahale un musalaman shasakon se aur phir vahan ke vir rajapooton se yuddh karana tha, atah vah poori taiyari ke sath bharat par akraman karane ka ayojan karane laga.

parichay

muhammad gori ke janm ki sahi tithi gyat nahin hai, lekin kuchh itihasakar usaka janm 1149 ee. men manate hain. gori rajavnsh ki niv alauddin jahanasoz ne rakhi aur 1161 ee. men usake dehant ke bad usaka putr saifuddin gori sinhasan par baitha. apane marane se pahale alauddin jahanasoz ne apane do bhatijon- shahabuddin, jo amataur par muhammad gori kahalata hai aur giyasuddin ko qaid kar rakha tha; lekin saifuddin ne unhen riha kar diya. us samay gori vnsh gazanaviyon aur salajooqon ki adhinata se nikalane ke prayas men tha. unhonne gazanaviyon ko to 1148-1149 men hi khatm kar diya tha, lekin salajooqon ka tab bhi zor tha aur unhonne kuchh kal ke lie gor prant par sidha qabza kar lie tha; halanki usake bad use goriyon ko vapas kar diya tha.

salajooqon ne jab is kshetr par niyntran kiya, tab unhonne saifuddin ki patni ke zevar bhi le lie the. gaddi grahan karane ke bad ek din saifuddin ne kisi sthaniy saradar ko yah zevar pahane dekh liya aur taish men akar use mar dala. jab mritak ke bhaee ko kuchh mahinon bad mauqa mila to usane saifuddin ko badale men bhala marakar mar dala. is tarah saifuddin ka shasanakal keval ek varsh ke asapas hi raha. giyasuddin naya shasak bana aur usake chhote bhaee shahabuddin ne usaka rajy vistar karane men usaki bahut vafadari se madad ki. shahabuddin urf muhammad gori ne pahale gazana par qabza kiya aur phir 1175 men multan aur ooch par aur phir 1186 men lahaur par. jab usaka bhaee 1202 men mara to shahabuddin muhammad gori sultan ban gaya.

bharat par akraman

muhammad gori mahan vijeta aur kushal sainy snchalak tha. 1175 ee. men usane multan aur agale hi varsh uchch par vijay prapt kar li. 1178 ee. men gujarat ke chaluky shasak bhimadev dvitiy dvara vah khaded diya gaya. rajapoot viron ki prabal mar se vah parajit ho gaya. is prakar bharat ke hindoo rajaon ki or munh uthate hi use anrabh men hi chot khani padi. kintu vah mahattvakankshi muslim akranta us parajay se hatotsahit nahin hua. usane apane abhiyan ka marg badal diya. vah tab pnjab hokar bharat vijay ka ayojan karane laga. us kal men peshavar aur pnjab hokar vah bharat vijay ka apana sapana sakar karane men lag gaya. us samay men peshavar aur pnjab ke shasak mahamood ke jo vnshaj the, ve shaktihin ho gaye the. atah unhen parajit karana muhammad gori ko saral gyat hua. usane 1186 ee. men khusaro malik ko parajit karake pnjab par adhikar kar liya. is prakar uttari bharat ke maidani bhoo-bhagon men age badhane ke lie usaka path prashast ho gaya. usane pnjab ke adhikansh bhag ko gazanavi ke vnshajon se chhin liya aur vahan par apani sridridh qilebndi kar bharat ke hindoo rajaon par akraman karane ki taiyari karane laga.

rajy sima

muhammad gori ke rajy ki sima tab dilli ke chahaman vir prithviraj chauhan ke rajy se ja lagi thin; atah age badhane ke lie use ek parakrami shatru se morcha lena tha. usase pahale mahamood ke vnshaj gazanavi shasakon se hindoo rajaon ke bhi kee sngharsh hue the; kintu ve chhoti-moti sthaniy ladaiyan thin aur unamen prayah hindoo rajaon ki hi vijay huee thi. muhammad gori ne prithviraj ke viruddh jo abhiyan kiya, vah ek prabal akraman tha. isalie mahamood gazanavi ke bad muhammad gori hi bharat par chadhaee karane vala doosara muslim akranta mana gaya hai.

prithviraj chauhan se yuddh

kinvadntiyon ke anusar muhammad gori ne 18 bar prithviraj chauhan par akraman kiya tha, jisamen 17 bar use parajit hona pada. kisi bhi itihasakar ko in kinvadntiyon ke adhar par apana mat banana kathin hota hai. is vishay men itana nishchit hai ki muhammad gori aur prithviraj chauhan men kam-se-kam do bhishan yuddh avashy hue the, jinamen se pratham yuddh men prithviraj vijayi hua, jabaki doosare yuddh men use parajay ka samana karana pada. yah donon yuddh thaneshvar ke nikatavarti 'tarain' ya 'taravadi' ke maidan men kramashah 1191 ee. (snvat 1247) aur 1192 ee. (snvat 1248) men hue the. in yuddhon se pahale prithviraj kee hindoo rajaon se ladaiyan kar chuka tha. chndel rajaon ko parajit karane men use apane kee vikhyat senanayakon aur viron ko khona pada tha. jayachndr ke sath hone vale sngharsh men bhi usake bahut se viron ki hani huee thi. phir un dinon prithviraj apane vriddh mantri par rajy bhar chhod kar svayn snyogita ke sath vilas krida men laga hua tha. un sab karanon se usaki sainy shakti adhik prabhavashalini nahin thi, phir bhi usane gauri ke dant khatte kar diye the.


inhen bhi dekhen: tarain ka pratham yuddh evn tarain ka dvitiy yuddh

gori ki bhari parajay

snvat 1247 men jab prithviraj se muhammad gori ki vishal sena ka samana hua, tab rajapoot viron ki vikat mar se musalaman sainikon ke pair ukhad gaye. svayn gori bhi prithviraj ke anuj ke prahar se buri tarah ghayal ho gaya tha. yadi usaka khilaji sevak use ghode par dal kar yuddh bhoomi se bhagakar n le jata, to vahin usake pran pakheroo ud jate. us yuddh men gori ki bhari parajay huee thi aur use bhishan hani uthakar bharat ki bhoomi se bhagana pada tha. bharatiy raja ke viruddh yuddh abhiyan men yah usaki doosari badi parajay thi, jo anhilavada ke yuddh ke bad sahani padi thi.

prithviraj ki parajay aur mrityu

muhammad gori us apamanajanak parajay ka badala lene ke lie taiyari karane laga. agale varsh vah 1 lakh 20 hazar chune hue ashvarohiyon ki vishal sena lekar phir tarain ke maidan men a data. udhar prithviraj ne bhi usase morcha lene ke lie kee rajapoot rajaon ko amantrit kiya tha. kuchh rajaon ne to apani senaen bhej di; kintu us samay ka gahadaval vnshiy kannauj naresh jayachndr usase tatasth hi raha. kivadnti hai ki prithviraj se vidvesh rakhane ke karan jayachndr ne hi muhammad gori ko bharat par akraman karane ke lie amantrit kiya tha. is kinvadnti ki satyata ka koee pramanik adhar nahin hai; atah jayachndr par deshadroh ka dosharopan bhi apramanik gyat hota hai. usamen keval itani hi satyata hai ki usane us avasar par prithviraj ki sahayata nahin ki thi. prithviraj ke rajapoot yoddhaon ne us bar bhi musalamani sena par bhishan prahar kar apani virata ka parichay diya tha; kintu desh ke durbhagy se unhen parajit hona pada. is prakar sn. 1248 ke us yuddh men muhammad gori ki vijay aur prithviraj ki parajay huee thi. yuddh men parajit hone ke pashchath prithviraj ki kis prakar mrityu huee, is vishay men itihasakaron ke vibhinn mat milate hain. kuchh ke matanusar vah pahile bndi bana kar dilli men rakha gaya tha aur bad men gori ke sainikon dvara mar diya gaya tha. kuchh ka mat hai ki use bndi banakar gajani le jaya gaya tha aur vahan par usaki mrityu huee. aisi bhi kinvadnti hai ki prithviraj ka darabari kavi aur sakha chndabaradaee apane svami ki durdinon men sahayata karane ke lie gajani gaya tha. usane apane buddhi kaushal se prithviraj dvara gori ka snhar karakar usase badala liya tha. phir gori ke sainikon ne us donon ko bhi mar dala tha. is kinvadnti ka koee aitihasik adhar nahin hain, atah vah pramanik gyat nahin hoti hai.

yuddh sthal chndavar

jis sthal par jayachndr aur muhammad gori ki senaon men nirnayak yuddh hua tha, use 'chndravar' kaha gaya hai. yah ek aitihasik sthal hai, jo ab firozabad, uttar pradesh ke nikat ek chhote ganv ke roop men sthit hai. aisa kaha jata hai ki use chauhan raja chndrasen ne 11vin shati men basaya tha. use pahale 'chndavada' kaha jata tha; bad men vah 'chndavar' kaha jane laga. chndrasen ke putr chndrapal ke shasanakal men mahamood gazanavi ne vahan akraman kiya tha; kintu use saphalata prapt nahin huee thi. bad men muhammad gori ki sena vijayi huee thi. chndavar ke rajaon ne yahan par ek durg banavaya tha aur bhavanon evn mndiron ka nirman karaya tha. is sthan ke charon or kee milon tak isake dhvnsavashesh dikhalaee dete the.

mrityu

mana jata hai ki 15 march, 1206 ee. men adhunik pakistan ke jhelam kshetr men nadi ke kinare muhammad gori ko khokhar namak jat qabile ke logon ne apane oopar hue hamalon ka badala lene ke lie mar dala. muhammad gori ka koee putr nahin tha aur usaki maut ke bad usake samrajy ke bharatiy kshetr par usake priy gulam qutubuddin aibak ne dilli saltanat sthapit karake usaka vistar karana shuroo kar diya. usake afaganistan v any ilaqon par goriyon ka niyntran n bach saka aur khvarezmi samrajy ne un par qabza kar liya. gazana aur gor kam mahatvapoorn ho ge aur dilli ab kshetriy islami samrajy ka kendr ban gaya. itihasakar san 1215 ke bad gori samrajy ko poori tarah visthapit manate hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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