सल्तनतकालीन स्थापत्य एवं वास्तुकला  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

saltanat kal men bharatiy sthapaty kala ke kshetr men jis shaili ka vikas hua, vah bharatiy tatha islami shailiyon ka sammishrin thi. isalie sthapaty kala ki is shaili ko ‘indo islamik’ shaili kaha gaya. kuchh vidvanon ne ise 'indo-sarasenik' shaili kaha hai. phargyoosan mahoday ne ise pathan shaili kaha hai, kintu yah vastav men bharatiy evn islami shailiyon ka mishran thi. sar jaaun marshal, eeshvari prasad jaise itihasavidon ne sthapaty kala ki is shaili ko 'indon-islamik' shaili v hindoo-muslim shaili kahana uchit samajha. indon-islamik sthapaty kala shaili ki visheshataen nimn prakar thin-

  1. saltanat kal men sthapaty kala ke antargat hue nirman karyon men bharatiy evn eerani shailiyon ke mishran ka snket milata hai.
  2. saltan kal ke nirman kary jaise- qila, maqabara, masjid, mahal evn minaron men nukile meharabon-gumbadon tatha snkari evn oonchi minaron ka prayog kiya gaya hai.
  3. is kal men mndiron ko todakar unake malabe par bani masjid men ek naye dhng se pooja ghar ka nirman kiya gaya.
  4. saltanat kal men sultanon, amiron evn soophi santon ke smaran men maqabaron ke nirman ki parampara ki shuruat huee.
  5. is kal men hi imaraton ki mazabooti hetu patthar, knkarit evn achchhe qism ke choone ka prayog kiya gaya.
  6. saltanat kal men imaraton men pahali bar vaigyanik dhng se meharab evn gumbad ka prayog kiya gaya. yah kala bharatiyon ne arabon se sikhi. turk sultanon ne gumbad aur meharab ke nirman men shila evn shahatir donon pranaliyon ka upayog kiya.
  7. saltanat kal men imaraton ki saj-sajja men jivit vastuon ka chitrin nishiddh hone ke karan unhen sajane men anek prakar ke phool-pattiyan, jyamitiy evn quran ki ayaten khudavayi jati thin. kalantar men turk sultanon dvara hindoo saj-sajja ki vastuon jaise- kamalabel ke namoone, svastik, ghntiyon ke namoone, kalash adi ka bhi prayog kiya jane laga. alnkaran ki snyukt vidhi ko saltanat kal men ‘arabask vidhi’ kaha gaya.

kal vibhajan

saltanat kalin sthapaty kala
imarat shasak
quvvat-ul-islam masjid kutubuddin aibak
kutubaminar kutubuddin aibak v iltutamish
adhaee din ka jhopada kutubuddin aibak
iltutamish ka maqabara iltutamish
jama masjid iltutamish
atarakin ka daravaza iltutamish
sultanagadhi iltutamish
lal mahal balaban
balaban ka maqabara balaban
jamat khana masjid alauddin khilaji
alaee daravaza alauddin khilaji
hazar sitoon (stambh) alauddin khilaji
tugalaqabad gayasuddin tugalaq
gayasuddin tugalaq ka maqabara gayasuddin tugalaq
adilabad ka maqabara muhammad bin tugalaq
jahanpanah nagar muhammad bin tugalaq
shekh nizamuddin auliya ka maqabara muhammad bin tugalaq
firozashah tugalaq ka maqabara muhammad bin tugalaq
firozashah ka maqabara joonashah khanejahan
kali masjid joonashah khanejahan
khirki masjid joonashah khanejahan
bahalol lodi ka maqabara lodi kal
sikandar shah lodi ka maqabara ibrahim lodi
moth ki masjid miyan kua

saltanatakalin vastukala ke vikas ko mukhyatah char bhagon men banta ja sakata hai-

  1. gulam tatha khilaji kal men vastukala
  2. tugalaq kal men vastukala
  3. saiyyad kalin vastukala aur
  4. lodi kal men vastukala

(1) gulam tatha khilaji kal men vastukala

yah kal sthapaty kala ke vikas ki pratham avastha mana jata hai. is kal ki imaraten hindoo shaili ke pratyaksh prabhav men bani hai, jinaki divaren chikani evn mazaboot hain. is kal men bane stambh, mndiron ke pratik hote hain. pahali bar hindoo karigaron dvara baramadon men meharabadar daravaze banaye gaye. musalamanon dvara nirmit masjidon ke charon taraf minaren unake uchch vicharon ka pratik hain.

gulam kalin vastukala

gulam kal men bani kuchh pramukh imaraton ka varnan is prakar hai-

quvvat-ul-islam masjid

1192 ee. men tarain ke yuddh men prithviraj chauhan ke harane par unake qile 'rayapithaura' par adhikar kar vahan par 'quvvat-ul-islam masjid' ka nirman kutubuddin aibak ne karavaya. vastutah kutubuddin aibak ne dilli vijay ke upalakshy men tatha islam dharm ko pratishthit karane ke udeshy se 1192 ee. men 'kutb' athava 'quvvat-ul-islam masjid' ka nirman karaya.

kutubaminar

yah minar dilli se 12 mil ki doori par meharauli ganv men sthit hai. prarambh men is masjid ka prayog ajan (namaz ke lie bulana) ke lie hota tha, par kalantar men ise 'kirti stambh' ke roop men mana jane laga. 1206 ee. men kutubuddin aibak ne isaka nirman kary prarambh karavaya. aibak is imarat men char mnzilon ka nirman karana chahata tha, parantu ek mnzil ke nirman ke bad hi usaki mrityu ho gee. bad men isaki shesh mnzilon ka nirman iltutamish ne 1231 ee. men karavaya. kutubaminar ka nirman 'khvaja kutubuddin bakhtiyar kaki' ki smriti men karaya gaya tha.

adhaee din ka jhopada

kutubuddin aibak ne adhaee din ka jhopada, jo vastav men ek masjid hai, ka nirman ajamer men karavaya. isake nam ke vishay men jaaun marshal ka kahana hai ki, choonki is masjid ka nimarn matr dhaee din men kiya gaya tha, isalie is masjid ko 'adhaee din ka jhopada' kaha jata hai. parsi braun ka kahana hai ki, yahan ek jhopadi ke pas adhaee din ka mela lagata tha, is karan is sthan ko adhaee din ka jhopada kaha gaya hai.

vigraharaj bisaladev ne is sthan par ek sarasvati mandir banavaya tha. bisaladev dvara rachit 'harikeli' namak natak tatha somadev krit 'lalit vigraharaj' ki kuchh pnktiyan aj bhi isaki divaron par maujood hai. kutubuddin aibak ne ise tudavakar masjid banavayi. yah masjid qubbat masjid ki tulana men adhik bade akar ki evn akarshak hai. is masjid ke akar ko kalantar men iltutamish dvara vistar diya gaya. is masjid men tin stambhon ka prayog kiya gaya, jisake oopar 20 phut oonchi chhat ka nirman kiya gaya hai. isamen panch meharabadar daravaze bhi banaye gaye hain. mukhy daravaza sarvadhik ooncha hai. masjid ke pratyek kone men chakrakar evn bansuri ke akar ki minaren nirmit hain.

nasiruddin mahamood ka maqabara ya sultanagadhi

sthapaty kala ke kshetr men is maqabare ke nirman ko ek navin prayog ke roop men mana jata hai. choonki turk sultanon dvara bharat men nirmit yah pahala maqabara tha, isalie iltutamish ko maqabara nirman shaili ka janmadata kaha ja sakata hai. sultanagadhi maqabare ka nirman iltutamish ne apane jyeshth putr nasiruddin mahamood ki yad men kutubaminar se lagabhag 3 mil ki doori par sthit malakapur men 1231 ee. men karavaya tha. parsi braun ke shabdon men sultanagadhi ka shabdik arth hai- ‘gupha ka sultan’. yah maqabara akar men durg ke saman hi pratit hota hai. maqabare ki chaharadivari ke madhy men lagabhag 66 phut ka angan hai. angan ke bich men ashtakoniy chabootara nirmit hai, jo dharatal men maqabare ki chhat ka kam karata hai. angan men kahi bhoore rng ka patthar to kahi sngamaramar ka prayog kiya gaya hai. masjid ke poorvi chhor par ek khamba sthit hai, jisaki oonchaee chaharadivari se adhik hai. stambhayukt masjid ke baramade men ek chhoti masjid ka nirman kiya gaya tha, jisamen raj parivar ke log namaz padha karate the. masjid men ek tahakhana bhi bana tha, jahan raj-parivar ke log ekantik kshan vyatit kiya karate the. masjid men nirmit meharabon men muslim kala evn poojasthan tatha gumbad ke akar ki chhat men hindoo kala shaili ka prabhav dikhaee padata hai.

iltutamish ka maqabara

is maqabare ka nirman iltutamish dvara quvvat masjid ke samip lagabhag 1235 ee. men karavaya gaya tha. 42 phut vargakar is imarat ke tin taraf poorv, dakshin evn uttar men pravesh dvar bana hai. pashchim ki or ka pravesh dvar bnd he. 30 ghan phit ka bana antarik kaksh apani sundarata ke karan hindoo tatha jain mandiron ke samakaksh thaharata hai. maqabare ki divaron par quran ki ayaten khudi hain. maqabare men bane gumbadon men ghumavadar patthar ke tukadon ka prayog kiya gaya hai. gumbad ke chokor kone men golaee lane ke lie jis shaili ka prayog kiya gaya hai, use gumbad nirman ke itihas men ‘skrich shaili’ ke nam se jana jata hai. yah maqabara ek kakshiy hai.

iltutamish ke any nirman karyon men badayoon men nirmit ‘hauj-e-shamsi’, ‘shamsi’ eedagah’ evn jama masjid pramukh hai. jama masjid, jisaka nirman 1223 ee men hua, yah apane samay ki sarvadhik badi evn mazaboot masjid hai. isaka pun:rniman muhammad bin tugalaq evn akabar ne karavaya tha. jodhapur rajy ke nagaur sthan par iltutamish ne 1230 ee. men ‘atarikin’ namak ek vishal daravaze ka nirman karavaya. kalantar men muhammad bin tugalaq ne isaka jirnodvar karavaya. mugal samrat akabar ne isi daravaze se prerit hokar buland daravaze ka nirman karavaya tha.

sultan balaban ka maqabara

sultan balaban ka maqabara vastukala ki drishti se ek mahattvapoorn rachana hai. is maqabare ka kaksh vargakar hai. sarvapratham vastavik meharab ka roop isi maqabare men dikhaee deta hai.

muinuddin chishti ki daragah

is daragah ya khanaqah ka nirman iltutamish ne karavaya tha. kalantar men alauddin khilaji ne ise vistrit karavaya. balaban ne rayapithaura qile ke samip svayn ka maqabara evn lal mahal namak makan ka nirman karavaya. dilli men bana usaka maqabara shuddh islami shaili men nirmit hai.

khilaji kalin vastukala

iltatumish ki mutyri ke bad khilaji sultan alauddin khilaji ne anek nirman kary shuddh islami shaili ke antargat karavaye. alauddin ne siri namak ganv men ek nagar ki sthapana ki. jiyauddin barani ne is nagar ko ‘nau’ athava 'naya nagar' kaha. is nagar ke bahar alauddin khilaji ne ek talab evn usake kinare kuchh bhavanon ka nirman karavaya tha, aj ‘hauj-e-rani’ ke nam se prasiddh yah sthan kafi jirn-shirn sthiti men hai. amir khusaro ne isaki prashnsa men likha hai- ‘pani ke bich gumbad samudr ki satah par bulabule ke saman hai.”

alaee daravaza

isaka nirman kary alauddin khilaji dvara 1310-1311 ee. men arambh karavaya gaya. isake nirman ka uddeshy quvvat masjid men char pravesh dvar banana tha- do poorv men, ek dakshin men aur ek uttar men. isaka nirman oonchi kursi par kiya gaya hai. kursi par sundar bel-boote bane the. daravaze men lal patthar evn sngamaramar ka sundar snyog dikhata hai, sath hi akarshak dhng se quran ki ayaton ko likha gaya hai. is masjid men bani ek gumbad men pahali bar vishuddh vaigyanik vidhi ka prayog kiya gaya hai. alaee daravaza ki saj-sajja men bauddh tatvon ke mishran ka abhas hota hai. alnkaran men itani saghanata hai ki, kahin par inch bhar bhi jagah rikt nahin hai. dvaron ke andar pushpamalanuma jhalar atyadhik akarshak hai. parsi braun ne alaee daravaze ke vishay men kaha hai ki- ‘alaee daravaza islami sthapaty kala ke vikas men mahattvapoorn sthan rakhata hai.’ jaaun marshal ne alaee daravaze ke vishay men kaha hai ki- “alaee daravaza islami sthapaty kala ke khazane ka sabase bada hira hai.” pahali bar vastavik gumbad ka svaroop alaee daravaza men hi dikhaee deta hai.

jamat khan masjid

jamat khan masjid ka nirman alauddin khilaji ne nizamuddin auliya ki daragah ke samip karavaya. poornatah islami shaili men nirmit is masjid men lal patthar ka prayog kiya gaya hai. isake daton ke kone men kamal ke pushp se is masjid men hindoo shaili ke prabhav ka abhas hota hai. daton par quran ki ayaten bhi utkirn hain. is masjid men tin kamare bane hain, jinamen do kamare ayatakar hain tatha masjid ke madhy bhag men nirmit kamara chokor hai. poornaroop se islami parampara men nirmit yah bharat ki pahali masjid hai.

khilaji kal men poornat nirmit any nirman karyon men kutubuddin mubarak khilaji dvara bharatapur men nirmit ‘ookha masjid’ evn khizr khan dvara nirmit nizamuddin auliya ki daragah vishesh ullekhaniy hai.

(2) tugalaq kal men vastukala

tugalaq vnsh ke shasakon ne khilaji kalin imaraton ki bhavyata evn sundarata ke sthan par imaraton ki sadagi evn vishalata par adhik zor diya. apane poorv shasakon ke viruddh gayasuddin tugalaq ne sadagi evn mitavyayita ki niti apanaee. muhammad bin tugalaq ki prashasanik samasyaon evn dhanabhav ke karan firoz shah tugalaq ne purani vicharadhara ke karan saj-sajja par adhik dhyan nahin diya. is kal ki pramukh imaraten nimnalikhit hain-

tugalaqabad

gayasuddin tugalaq ne dilli ke samip sthit pahadiyon par tugalaqabad nam ka ek naya nagar sthapit kiya. roman shaili men nirmit is nagar men ek durg ka nirman bhi hua hai. is durg ko ‘chhappan kot’ ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. durg ki divaren misr ke piramid ki tarah andar ki or jhuki huee hain. isaki ninv gahari tatha divaren moti hain. qile ke andar nirmit sultan ke rajamahal ke vishay men ibn batoota ne kaha ki, ‘rajamahal soory ke prakash men itana chamakata tha ki, koee bhi vyakti use takataki bandhakar nahin dekh pata tha.’ rajamahal men shahi darabar tatha janan khane ka bhi nirman kiya gaya tha. tugalaqabad nagar men pravesh ke lie 52 dvar banaye gaye the. rajamahal ke nirman men tailon ka upayog kiya gaya tha. sar jaaun marshal ne is nirman kary ke vishay men kaha hai ki, ‘isaki sudridhata ki vyavastha dhokha hai, kyonki nirman nimnakoti ka hai. sambhavatah mngolon ke akraman ke bhay se isaka nirman itani shighrata se kiya gaya ki, isamen vishisht shaili tatha kala ka abhav sarvatr dikhaee deta hai.

gayasuddin ka maqabara

kritrim jhil ke andar nirmit is maqabare ki divaren chaudi evn misr ke piramidon ki tarah bhitar ki or jhuki hain. yah maqabara charturbhuj ke akar ke adhar par sthit hai, maqabare ki oonchaee lagabhag 81 phit hai. maqabaren men oopar sngamaramar ka sundar gumbad bana hai, gumbad ki chhat kee daton par adharit hai. maqabare men amalak aur kalash ka prayog hindoo mndiron ki shaili par kiya gaya hai. lal patthar se nirmit is maqabare ke charon or mazaboot minar ka nirman kiya gaya hai. phargyusan ke shabdon men- ‘maqabare ki dhaloo divaren evn qarib-qarib misr ke dhng ki dridhata, vishal evn sudridh divaren ek yoddha ki samadhi ke namoone ka nirman kar rahi hain. is maqabare ka pnchabhujiy hona isaki mahattvapoorn visheshata hai. jaaun marshal ke shabdon men- 'is maqabare ki dridhata tatha sadagi ke adhar par ham kah sakate hain ki, us mahanh yoddha ki samadhi ke lie isase upayukt sthan aur koee nahin ho sakata tha.'

adilabad ka qila

muhammad tugalaq ne tugalaqabad ke samip hi adilabad namak qile ka nirman karavaya tha.

jahanpanah nagar

muhammad tugalaq ne is nagar ki sthapana rayapithaura evn siri ke madhy karavaee thi. nagar ke charon taraf 12 gaz moti divar suraksha ke drishtikon se banaee gee thi. is nagar ke avasheshon men 'sataputr' arthath 'sat meharabon ka putr' aj bhi vartaman men hai. avashesh ke roop men bacha ‘vijay mndal’ sambhavatah mahal ka ek bhag tha. parsi braun ne is nirman kary ke vishay men kaha hai ki- ‘isaki sthapaty shaili se spasht ho jata hai ki, isake karigar sundar bhavan nirman shaili se poorv parichit the.

satapalah

muhammad tugalaq dvara sat meharabon vala ek do mnzila pul ki sthapana ki gayi. isaka nirman ek kritrim jhil men pani pahunchane ke lie kiya gaya tha.

shekh nizamuddin auliya ka maqabara

is maqabaren men sngamaramar ka achchha prayog kiya gaya hai.

barah khambha

dharmanirapeksh imaraton men tugalaq kalin samnt nivas ke lie bani is imarat ka vishisht sthan hai. is imarat ki mahattvapoorn visheshata suraksha tatha gupt nivas hai. firozashah tugalaq ki sthapaty kala men ruchi ke vishay men farishta ne kaha hai ki- ‘sultan firozashah tugalaq vastukala ka mahanh premi tha. usane 200 nagar, 20 mahal, 30 pathashalayen, 40 masjiden, 100 aspatal, 100 snanagrih, 5 maqabare evn 150 pulon ka nirman karavaya. firoz ne firozabad, fatehabad, hisar, jaunapur adi nagaron ka nirman karavaya. yamuna nadi par nirmit nahar isaka mahattvapoorn nirman kary hain.

kotala firozashah

sultan firozashah tugalaq ne panchavi dilli basayi, jisamen ek mahal ki sthapana ki. yah 'kotala firozashah' ke nam se vikhyat hai. sultan firozashah tugalaq ne dilli men kotala firozashah durg ka nirman karavaya. isaka kshetraphal shahajahanbad se do-guna hai. durg ke andar nirmit imaraton men jan samany ke lie ath masjiden evn vyaktigat prayog ke lie nirmit ek masjid ullekhaniy hai. isake atirikt durg ke andar tin rajamahal evn anek shikar khelane ke sthanon ka nirman kiya gaya hai. durg ke andar nirmit jama masjid ke samane samrat ashok ka topara ganv se laya gaya stambh gada hai. merath se laya gaya ashok ka doosara stambh ‘kushk-e-shikar’ mahal ke samane gada hai. isake sath hi durg ke andar ek do mazili imarat ke avashesh prapt hue hain, jisaka upayog vidyalay ke roop men kiya jata tha.

firozashah ka maqabara

yah maqabara ek vargakar imarat hai. isaka pradhan daravaza dakshin ki taraf hai. maqabare ki mazaboot divaron ko phool-pattiyon evn bel-booton se sajaya gaya hai. maqabaren men sngamaramar ka bhi prayog kiya gaya hai. sngamaramar tatha lal patthar ke snyog se nirmit is maqabare ka gumbad ashtakoniy dram par nirmit hai.

khan-e-jahan telngani ka maqabara

khanejahan joonashah ne is maqabare ka nirman apane pita evn firoz ke pradhanamntri khan-e-jahan telngani ki yad men karaya tha. yah maqabara ashtabhuj ke akar men nirmit hai. is maqabare ki tulana jerusalam men nirmit umar ki masjid se ki jati hai.

khidaki masjid

khanejahan joonashah dvara jahanpanah nagar men nirmit yah masjid vargakar roop men hai. tahakhane ke oopar bani yah masjid durg ke saman dikhati hai. isaki tulana iltutamish ke ‘sultanagadhi’ se ki jati hai.

kali masjid

firozashah tugalaq ke kal men nirmit yah masjid do mnzili hai. isamen ardhavritiy meharabon ka prayog hua hai. masjid ka vishal angan char bhagon men bnta hai. is masjid ka nirman khanejahan joonashah ne karavaya tha.

begamapuri masjid

jahanpanah nagar men nirmit yah masjid apane gumbadon evn meharabon ke prayog se kafi prabhavashali dikhati hai. isamen sngamaramar ka prayog kiya gaya hai.

kalan masjid

‘khan-e-jaunashah’ dvara nirmit yah masjid shahajahanbad men sthit hai. isaki chhat par gumbad tatha charon konon men burj bane hain. is masjid ka nirman bhi tahakhane ke oopar hua hai.

kabiruddin auliya ka maqabara

gayasuddin dvitiy ke samay men is maqabare ka nirman kary prarambh hua. nasiruddin muhammad ke samay men yah kary poora hua. is masjid ko ‘lal gumbad’ bhi kaha jata hai. ayatakar roop men bani is masjid men lal patthar evn safed sngamaramar ka prayog kiya gaya hai.

(3) saiyyad kalin vastukala

is samay tak sthapaty kala ka patan arambh ho chuka tha. saiyyad kalin imaraton ko khilaji kalin imaraton ki nakal bhar mana ja sakata hai. saiyyadon evn lodiyon ke samay men khilaji yug ki pranavnt shaili ko pun:jivit karane ke prayas kiye gaye. kintu ye simit anshon men hi saphal hue tatha yah shaili “tugalaq yug ke mrityukari parinam ko hata nahin saki.” is kal men khizr khan dvara sthapit 'khizrabad' evn mubarak shah dvara sthapit nagar 'mubarakabad' ka nirman hua.

sultan mubarak shah ka maqabara

yah maqabara mubarakapur namak ganv men sthit hai. maqabare ke charon or bane baramadon ki oonchaee adhik hai. gumbad ke shikhar ko datadar dipak se susajjit karane ka prayas kiya gaya hai. jaaun marshal ke anusar- "is masjid ka sabase bada dosh yah hai ki, nirmanakartaon ne ise itana ooncha bana diya hai ki, darshak saralata se ise dekh nahin sakate.” yah maqabara ashtabhujiy hai.

muhammad shah ka maqabara

is ashtabhujiy maqabare men atyadhik oonchaee hone ke dosh ko door kiya gaya hai. maqabare men kamal adi pratiroopon ki saj-sajja hetu chini tailon ka upayog kiya gaya hai.

(4) lodi kal men vastukala

lodi kal men kiye ge kuchh mahattvapoorn nirman kary nimnalikhit hain-

bahalol lodi ka maqabara

yah maqabara 1418 ee. men sikandar shah lodi dvara banavaya gaya tha. 5 gumbadon vale is maqabaren ke bich men sthit gumbad ki oonachaee sarvadhik hai. isake nirman men lal patthar ka prayog hua hai.

sikandar lodi ka maqabara

ibrahim lodi dvara yah maqabara 1517 ee. men banavaya gaya. maqabare men nirmit gumbad ke charon taraf ath khambhon ki chhatari nirmit hai. yah maqabara ek aisi badi chaharadivari ke prangan men sthit hai, jisake charon kinare par kafi lambe burj hai. isaki chhat par dohare gumbad ki vyavastha hai. jaaun marshal ke anusar sambhavatah is shaili ne mugal samraton ke vishal udyan yukt maqabare ka path pradarshan kiya. mugal shaili ko apane vikas men is maqabare se mahattvapoorn sahayog prapt hua.

moth ki masjid

is masjid ka nirman ‘sikandar lodi’ ke vazir miyan bhua dvara karavaya gaya. masjid ki prashnsa men sar saiyyad ahamad ne kaha ki, "yah lodi sthapaty akar men sundar evn ek upahar kriti hai. jaaun marshal ke anusar lodiyon ki sthapaty kala men jo bhi sabase sundar hai, usaka snkshipt roop mothi masjid men vidyaman hai.

saiyyad evn lodi kal men kuchh any maqabaron ka bhi nirman kiya gaya, jaise- 'bada khan evn chhote khan ka maqabara', 'shish gumbad', 'dadi ka gumbad', 'poli ka gumbad' evn 'taj khan ka gumbad' adi. parsi braun ne is yug ko ‘maqabaron ke yug’ ke nam se sambodhit kiya hai. bade khan aur chhote khan ke maqabare ka nirman sikandar lodi ne karavaya tha.

saltanat kal men chitrakari

muslim akraman ke poorv bharat men chitrakari ka hindoo, bauddh evn jain chitrakala ke antargat kafi vikas hua tha, parantu ajanta chitrakala ke bad bharatiy chitrakala ka kram avaruddh ho gaya. roosi vidvan eph. rosenavarg ke anusar- “7vin sadi se 16vin sadi tak bharatiy chitrakala ka vikas avaruddh tha.” parsi braun ke anusar “650 ee. ke bad akabar ke shasan kal tak bharatavarsh men chitrakala ka vikas n ho saka.” samanyatah saltanat kal ko bharatiy chitrakala ke patan ka kal mana jata hai. quran ki di gee vyavastha ke anusar- 'kisi manushy, pashu, pakshi ya phir jivadhari ka chitr banana poornatah pratibandhit tha. sambhavatah saltanat kal men chitrakari ke vikas ke avaruddh hone ka yahi karan bana. phir bhi is kal men chitrakari ke kuchh praman mile hain. 19 vin sadi ke bad ke varshon men sarvapratham 'muhammad abdulla chagataee' ne yah vichar prastut kiya ki dilli saltanat kal men chitrakala ka astitv tha. 1947 ee. men haraman goitj ne ‘di janaral aauf di indiyan sosaiti aauf oriyantal art’ men apana ek lekh chhapavakar yah vichar vyakt kiya ki, dilli saltanat kal men chitrakala ka astitv tha.

1353 ee. men muhammad tugalaq ke samay ka ek aisa chitr prapt hua hai, jisamen ek sngit goshthi ka chitran kiya gaya hai tatha striyan sultan ke samaksh vina aur sitar baja rahi hain. unamen se ek stri sharab ka pyala sultan ko pakada rahi hai. sambhavatah yah chitrakar ‘shahapur’ dvara banavaya gaya tha. isake atirikt chitrakari ke kuchh avashesh saltanatakalin kursi, mej, astr-shastr, bartan, pataka, kadhaee ke vastron adi par dikhaee padate hain. isase yah spasht ho jata hai ki, saltanatakalin shasakon ke hriday men chitrakala ke prati ghrina ki bhavana nahin thi. phir bhi ve chitrakaron ko snrakshan nahin de pae.

saltanal kal men sngit

jab turk bharat men aye to ve apane sath eeran evn madhy eshiya ke samriddh arabi sngit parampara ko bhi lae. unake pas kee naye vadyayntr the, jaise 'rabab', aur 'sarngi'. turk apane sath 'sarngi' jaise vady ko lae, parantu yahan akar unhonne 'sitar' aur 'tabala' jaise vadyon ko bhi apanaya. dilli saltanat ke kuchh shasak, jaise- balaban, jalaluddin khilaji, alauddin khilaji evn muhammad tugalaq ne sngit ke prati ruchi hone ke karan raj darabaron men sngit sabhaon ka ayojan karavaya. gayasuddin tugalaq sngit ka virodhi tha. sikandar lodi shahanaee sunane ka shauqin tha. is kal men soofi santon ne bhi sngit ke vikas men yogadan kiya. shekh muinuddin chishti ke anusar- “sngit atma ke lie paushtik ahar hai”. balaban ka putr 'bugara khan' mahanh sngit premi tha. balaban ka pautr kaikubad sarvadhik sngit premi sultan tha. barni ne isake bare men likha hai ki- ‘kaikoobad ne sngitakaron evn gajal gayakon ko itani adhik snkhya men snrakshan pradan kiya ki, rajadhani ki galiyan tatha sadaken inasen bhari huee thin.

sngit ko snrakshan

barani ne is samay ke mashahoor sngitakaron 'shahachngi', 'nusarat khatoon' evn 'mehar afaroj ka ullekh kiya hai. alauddin khilaji ke darabar men tatkalin mahanh kavi evn sngitgy amir khusaro ko snrakshan prapt tha. amir khusaro ne bharatiy evn islami sngit shaili ke samanvay se anek yaman usak, muaphik, dhanay, munjir, faragana jaise rag-raganiyon ko janm diya. usane dakshin ke mahanh gayak 'gopal nayak' ko apane darabar men amntrit kiya tha. is kal men prachalit 'khyal gayaki' ke avishkar ka shrey jaunapur ke sultan husain shah sharki ko diya jata hai. sngit ke kshetr men upalabdhi ke karan ise ‘nayak’ ki upadhi prapt huee thi. malava ka shasak baj bahadur sngit men ruchi rakhata tha. kavvali gayan shaili ka prachalan bhi saltanat kal men hi prarambh hua. saltanat kal men anek vadyayntr jaise 'rabab', 'sarngi', 'sitar' tatha 'tabala' ka prachalan tha.

amir khusaro

amir khusaro ko sitar aur tabale ke avishkar ka shrey diya jata tha. madhyakalin sngit parampara ke adi snsthapak amir khusaron the. sarvapratham unhonne bharatiy sngit men kavvali gayan ko prachalit kiya. amir khusaron ko ‘tootiye hind’ arthath 'bharat ka tota' adi nam se bhi jana jata tha. is samay dakshin bharat men sngit par adharit kuchh mahattvapoorn pustakon ki rachana huee, jaise-sngit ratnakar, sngit samayasar, sngit shiromani, sngit kaumudi, sngit narayan adi. saltanat kal men iltutamish v gayasuddin tugalaq dvara sngit ke vikas ke kshetr men koee kam nahin kiya gaya. muhammad bin tugalaq sngit ka bahut bada premi tha. usake bare men kaha jata hai ki, jab vah sinhasan par baitha to, jan-sadharan ke lie 21 dinon tak sngit goshthi ka prabandh kiya jata tha.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah