ग्राम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(गाँव se punarnirdeshit)

gram ko 'ganv' bhi kaha jata hai. poorv ki sabhyata ganvon ki hai aur pashchim ki sabhyata nagaron ki. karan yah hai ki poorv ki prachin sabhyataon men gram aur gramin dhndhon ka pradhany raha hai. poorvi desh, jaise- bharat, pakistan, barma, chin, eeran, malay abhi bhi ganvon ke desh kahe jate hain. in deshon ki pray: 80 pratishat janata ganvon men rahati hai aur vahan nagaron ki unnati visheshakar pichhale 200 varsho men hi huee hai.

samajik sngathan

manushy jab vany jivan se alag ho samudayik prayatnon ki or akrisht hua, tab usane apane adyavadhi paraspar virodhi vanajivan ke pratikool sah-astitv ki disha men sath basane ke jo upakram kie, usi samajik sngathan ki pahali ikaee 'gram' bana. snsar men sarvatr isi kriya ke anuroop prayatn hue aur jaise-jaise sabhyata ki mnjilen manushy sar karata gaya, avagaman aur yatayat ke sadhan adhikadhik aur tivratar hote ge, vaise hi gramon se nagaron ki or bhi pragati hoti gee. jahan yah pragati tivratar thi, vahan gramon ka uttarottar hras aur nagaron ka utkarsh hota gaya.[1]

svatantr sthiti

bharat men uparyukt sadhanon ke abhav men ganvon ki gramy sthiti hal tak pray: svatntr bani rahi. isi karan vahan ganv paramukhapekshi n hokar pray: svabalnbi raha hai. usaka svavalnban anivaryat: svechchha se nahin, uparokt karanon ke parinamasvaroop hua hai. is svavalnban ke parinamasvaroop apani niji vritti chalane vale badhee, lohar, naee, kumhar adi sthaniy avashyakataon ki poorti karate rahe. vaidik kal men ganv ke badhee athava rathakar ka bada mahatv tha. gram adhikatar rajasatta ke adhin rahate hue bhi apane antarik shasan men pray: svatntr the aur jaisa dakshin ke chol, pandy adi ke sanvaidhanik abhilekhon se prakat hai, gramon ke mndiron, talabon, bhoomi ke kray-vikray, kheton ki sinchaee, sadakon adi ke prabndh ke liye bhinn-bhinn samitiyan hoti thin. sar charls maitakaf ne bharatiy ganv ki svatntr vyavastha ko bahut saraha. parntu aj ke bharatiy ganv daridra, agyan, andhavishvas, samajik roodhiyon aur bimariyon ke gadh ban ge hain, phir bhi nagaron se yatayat ke ne sadhanon dvara snpark badhane se unamen asadharan parivartan ho chala hai aur bharat sarakar ki nirman yojanaon ke prabhav se asha ki jati hai, unamen uttarottar pragatishil parivartan hote jayenge.

gram ki bharatiy paribhasha

rajakiy janaganana ke liye paribhasha ke roop men bharat men un naivasik ikaiyon ko gram man liya gaya hai, jinaki janasnkhya 5,000 se kam hai aur jo kisi nagar ke ang[2] nahin hai. parntu vaigyanik roop se nishchitat: yah kahana kathin hai ki ganv kab khatm hote hain aur nagar kahan shuroo hote hain. krishi, pashupalan ya hast udyog ki suvidha ke karan sau pachas ghar kisi jagah bas jate hain, bas ganv ban jata hai. dhire-dhire yah ganv unnati karata hai, usamen bijali, pakki sadaken aur imaraten banatin tatha vyapar badhata hai, aur vah ganv qasba ban jata hai. qasbe men jab logon ko adhunik suvidha prapt hone lagati hain, tab ye qasbe dhire-dhire shahar ban jate hain. aise hi prachin kal ke anek prasiddh nagar patan hone ke pashchath‌ aj keval ganvon ke roop men shesh hain.[1]

gramin jivan

samaj vaigyanik ke liye ganv adarsh kalpanatmak paimane ka ek chhor hai, jisaka doosara chhor hai- 'mahanagar'. in donon ke bich nagarikaran ke vibhinn star hain, jaise- chhote qasbe, bade qasbe, zile ka nagar, prantiy rajadhani aur kendriy nagar. ganv ki abadi sadharanat: kam hi hoti hai. graminajan mitti ya patthar ya ghas-phoos ke purane tarike ke makan banakar parnparagat roop se rahate hain. ve kheti karate hain ya kheti se snbndhit kuchh udyog dhndhe. unaki kheti adhikatar apane upayog ke liye hoti hai. keval bacha khucha mal ve mndiyon men bech dete hain, aur prapt dhan se apane dainik upayog ki chijen kharid lete hain, jo unake ganv men nahin banatin. ganv men aksar bazar nahin hote, kee ganvon ke bich ek bazar hota hai. ganv ka samajik jivan sidha-sada hota hai. logon ke snbndh prathamik hote hain. samaj aur samuday ka logon ke dainik jivan men adhik mahatv hota hai. sab milakar kam karate hain. ek sath chhutti ya tyohar manate hain. ganv ki samasyaon ka samadhan sab koee milakar karane ka prayatn karate hain. khushi, gami men sab milakar kam karate hain.

pashchim ke yoorop, amarika adi deshon men ganv lakadi ke gharon se bane hote hain, ek mnjila ya domnjila, ek doosare se door door aur yadyapi ve vahan ke nagaron ki kee mnjili attalikaon se sarvatha bhinn hote hain. hamare ganvon men nagaron ki chahal-pahal aur gadiyon ki bhid-bhad to nahin hoti, lekin akhabar, pustakalay adi sarvatr hote hain. teliphon adi ki suvidhaen bhi ganv valon ko prapt hoti hain. jayan andonal ke anukool yoorop ke pravasi yahoodi jo ab isarayal laut rahe hain, unake liye vahan ne-ne ganv ke lakadi ke bane makanon aur unake charo or khet adi banakar taiyar ho rahe hain. yadi ganvon men nagar ki gyanavardhini kuchh suvidhaen ho jayn to nissndeh unaki svachchh hava ka jivan nagaron se behatar ho jay.

ikaee

samajashastriy adhyayan ke liye kya ganv ko 'ikaee' mana ja sakata hai? is prashn par vaigyanikon men kafi matabhed hai. kuchh ka kahana hai ki ganv nishchit roop se ikaee hai. usaki apani satta hoti hai. usaka apana nam hota hai aur gramajan apasi parichay men apane ko amuk ganv ka kahakar batalate hain. dakshin bharat ke kuchh pradeshon men to vyakti ke nam ke sath usake ganv ka nam bhi juda hota hai. visheshakar purane ganv ke vishay men yah bat mahatvapoorn hai. gramajan apane ko aise purane ganv ka sadasy manane men garv ka anubhav karate hain. ganv ki sima pavitr mani jati hai aur usaka atikraman karane ka matalab hota hai ganvon ke bich jhagade. bharat men sarvabhaum satta ki sthapana se poorv ganv ke log qilon men rahate the aur apasi jhagade kabhi-kabhi bhayanak yuddh ka roop le lete the.[1]

samuday

ganv ki apani arthik aur rajanitik satta bhi hai. pratyek ganv ka samuday is prakar sngathit hota hai ki usamen pradhan ansh khetiharon ka hota hai, aur shesh un khetiharon ko suvidha pahunchane vali jatiyon ka, jaise- brahman, lohar, badhee, kumhar, sunar, naee, valmiki, chamar, teli, dholi, adi. inaka jivan gram ke khetiharon ke sath snbnddh hota hai aur unake den-len ke snbndh parnpara se nirdharit hote hain. vyaktigat pasnd ya napasndagi ka adhik mahatv nahin hota. isi prakar rajanitik roop se bhi ganv ka alag astitv hota hai. usaki bhoomi alag hoti hai, pnchayat aur adhikari alag hote hain.

ganvon ke apasi snbndh

samajik sngathan aur dharm ke kshetr men ganvon ke apasi snbndh pratyaksh aur mahatvapoorn hote hain. uttar bharat ke adhikatar ganvon men ganv ke bahar vivah karane ki pratha hai. ganv ke ek varn ke log apas men ek-doosare ko rakt snbndhi dayad manate hain. dharmik vishvas ke mamale men bhi ganv men bhed pae jate hain. unake vishvas aur ritiyan unake apane hi hote hain, jo kabhi-kabhi dharmagrnthon men varnit vishvason aur ritiyon se bahut alag hote hain. lok jivan sarvatr shastron ki vyavastha se door chala jaya karata hai.

sabhyata ka abhinn ang

yah sab hote hue bhi ganv sabhyata ke abhinn ang hain. prachin sabhyataon ka nirman isi adhar par hua tha ki ganvon aur janapadon ka anokhapan bhi mitane n pae, parntu sath hi oopari taur se ve manaviy sabhyata ke rng men rng jaen. gramin ya janapad snskriti aur nagarik snskriti ke bich vishvason aur ritiyon ka adan pradan hota raha hai. adhik abadi vale krishi pradhan deshon men yah to snbhav nahin, kintu ganvon ka roop avashy hi badalega. shiksha aur rajanitik chetana ke sath gramin jan bhi un sevaon aur suvidhaon ko prapt karane ke ichchhuk ho rahe hain, jo abhi tak nagar ke jivan men hi prapt thin. samajik vighatan rokane ke liye aur ganv tatha nagar ki samajik doori ko kam karane ke liye ganvon ko unnat karana avashyak hai. jo samudayik vikas yojana bharat ke ganvon men chaloo ki gee hai, usaka yahi mahatv hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 gram (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 04 agast, 2014.
  2. muhalla, bada, pura

snbndhit lekh

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