फ़िरोज़शाह तुग़लक़  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Disamb2.jpg tugalaq ek bahuvikalpi shabd hai any arthon ke lie dekhen:- tugalaq

firozashah tugalaq (1351-1388 ee.), muhammad tugalaq ka chachera bhaee evn sipahasalar 'rajab' ka putr tha. usaki man ‘bibi naila’ rajapoot saradar ranamal ki putri thi. muhammad tugalaq ki mutyu ke bad 20 march, 1351 ko firoz tugalaq ka rajyabhishak thatta ke nikat hua. punah firoz ka rajyabhishek dilli men agast, 1351 men hua. sultan banane ke bad firozashah tugalaq ne sabhi qarze maph kar die, jisamen 'sondhar rin' bhi shamil tha, jo muhammad tugalaq ke samay kisanon ko diya gaya tha. usane upaj ke hisab se lagan nishchit kiya. sarakari padon ko punah vnshanugat kar diya.

prarambhik asaphalata

sultan banane ke bad firoz tugalaq ne dilli saltanat se alag hue apane pradeshon ko jitane ke abhiyan ke antargat bngal evn sindh par akraman kiya. bngal ko jitane ke lie sultan ne 1353 ee. men akraman kiya. us samay shamsuddin iliyas shah vahan ka shasak tha. usane ikadala ke qile men sharan le rakhi thi, sultan firoz antatah qile par adhikar karane men asaphal hokar 1355 ee. men vapas dilli a gaya. punah bngal par adhikar karane ke prayas ke antargat 1359 ee. men firoz tugalaq ne vahan ke tatkalin shasak shamsuddin ke putr sikandar shah par akraman kiya, kintu asaphal hokar ek bar phir vapas a gaya.

anshik saphalataen

1360 ee. men sultan firoz ne ‘jajanagar’ (udisa) par akraman karake vahan ke shasak bhanudev tritiy ko parast kar puri ke jagannath mndir puri ko dhvast kiya. 1361 ee. men firoz ne nagarakot par akraman kiya. yahan ke jamababaniyon se ladati huee sultan ki sena lagabhag 6 mahine tak ran ke registan men phnsi rahi, kalantar men jamababaniyon ne sultan ki adhinata ko svikar kar liya aur varshik kar dene ke lie sahamat ho gaye.

in sadharan vijayon ke atirikt firoz ke nam koee badi saphalata nahin judi hai. usane dakshin men svatntr hue rajy vijayanagar, bahamani evn madura ko punah jitane ka koee prayas nahin kiya. is prakar kaha ja sakata hai ki, sultan firoz tugalaq ne apane shasan kal men koee bhi sainik abhiyan samrajy vistar ke lie nahin kiya aur jo bhi abhiyan usane kiya, vah matr samrajy ko bachaye rakhane ke lie kiya.

rajasv vyavastha

rajasv vyavastha ke antargat firoz ne apane shasan kal men 24 kashtadayak karon ko samapt kar diya aur keval 4 kar ‘kharaj’ (lagan), ‘khums’ (yuddh men loot ka mal), ‘jaziya’, evn 'zakat' (islam dharm ke anusar adhaee pratishat ka dan, jo un logon ko dena padta hai, jo maladar hon aur un logon ko diya jata hai, jo apahij ya asahay aur sadhanahin hon) ko vasool karane ka adesh diya. ulemaon ke adesh par sultan ne ek naya sinchaee (sharb) kar bhi lagaya, jo upaj ka 1/10 bhag vasoola jata tha. sambhavatah firoz tugalaq ke shasan kal men lagan upaj ka 1/5 se 1/3 bhag hota tha. sultan ne sinchaee ki suvidha ke lie 5 badi naharen yamuna nadi se hisar tak 150 mil lambi sataluj nadi se ghagghar nadi tak 96 mil lambi siramaur ki pahadi se lekar hansi tak, ghagghar se firozabad tak evn yamuna se firozabad tak ka nirman karavaya. usane phalo ke lagabhag 1200 bag lagavaye. antarik vyapar ko badhane ke lie anek karon ko samapt kar diya.

nagaron ki sthapana

nagar evn sarvajanik nirman karyon ke antargat sultan ne lagabhag 300 naye nagaron ki sthapana ki. inamen se hisar, firozabad (dilli), fatehabad, jaunapur, firozapur adi pramukh the. in nagaron men yamuna nadi ke kinare basaya gaya firozabad sultan ko sarvadhik priy tha. jaunapur nagar ki ninv firoz ne apane chachere bhaee 'fakharuddin jauna' (muhammad bin tugalaq) ki smriti men dali thi. usake shasan kal me khijrabad evn merath se ashok ke do stambhalekhon ko lakar dilli men sthapit kiya gaya. apane kalyanakari karyon ke antargat firoz ne ek rozagar ka daftar evn muslim anath striyon, vidhavaon evn ladakiyon ki sahayata hetu ek naye 'divan-e-khairat' namak vibhag ki sthapana ki. 'darul-shafa' (shafa=jivan ka antim kinara, jivan ka antim bhag) namak ek rajakiy aspatal ka nirman karavaya, jisamen garibon ka muft ilaj hota tha.

firoz ki niti evn parinam

firoz ke shasanakal men dason ki snkhya lagabhag 1,80,000 pahunch gee thi. inaki dekhabhal hetu sultan de 'divan-e-bndagan' ki sthapana ki. kuchh das pranton men bheje gaye tatha shesh ko kendr men rakha gaya. dason ko nakad vetan ya bhookhand die gaye. dason ko dastakari ka prashikshan bhi diya gaya. sainy vyavastha ke antargat firoz ne sainikon punah jagir ke roop men vetan dena prarambh kar diya. usane sainy padon ko vnshanugat bana diya, isamen sainikon ki yogyata ki janch par asar pada. khums ka 4/5 bhag phir se sainikon ko dene ke adesh die gaye. kuchh samay bad usaka bhayanak parinam samane aya. firoz tugalaq ko kuchh itihasakar dharmandh evn asahishnu shasak manate hain. sambhavatah dilli saltanat ka vah pratham sultan tha, jisane islami niyamon ka kadaee se palan karake ulema varg ko prashasanik karyon men mahattv diya. nyay vyavastha par punah dharmaguruon ka prabhav sthapit ho gaya. mukti qanoonon ki vyakhya karate the. musalaman aparadhiyon ko mrityu dand dena band kar diya gaya. firoz kattar sunni musalaman tha. usane hindoo janata ko ‘jimmi’[1] kaha aur hindoo brahmanon par jaziya kar lagaya. daau. ar.si. majoomadar ne kaha hai ki, 'firoz is yug ka sabase dharmandh evn is kshetr men sinkadar lodi evn aurngazeb ka apragami tha.’ dilli saltanat men pratham bar firoz tugalaq ne brahmanon se bhi jaziya liya.

snrakshan evn rachanaen

shiksha prasar ke kshetr men sultan firoz ne anek maqabaron evn madarason (lagabhag 13) ki sthapana karavayi. usane 'jiyauddin barani' evn 'shams-e-siraj aphiph' ko apana snrakshan pradan kiya. barani ne 'fatava-e-jahandari' evn 'tarikh-e-firozashahi' ki rachana ki. firoz ne apani atmakatha ‘phutoohat-e-firozashahi’ ki rachana ki jabaki ‘sirat-e-firozashahi’ ki rachana kisi agyat viddhan dvara ki gee hai. firoz ne jvalamukhi mndir ke pustakalay se loote gaye 1300 grnthon men se kuchh ka ejuddin dvara ‘dalayate-firozashahi’ nam se anuvad karavaya. 'valayale-firozashahi' ayurved se snbndhit granth tha. usane jal ghadi ka avishkar kiya. apane bhaee jauna khan (muhammad tugalaq) ki smriti men jaunapur namak shahar basaya.

ghoosakhori ko badhava

sultan firozashah tugalaq ne prashasan men svayn ghoosakhori ko protsahit kiya tha. aphiph ke anusar-sultan ne ek ghudasavar ko apane khazane se ek taka diya, taki vah rishvat dekar arj men apane ghode ko pas karava saken. firoz tugalaq saltanat kalin pahala shasak tha, jisane rajy ki adamani ka byaura taiyar karavaya. khvaja hisamuddin ke ek anuman ke anusar- firoz tugalaq ke shasan kal ki varshik ay 6 karod 75 lakh taka thi. usake samay men injaredari ko punah badhava diya gaya.

sikkon ka prachalan

firoz tugalaq ne mudra vyavastha ke antargat badi snkhya men tanba evn chandi ke mishran se nirmit sikke jari karavaye, jise sambhavatah ‘addha’ evn ‘misr’ kaha jata tha. firoz tugalaq ne ‘shnshagani’ (6 jital ka) ka naya sikka chalavaya tha. usane sikkon par apane nam ke sath apane putr athava uttaradhikari 'fatah khan' ka nam ankit karavaya. firoz ne apane ko khalifa ka naib pukara tatha sikkon par khalifa ka nam ankit karavaya. firozashah tugalaq ka shasan kalyanakari nirnkushata par adharit tha. vah pratham sultan tha, jisanen vijayon tatha yuddhon ki tulana men apani praja ki bhautik unnati ko shreshth sthan diya, shasak ke kartavyon ka vistrit kiya tatha islam dharm ko rajy shasan ka adhar banaya. henari iliet aur elaphinsatan ne firoz tugalaq ko “saltanat yug ka akabar” kaha hai. firozashah tugalaq ki saphalataon ka shrey usake pradhanamntri 'khan-e-jahan makabool' ka diya jata hai.

mrityu

sultan firoz tugalaq ki mrityu sitambar, 1398 ee. men huee.


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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. islam dharm svikar n karane vale

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