इब्न बतूता  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ibn batoota

ibn batoota ek vidvan afriki yatri tha, jisaka janm 24 faravari 1304 ee. ko uttar aphrika ke morakko pradesh ke prasiddh nagar tanjiyar men hua tha. isake poorvajon ka vyavasay kajiyon ka tha. ibn battoota arnbh se hi bada dharmanuragi tha.

parichay

ibnabatoota arab yatri, vidvan tatha lekhak tha. uttari aphrika ke morakko pradesh ke prasiddh nagar tanjiyar men 14 rajab, 703 hi. (24 pharavari, 1304 ee.) ko isaka janm hua tha. isak poora nam muhammad bin abdulla ibnabatoota tha. ibnabatoota arnbh se hi bada dharmanuragi tha. use makke ki yatra (haj) tatha prasiddh musalamanon ka darshan karane ki badi abhilasha thi. is akanksha ko poora karane ke uddeshy se vah keval 21 baras ki ayu men yatra karane nikal pada. chalate samay usane yah kabhi n socha tha ki use itani lnbi desh deshantaron ki yatra karane ka avasar milega. makke adi tirthasthanon ki yatra karana pratyek musalaman ka ek avashyak karttavy hai. isi se saikadon musalaman vibhinn deshon se makka ate rahate the. in yatriyon ki lnbi yatraon ko sulabh banane men kee snsthaen us samay muslim jagat men utpann ho gee thin jinake dvara in sabako har prakar ki suvidhaen prapt hoti thin aur unaka paryatan bada rochak tatha anndadayak ban jata tha. inhin snsthaon ke karan daridr se daridr haji bhi door-door deshon se akar haj karane men samarth hote the. ibnabatoota ne in snsthaon ki bar-bar prashnsa ki hai. vah unake prati atynt kritgy hai. inamen sarvotam vah sngathan tha jisake dvara bade se bade yatri dalon ki har prakar ki suvidha ke lie har sthan par age se hi poori-poori vyavastha kar di jati thi evn marg men unaki suraksha ka bhi prabndh kiya jata tha. pratyek ganv tatha nagar men khanakahen (math) tatha saraen unake thaharane, khane pine adi ke lie hoti thin. dharmik netaon ki to vishesh avabhagat hoti thi. har jagah shekh, kaji adi unaka vishesh satkar karate the. islam ke bhratritv se siddhant ka yah snstha ek jvalnt udaharan thi. isi ke karan desh-deshantaron ke musalaman bekhatake tatha bade aram se lnbi-lnbi yatraen kar sakate the. doosari suvidha madhyakal ke musalamanon ka yah prapt thi ki aphrika aur bharatiy samudramargon ka samoocha vyapar arab saudagaron ke hathon men tha. ye saudagar bhi musalaman yatriyon ka utana hi adar karate the.

bhramanavrittantri

ibnabatoota damishk aur philistin hota ek karavan ke sath makka pahuncha. yatra ke dinon men do sadhuon se usaki bhent huee thi jinhonne usase poorvi deshon ki yatra ke sukh saundary ka varnan kiya tha. isi samay usane un deshon ki yatra ka snkalp kar liya. makke se ibnabatoota eerak, eeran, mosul adi sthanon men ghoomakar 1329 (729 hi.) men dubara makka lauta aur vahan tin baras thaharakar adhyayan tatha bhagavadabhakti men laga raha. bad men usane phir yatra arnbh ki aur dakshin arab, poorvi aphrika tatha pharas ke bndaragah hurmuj se tisari bar phir makka gaya. vahan se vah krimiyan, khiva, bukhara hota hua aphaganistan ke marg se bharat aya. bharat pahunchane par ibnabatoota bada vaibhavashali evn snpann ho gaya tha.

bharat pravesh

ibnabatoota 1333 ee. men sultan muhammad tugalaq ke rajyakal men bharat aya. bharat ke uttar pashchim dvar se pravesh karake ibnabatoota sidha dilli pahuncha, jahan tugalak sultan muhammad ne usaka bada adar satkar kiya aur use rajadhani ka kaji niyukt kiya. is pad par poore sat baras rahakar, jisamen use sultan ko atynt nikat se dekhane ka avasar mila, ibn batoota ne har ghatana ko bade dhyan se dekha aur suna. 1342 men muhammad tugalak ne use chin ke badashah ke pas apana rajadoot banakar bheja, parntu dilli se prasthan karane ke thode din bad hi vah badi vipatti men pad gaya aur badi kathinaee se apani jan bachakar anek apattiyan sahata vah kalikat pahuncha. aisi paristhiti men sagar ki rah chin jana vyarth samajhakar vah bhoobhag se yatra karane nikal pada aur lnka, bngal adi pradeshon men ghoomata chin ja pahuncha. kintu shayad vah mngol khan ke darabar tak nahin gaya. isake bad usane pashchim eshiya, uttar aphrika tatha spen ke muslim sthanon k bhraman kiya aur ant men tinbakat adi hota vah 1354 ke arnbh men morakko ki rajadhani 'phej' laut gaya.

mahan yatri

ibnabatoota musalaman yatriyon men sabase mahanh‌ tha. anumanat: usane lagabhag 75,000 mil ki yatra ki thi. itana lnba bhraman us yug ke shayad hi kisi any yatri ne kiya ho. 'phej' lautakar usane apana bhramanavrittant sultan ko sunaya. usaka varnan atishayoktiyon se bhara hone par bhi samany riti se vishvasaniy hai. sultan ke adeshanusar usake sachiv muhammad ibn juzaiy ne use lekhabaddh kiya. ibn batoota ka baki jivan apane desh men hi bita. ibn battoota ke bhramanavrittant ko 'tuhafatal najzar fi garayab al amasar v ajayab al afasar' ka nam diya gaya. isaki ek prati peris ke rashtriy pustakalay men surakshit hain. usake yatravrittant men tatkalin bharatiy itihas ki atynt upayogi samagri milati hai.[1] ibn batoota ne sultan dvara jin karanon se rajadhani ko dilli se hatakar daulatabad le jane ka adesh diya gaya aur jis riti se dilli ko poori tarah se khali karaya gaya, usaka jo varnan likha hai, use udaharan svaroop prastut kiya ja sakata hai.

mrityu

ibnabatoota ki mrityu 1377 (779 hi.) men huee.[2]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. sn.grn.-peris ki hastalipi ko de phremari tatha sangineti ne snpadit kiya. yah hastalipi tanjiyar men 1836 ke lagabhag prapt huee thi. inhin snpadakon ne isaka poora anuvad phrench bhasha men kiya tha. yah grnth char khndon men 1853 se 1859 tak peris se prakashit hua. isake bad do aur snskaran peris tatha kairo se prakashit hue. 'eeliyat aur dausan' ke itihas ke tisare khnd men isake kuchh sndarbhon ka angreji anuvad hua. 'bradave traivelars' men ech.e.ar. gibb dvara snkshipt anuvad, ek prastavana sahit, lndan se 1929 men prakashit hua. isake doosare tatha tisare snskaran 1939 tatha 1953 men chhape.
  2. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 530-31 |

snbndhit lekh

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